Volume 3 ~ Issue 10

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of Oxidative Markers, Apoptosis and Reproductive Efficiency in Heroin Addicted Rats

Country

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 Iraq

Authors

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Goran Qader Othman

Page No.

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01-07

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-031001-07  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/031010107

Background and Objective: Heroin abuse and addiction represent one of the major problems globally. The objective of this study is to evaluate the oxidative stress enzyme markers, apoptosis, sperm quality and testosterone of heroin administered rats via intraperitoneal injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male rats were randomly allocated into three groups. Frst group regarded as control, while in group2 and 3, the animals were daily injected intraperitoneally with (1 and 5 mg Heroin/kg b.w.) for seven successive days. Enzymatic activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Xanthine Oxidase (XO), Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum were analyzed, and concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and testosterone hormone assayed, besides determining the percent count of hepatocyte apoptosis and sperm head abnormalities.

RESULTS: The activity of XO, G6PDH and LDH significantly changed, whereas ALP not affected. The lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) significantly elevated in high dose treatment. The mean percent of apoptotic hepatocytes count reported a clear increase in concentration dependent manner. Also heroin showed significant impact on testosterone level, and sperm head abnormalities counting as well.

CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that intraperitoneal injection of heroin cause alteration in oxidation processes, reproductive efficiency and apoptosis mostly in concentration dependent manner.

 

KEYWORDS: Heroin - Oxidative stress – Testosterone – Sperm – Apoptosis - Rats

[1] Anderson RN. Deaths: leading causes for 1999. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 1999;49:1–88.
[2] Kuyper LM, Hogg RS, Montaner JSG, Schechter MT, Wood E. The Cost of Inaction on Hiv Transmission Among Injection Drug Users and the Potential for Effective Interventions. Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2004;81:655–660. doi: 10.1093/jurban/jth148.
[3] Gowing L, Farrell M, Bornemann R, Sullivan L, Ali R. Substitution treatment of injecting opioid users for prevention of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008. p. CD004145.
[4] CDC (2003) HIV diagnoses among injection-drug users in states with HIV surveillance--25 states, 1994-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52, 634-636.
[5] Zhou J, Si P, Ruan Z, Ma S, Yan X, Sun L, Peng F, Yuan H, Cai D, Ding D, Xu S. Primary studies on heroin abuse and injury induced by oxidation and lipoperoxidation. Chin Med J (Engl). 2001 Mar;114(3):297-302.
[6] Zhou JF, Liu QJ, Ding DY. Correlation on heroin abuse and urinary l ipoperoxides contents. Chin J Neurol Psychiatr 1994;27:17-20.
[7] Zhou JF, Guo FZ, Ding DY. Explorative studies on urinary lipoperoxi des contents in heroin abusers. Chin Bull Drug Depend 1995;4:232-235.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activity Of Medicamental Composition For Temporary Placement Into Root Canals During Treatment Of Chronic Apical Periodontitis

Country

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Ukraine

Authors

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Anatoliy Borysenko||Serhiy Palamarchuk

Page No.

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08-12

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-031008-12  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/031008012

AIM: Studying the antibacterial properties of the medicamental composition for temporary placement into root canals during treatment of chronic apical periodontitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibacterial properties of medicamental composition for temporary placement into root canals were determined by the degree of stunting test strains of microorganisms using the agar diffusion method.
RESULTS: medicamental composition for temporary placement into root canals possesses varying degrees of severity antibacterial properties on test strains of microflora.
Conclusions: medicamental composition for temporary placement into root canals suppresses the test strains of microflora reliably, and can be recommended for clinical treatment of chronic apical periodontitis.


KEY WORDS: medicamental composition for temporary placement into root canals, antibacterial action, test strains of microorganisms

[1] Bazhanov E.N., Kozlov V.A., Robustova T.H. , Maksymovskiy Y.M., Dentistry - 1997.
[2] Balyn V.N., Yordanishvili A.K., Kovalevskiy, Practical periodontology (St. Petersburg: PITER, 1995).
[3] Borovsky E.V., Problems of endodontics according to survey, Clinical Dentistry, 1998, 1, 6-9.
[4] Borovsky E.V., Clinical Endodonty (M.: AO Dentistry , 1999).
[5] Borovsky E.V. Mistakes and complications of endodontic treatment, News "Densplay".- 8, 2003, 8-11.
[6] Maksymenko P.T., Side effects of drugs in dental practice (Poltava , 2004).
[7] Ovrutskiy G.Y., Hemonov V.V., Chronic odontogenic focus (Moscow , Medicine , 1993).
[8] Pedorets A.P , Pilyaev A.G. , Pedorets N.A., Predictable Endodonty ( Donetsk: Nord -Press, 2006).
[9] Pedorets A.P, Donskyy G.I., Petrov S.N., Clinical aspects of modern endodonty , Dentist ,2, 2001, 33-34 .
[10] Budevskaya T.V., Sobeschuk O.P., Bratus I.N., Adarchenko V.A., The role of optional aerobic microorganisms in aetiology of apical periodontitis , Belarus health service ,7,1991,37 -40.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Reproductive Biology of an Endangered Coldwater Fish Golden Mahseer, Tor Putitora (Ham.) From Anji Mahseer Hatchery Reasi (J&K)

Country

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India

Authors

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Shabana Arjamand|| Shabir Ahmad Dar|| A. Y. Desai|| A.N. Sayani|| S. I. Yusufzai|| Ashfaq M|| Bhola D.V || M.D. Fofandi

Page No.

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13-16

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0310013-16 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0310013016

The Golden Mahseer (Tor Putitora) forms an important fishery resource in coldwater areas of Himalaya, India. The study covers reproductive factors of T. putitora from Anji Mahseer Hatchery Reasi, Jammu & Kashmir. Fecundity and Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) of T. putitora was calculated monthly for a period of six months from March' 2011 to August' 2011. The observations related to fecundity and GSI are based on six female specimens of T. putitora ranging from 260mm to 550mm in total fish length and weight ranging between 280 grams to 800 grams. The mean value of fecundity was estimated as 5566 eggs for a fish with a mean total body length of 395mm and mean body weight of 455gms. The value of GSI was found to increase from March onwards reaching a peak in June, July and August. The peak was maintained in June, July and august, the highest value for GSI was calculated as 10.812 in the month of August.

 

KEYWORDS: Golden mahseer, Fecundity, Gonadosomatic Index, Anji Mahseer Hatchery Reasi, Jammu and Kashmir.

[1] M Alam, and J. K. Pathak, Assesment of Fecundity and Gonadosomatic Index of commercially important fish, Labeo rohita from Ramganga river, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1 (3), 2010,111.
[2] S.D Bhat, and J. K. Pathak, Himalayan environment (Shree Almora book Depot, Almora, 1992).
[3] C.B Joshi, (1987): Aquaculture of Mahseer, Tor putitora. (Cold water Aquaculture and Fisheries, 1987)
[4] S.S Pathani, Fecundity of Mahseer Tor putitora (Ham. Proc. Indian Acad Sci. (Anim. Sci.), 90: 1981, 253-260.
[5] S.S Pathani, Studies on the spawning ecology of Kumaun Mahseer Tor tor (Hamilton) and Tor putitora (Hamilton). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 79(3), 1982, 525-530.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Protective Effect of Andrographis paniculata Against Atrazine Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Country

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India

Authors

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Shirisha K || B .Salma Begum || Mastan M

Page No.

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17-21

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0310017-21 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0310017021

Andrographis paniculata is (AP) a medicinal plant that has been effectively used in traditional Asian medicines for centuries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. The efficiency of Andrographis paniculata ethanolic extract was studied on atrazine induced renotoxicity in male wistar albino rats. All the oxidative and antioxidative enzymes, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutathione were estimated by standard protocols. Ethanolic extract of AP (150mg/kg bw) was found to protect the rats from renotoxic action of atrazine as evidence by decreased in the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the kidney. In addition the ethanolic extract prevented the toxicity of kidney from atrazine exposure. The antioxidant activity of AP suggests it as potential antioxidant against atrazine induced oxidative stress.

 

KEY WORDS: Renotoxicity, wistar albino rats, antioxidant enzymes, Atrazine, Andrographis paniculata (AP).

[1] Stevens JT, Sumner DD (1991) Herbicides, in Handbook of pesticide technology, by Hayes, WR Jr, Laws ER Jr (eds.) Academic Press, New York.
[2] Tomlin C (1994) Pesticide Manual, 10th Edition, British Crop Protection Council, The Royal Society of Chemistry
[3] ATSDR (2003) Toxicological Profile for Atrazine, pp. 5.
[4] Singh M, Sandhir R, Kiran R (2010) Oxidative stress induced by atrazine in rat erythrocytes: Mitigating effect of vitamin E.
Toxicol Mechan Meth 20 (3):119-12
[5] Chan, YC.; Chang, SC.; Hsuan, SL.; Chien, MS.; Lee, WC.; Kang, JJ.; Wang, SC. and Liao, JW.(2007). Cardiovascular
effects of herbicides and formulated adjuvants on isolated rat aorta and heart. Toxicol In Vitro. 21(4):595-603. Epub 2006 Dec22
[6] Li A, May MP, Bigelow JC. (2006). Identification of a metabolite of atrazine, N ethyl - 6 methoxy - N'- (1-methylethyl)- 1, 3, 5-
triazine- 2, 4- diamine,upon incubation with rat liver microsomes. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 19; 836(1-
[7] El-Shenawy NS (2009) Oxidative stress responses of rats exposed to Round up and its active ingredient glyphosate. Environ
Toxicol Pharmacol 28: 379-385 El-Shenawy NS (2010) Effects of insecticides fenitrothion, endosulfan and abamectin
[8] on antioxidant parameters of isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol in Vitro 24: 1148-1157.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Comparison of Resveratrol and Vitamin C Therapy on Expression of BDNF in Stressed Rat Brain Homogenate

Country

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Mangalore

Authors

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Ashwin R Ra|| Sampath Madhyastha|| Gayathri M Rao||Rajalakshmi Rai|| SudhanshuSekhar Sahu

Page No.

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22-27

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0310022-27  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0310022027

Prolonged exposure to stress results in neuronal loss, which is associated with depletion of Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat brain. Resveratrol, an antioxidant is known to exert neuroprotective effect in both human and animal models. Vitamin C to has important anti-oxidant properties, and protects cells against oxidative stress. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of resveratrol and vitamin C on BDNF expression in stressed rat brain homogenate. Rats were treated with 10 or 20mg/kg dose of resveratrol and 100 or 200mg/kg dose of vitamin C for a period of 28 days, beginning one week prior to stress treatment (restraint stress for 6 hours daily for 21 days). Rats were sacrificed after stress treatment and the whole brain BDNF level was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Our study confirms the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol by enhancing BDNF level in stressed rat. Though vitamin C has enhanced the BDNF expression in stressed rats interestingly it has an adverse effect when treated alone.

 

Key words: BDNF, Restraint stress, Resveratrol, Vitamin C

[1] A. Benraiss, E. Chmielnicki, K. Lerner, D. Roh, SA. Goldman, Adenoviral brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces both neostriatal and olfactory neuronal recruitment from endogenous progenitor cells in the adult forebrain, J Neurosci, 21 (17), 2001, 6718–6731.
[2] V. Pencea, KD. Bingaman, SJ. Wiegand, MB. Luskin, Infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor into the lateral ventricle of the adult rat leads to new neurons in the parenchyma of the striatum, septum, thalamus, and hypothalamus, J Neurosci, 21 (17), 2001, 6706–6717.
[3] T. Numakawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Numakawa, M. Richards, S. Yamawaki, H. Kunugi, Protective Action of Neurotrophic Factors and Estrogen against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration, Journal of Toxicology, 2011, doi:10.1155/2011/405194.
[4] A.Acheson, JC. Conover, JP. Fandl, TM. DeChiara, M. Russell, A. Thadani, SP. Squinto, GD. Yancopoulos, RM. Lindsay, A BDNF autocrine loop in adult sensory neurons prevents cell death, Nature 374 (6521), 1995, 450–453.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Chronic Dacryocystitis – It's Evaluation and Management by Various Investigative and Diagnostic Test

Country

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Mangalore

Authors

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Dr. Pervez Ahemed Siddiqui|| Dr. SumanBalaBandil || Dr. SwapneshSukhadeve

Page No.

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28-33

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0310028-33  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0310028033

Dacryocystitis is a common ailment encountered in ophthalmology practice and we had tried to find mean and measure to combat this malady with best possible measure.

 

Material and Method :- This study was conducted in 131 eyes of 100 cases of chromic dacryocystitis attending the ophthalmology out patient department of NSCB Medical College and Hospital Jabalpur during the year 2008-2013. Every patient was subjected to fluorescein dye disappearance test, primary and secondary Jones test followed by syringing. There after dacryocystrography was performed by injecting a radiographic contrast material under local anesthesia.

 

Observation :- There were 76 female and 24 male, there was almost equal distribution of cases as far as right eye and left eye was concerned, 37% in right eye and 32% in left eye and 31% patient had bilateral involvement. Presenting complaints in patient were epiphora 46 %, epiphora with swelling 18% epiphora with discharge 21% epophora and discharge with swelling in 15% Chronic danyocytitis without swelling was present in 62.59%, mucocele in 19.08% pyocele in 12.21% fistula was present in 6.01%.

 

Result – During this study on syringing 22.90% showed regurgitation from same punctum and 77.10% showed regurgitation from upper punctum. On dacryocystography complete block was present in 78.8% and partial block was present in 21.2%, common canaliculi junction was blocked in 16.79%, valve of Krause was blocked in 60.30%, valve of hasner was blocked in 22.90%, Normal sac was present in 12.21%, enlarged sac was present in 74.80% fibrosed sac was present in 12.97%.

 

Conclusion :-Dacryoystography is a safe modality in localising the site of block and meticulously planning out the treatment.

 

INDEX TERMS:-dacryocystitis, epiphora, ethiodol.

[1] Skorin , L (2002) Dacryocystography , A Diagnostic tool for tear system. Optometry Today; 42(15):34-36 .
[2] Skorin , L. (1996) Diagnostic dacryocystography. In Onofrey BE(ed) Clinical Optometric Pharmacology and Therapeutics. JB. Lippincott Co, Chap. 63A, p. 1-9
[3] Campbell HS, Smith JL, Richman DW, etal (1962) A simple test for Lacrimal Obstruction. Am. J. Opthalmology. 53:611-613.
[4] Hecht SD (1978) Evaluation of the lacrimal drainage system .Opthalmology 85: 1250-1258 .
[5] Pettit TH , Coin CG (1972) Dacryocystography. In: Hanafee WN (ed) Radiologic Clinics of North America . WB Saunders .Vol 10. p. 129-142.
[6] MunkPL ,Burhenne LW , Buffam FV, etal (1989) Dacryocystography : Comparison of Water soluable and oil based contrast agents . Radiology 173 :827-830 .
[7] Malik SRK, Gupta AK, Chaterjee S, Bhardwaj OP, Saha M (1969) Dacryosystography of normal and pathological Lacrimal passages. Brit. J. Opthalmology; 53: 174-179.
[8] Agarwal ML,(1961). Dacryosystography in Chronic Dacryocystitis . Amer. J. Opthalmology ; 52: 245-249 .
[9] Calbert Philips, George M, (1956) Epiphora and Bony Nasolacrimal Duct. Brit. J. Opthalmology; 40:673 .
[10] Duke- Elder S: The Anatomy of visual system. Textbook of system of ophthalmology . St. Louis, C.V. Mosby and Co. Vol II.
[11] Duke- Elder S: The physiology of eye and vision. Textbook of system of ophthalmology . St. Louis, C.V. Mosby and Co. Vol IV.
[12] Eiferman RE, (1979) Fluoroscopy of lacrimal system. Amer. J. Opthalmology. 87:572 .


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Novel Approach to Extended Release Clopidogrel: Differentially Coated Mini-Tablets Filled In Hard Gelatin Capsules

Country

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India

Authors

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Raja Subburayalu|| Dr. Janakiraman Kunchithapatham||Dr. Ramkumar Pillappan|| Devi.T

Page No.

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34-44

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0310034-44  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/0310034044

The main objective of the present study is to formulate an extended release formulation of clopidogrel bisulphate into mini-tablets coated with a combination of pH dependent polymer, pH independent polymer and pore former. Clopidogrel is extensively absorbed and 50% of drug is eliminated in urine in unchanged form. To improve the bioavailability of clopidogrel, the extended release formulation was formulated with an in-situ solubility enhancer, and barrier coated with moisture protective layer. The barrier coated mini-tablets are coated with the combination of pH dependant polymer (Hypromellose phthalate HP 50), pH independent polymer (Ethyl cellulose 7cps) and pore former (Hypromellose 5cps) at different ratio, with a weight build up of 10%w/w. In-vitro dissolution was studied in pH 1.2 HCl for 1 hour, followed by pH 6.5 phosphate buffer for 11 hrs, using USP dissolution test apparatus 1 at 100 RPM. The formulation (F37), coated with the ratio of 60:25:15 (Ethocel 7cps: Hypromellose phthalate 50: Hypromellose 5cps), shown the better release of 32% in acid for 1hr, to achieve the loading dose, and the extent of 100% release at 12hr, in pH 6.5 phosphate buffer. Zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer peppas models were used to estimate the kinetics of drug release. Drug release kinetics indicated that the drug release was best explained by Higuchi's equation, as these plots showed the highest linearity (R2 = 0.9902) indicating the release of drug from matrix as a square root of time dependent process.

 

KEYWORDS: Dissolution, Clopidogrel, extended release mini-tablets, kinetic modeling.

[1] Plavix- Full prescribing information, approved by US Food and Drug administration, revised : December 2011, http:www.sanofi-aventis.com.Clark‟s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons, Pharmaceutical Press, 3 rd edition, 2004; 2,834.
[2] Shaik Haroon Rasheed, Mulla Arief, Sandhya Vani P, Silpa Rani Gajavalli, Venkateshwarulu G, Vineela PAJ, Anjaneyulu N, and Naga Kishore R. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release tablets of Bupropion hydrochloride, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2010; 1(4): 1017-1025.
[3] Pankaj Ramanbhai Patel, Sunilendu Bhushan Roy, Jay Shanthilal Kothari, Modified Release Clopidogrel formulation, United states patent Application publication, US2010/0145053A1.
[4] Khosla R, Feely LC, Davis SS. Gastrointestinal transit of non-disintegrating tablets in fed subjects. Int J Pharm. 1989;53: 107-117.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies on the Effect of Diet and Drug Therapies on Serum Ferritin, a Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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P. O. Okonkwo || Z. S. C. Okoye

Page No.

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45-50

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0310045-50  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/0310045050

Background and Objective: Epidemiological studies have established a link between serum ferritin concentration and type 2 diabetes. This work was carried out to ascertain the effect of therapeutic regimen on the earlier established links.

 

Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects comprising 130 type 2 diabetics and 70 apparently healthy controls were involved in the survey. Anthropometric parameters, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), Serum levels of ferritin, lipids and biochemical indicators of complications of type 2 DM were determined. Results were analysed statistically by ANOVA, and Pearson correlation.

 

Results: Serum ferritin, showed a positive correlation with FPG, BP, TC, triglyceride, and TC/HDL ratio among diabetic subjects. With subjects classified based on the antidiabetic therapy, the mean serum ferritin level of the subjects on a combination therapy of drug and diet was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the level in those on either drug or diet alone. Serum ferritin level showed a positive correlation with TC and TC/HDL ratio, in diabetics on drug alone and with PFG, TC, and TG levels in subjects on diet alone but with none in subjects on a combined therapy.

 

Conclusion: This finding suggests the need to take into due consideration type of diabetic medication when interpreting relationship between iron stores and diabetic risk.

 

KEY WORDS: diabetes risk factors, diet, combination therapy, ferritin, type 2 diabetes

[1] R.K. Koshy, S. Raj, B. Kapoor, and M. Azamthulla, Anti hyperglycemic activity of Elytraria Acaulis Lind on Streptozotocin-Induced diabetic rats, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1, 2012, 103.

[2] R. Wood, and E.C. O'Neill, Resistance training in type 2 diabetes: impact on areas of metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and potential impact on bone, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2012, 2012, 268197.

[3] S.A. Hussain, and B.H. Marouf, Flavonoids as alternatives in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, Academia Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1(2), 2013, 031-036.
[4] S. Halimi, A. Schweizer, B. Minic, and S. Dejager, Combination treatment in the management of type 2 diabetes: focus on vildagliptin and metformin as a single tablet, Vascular Health Risk Management, 4(3), 2008, 481–492.

[5] S. Zanuso, A. Jimenez, G. Pugliese, G. Corigliano, and S. Balducci, "Exercise for the management of type 2 diabetes: a review of the evidence", Acta Diabetology, 47 (1), 2010, 15–22.