Volume 3 ~ Issue 9

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Disparity In Diagnosis Of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Using 75g And 100g Glucose Load Tests Among Ante-Natal Attendees At Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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C.G.Orluwene ||J.D. Ojule

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-01-06 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0390106

Several cases of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are seen in our working environment and this condition can have substantial impact on fetal growth, birth weight and morbidity. Standard recommendations for GDM testing prescribe the use of either a 3-hour, 100g glucose load (100g) or a 2-hour 75g glucose load (75g). We investigated the comparability of the 75g and the 100g tests in the diagnosis of GDM in our environment. From February, 2007 to January 2010, we performed the GDM testing using a 75g glucose load on 956 consecutive Nigerian non-obese and non-diabetic pregnant women who attended the ante-natal clinic of the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Rivers State. This testing was carried out during two periods of pregnancy: early (16-24weeks) and late (26-34weeks). All women with 1-hour plasma glucose above 7.2mmol/L in the 75g test were retested using the 100-g glucose load within a week. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was diagnosed (during the 16-24weeks) in 46 out of 269 women with the 100g and 18 out of 269 with the 75g load (12 concordant); the k index was 0.22. At 26-34 weeks of pregnancy, 388 out of 950 women (40.8%) underwent both tests. GDM was diagnosed in 65 of 388 women with 100g load and in 29 of 388 women with the 75g load (14 concordant); the k index was 0.19.Among women with positive GDM in both early and late periods of pregnancy, there was only weak diagnostic agreement between results determined with 75g and 100g glucose loads.

 

KEYWORDS: Gestational-Diabetes-Mellitus, Diagnosis, Ante-natal-attendees, 75g/100g-glucose-load-tests, Elele-Rivers State.

[1] Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and
classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 26 (Suppl 1), 2003; 5-20.
[2] Carpenter WM, Coustan DR. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 144, 1982; 768-773.
[3] Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Summary and recommendation of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational
Diabetes. Diabetes care, 21, 1998; B161-167.
[4] Mello G, Paretti E. Cioni R, Lucchetti R, Carignani L, Martini E, et al. The 75-gram glucose load in pregnancy: relation between
glucose levels and anthropometric characteristics of infants born to women with normal glucose metabolism. Diabetes Care, 26, 2003; 1206-1210.
[5] Pettitt DJ, Benneth PH, Hanson RL, Narayan KMV, Knowler WC. Comparison of World Health Organization and National
Diabetes Data Group procedures, Diabetes Care, 17, 1994; 1264-1268.
[6] Grant A, Mohide P. Screening and diagnostic test in antenatal care. In: Enkin M, Chalmers I, eds. Clinics in Developmental
Medicine, Nos. 81/82. Effectiveness and satisfaction in Antenatal care. Vol. 1 London: Spastics International Medical Publications/Heinemann Medical 1982:22 – 59.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Impact Of Quarry Effluent Discharge On Heavy Metal, Chlorophyll , Vitamin And Proximate Composition Of Selected Vegetables From Ishiagu Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Osuocha Kelechi U || Okereke Stanley C || Ezekwe Ahamefula S || Chukwudouro Chieme ||Chukwu Ezinne C.

Page No.

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07-12

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-07-12 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/03907012

Heavy metal, chlorophyll, vitamin and proximate composition of selected vegetables in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State Nigeria as influenced by quarry effluent discharge were screened. Fresh samples of vegetables were collected from farms around Ishiagu quarry sites. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometer (ASS) while standard analytical methods were used to analyze other parameters. Results showed that lead concentration ranged from 0.0020±oooa -0.019±0.00a in the test samples while the other heavy metals also showed significant increase in all the plants when compared to control p<0.05.Result also showed a significant decrease in chloropylla, chloropyllb and Total chlorophyll of the test samples analysed when compared to control.

 

KEY WORDS: Contamination, discharge, quarry, effluent, heavy metals

[1] G. Marshal, (2004). Enhancing food chain integrity: quality assurance mechanism for
air pollution impacts on fruits and vegetables system. Crop post Harvest Programme. Final technical report (R7530) www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/1-4-7-1-11-1.html.
[2] M.A.Radwan, and A.K Salama. Market basket survey for some heavy metals
in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food chemical toxicology. 44, 2006, 1273-1278
[3] X.Wang, T. Sato, B. Xing, and S. Tao. Health risk of heavy metals to
the general public in Tianjan, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science Toxi. Environment. 350 (1-3), 2005, 28-37.
[4] K.S.Rajesh, A. Madhooloka , and M.M. Fiona,. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India. Food and chemical toxicology. 47, 2009, 583-591.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Estimation Of Reference Intervals For Plasma Amylase In Apparently Healthy Adults Of Southern Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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B.E.Kasia || C.G.Orluwene || U.B.A. Mrakpor

Page No.

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13-18

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-13-18 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039013018

There is need for locally derived age-sex specific laboratory Reference Ranges (RR) for healthy Africans in southern Nigeria. Reference values from American and European population are used for African subjects despite previous studies showing significant differences Our aim was to establish clinical laboratory reference values for plasma amylase that can be used as a baseline for adult patients' management in southern Nigeria.This study was cross-sectional in design, carried out at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Southern Nigeria. A total of 200 volunteers, M:F ratio (5.3:4.7) were selected. The exclusion criteria involved those free from chronic diseases like HIV and Hepatitis B. The piccolo express auto analyser assayed for plasma amylase.Reference ranges were constructed using non-parametric method to estimate 2.5th and 97.5th as the lower and upper limit respectively. Higher mean male than female values with no significant difference was observed in the reference ranges of plasma amylase. The RR of plasma amylase differed in the older age groups in both sexes. The developed reference values for amylase differed from American values used in our hospital.The differences in RR amongst population, age and sex justifies the need to interpret RR based on age, sex and population. It provides plasma amylase values to be used in southern Nigeria.

 

KEYWORDS: Age, Sex, Reference Ranges, Plasma amylase.

[1] Solberg HE. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Recommendation on estimation of refrence intervals.
The RefVal program. Clin. Chem. Lab Med 42: 2004; 710-714.
[2] Smith SE, Shereen S. Wise Geek clear answers for common questions. What is plasma amylase? 2003-2013 Conjecture
Corporation.
[3] Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) C28 –A2: How to define and determine reference intervals in Clinical
laboratory; Approved guideline.2nd ed., Villanova, Pa; CLSI, 2008.
[4] Solberg HE. IFCC Scientific Committee, clinical section, Expert Panel on theory of reference interval and international
committee for standardization in Hematology(ICSH) Standing committee on Reference values. Approved Recommendation (1986) on the theory of reference values. Part 1. The concept of reference values. J Clin Chem Biochem; 25: 1987 337-342.
[5] Kibaya RS, Bautista CT, Sawe FK. Shaffer DN, Sateren WB et al. Reference ranges for the clinical laboratory derived from a
rural population in Kericho, Kenya.2008;PLoS one 3:e3327.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Physical Growth and Nutritional Status among Men of Dulia Tribe of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Country

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India

Authors

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N Srinivas|| B Pallavi|| Ch Srinivas|| G. Lakshmi

Page No.

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19-23

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-19-23 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039019023

The present study was carried out on 340 men of Dulia Tribe aged from 20 to 60 years from Dumbriguda Mandal, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh state, India. This study tried to find out the physical growth by using 18 different anthropometric measurements and nutritional status according to Body Mass Index. As age increases the measurements of physical growth also increases. The prevalence of underweight has 20.29%, Over Weight was 3.23% and obsessed was 0.29%. It reveals that both underweight and overweight coexisted among the Men of Dulia tribes from Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

 

KEY WORDS:- Dulia, Anthropometric, Body Mass Index, Physical Growth, Under weight, over weight

[1]. Growth and physique studies, in Human Biology: J. M. Tanner, J. Hiernaux, and S. Jarman, A guide to field methods, J. S. Weiner and J. A. Lourie, EDS., 315- 340, Blackwell publication, oxford, UK, 1969.
[2]. Genetic survey among the Nagavamsam caste of coastal Andhra Pradesh. 1981 T. V. Rao, P. Veerraju, J. M. Naidu and U. V. K. Rao. Indian jounal of physical Anthropology and Human Genetics, 7(2) : 69 – 76.
[3]. Genetic Morkers in eight Endogamous population groups from Andhra Pradesh ( south India). 1981 H. Walter, K. P. Pahl, M. Hilling, P. Veerraju, J. D. Goud, J. M Naidu, M. S. Bbu and G. Jaikishan. Zeitzchrift fur Morphologie and Anthropologie, 72(3) : 325 – 338.15. 1982 J. M. Naidu. Chose the right life partner. Science Reporter, March 186 – 188.
[4]. An Anthropometric study of Indian Wrestlers. 1989 G. V. Ramana and J. M. Naidu, South Asian Anthropologist, 10: 35 – 338.
[5]. Genetics of Facial and Head Measurements. 1989 M. Rama Devi and J. M. Naidu. Spectra Anthropological progress. 11: 25- 30.
[6]. Worldwide Variation in Human Growth, P. H. Eveleth and J. M. Tanner, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2nd edition, 1990.
[7]. Anthropometric profile of five Andhra Populations. 1992 J. M. Naidu and B. V. Babu. South Asian Anthropologist. 13 : 47- 50.
[8]. Socio – cultural profile f Tribes of Andhra Pradesh. Mohan Rao K. (1993). Tribal Cultural Research and Training Institute (Tribal Welfare Department), Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
[9]. World health organization, Global strategy for non communicable disease prevention and control (Draft), world health organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Topic Name – Nail Lacquers in Nail Diseases

Country

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India

Authors

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Guide- Miss.P.H.Bhapkar|| Miss.T.Y.Puttewar|| Dr.R.Y.Patil

Page No.

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24-48

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-24-48 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039024048

Fungal infections of skin are one of the most common infections in human beings. The areas which are likely to get infected include the scalp, the hands and the feet. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are the three major fungi responsible for skin infections. Earlier oral antifungal agents were used for treatment of fungal infection in finger and toe nails. The disadvantages of oral antifungal agents are toxicity and longer treatment period. Now medicated nail lacquers have been developed for the treatment of fungal infections i.e. onychomycosis, which has less toxicity and shorter treatment period. PURPOSE: To provide the practitioner with current information on the most common nail disorders.
TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in wound care and related disorders.

 

KEYWORDS: Toenail, Fingernail, Ciclopirox, Athlet's foot, Amorolfine

[1] Cohen PR, Scher RK. Aging. In: Hordinsky MK, Sawaya ME, Scher RK, editors. Atlas of hair and nails. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 1999. pp. 213–25.
[2] Roberts DT, Taylor WD, Boyle J. Guidelines for treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:402–10.
[3] Nathan A. Treatment of fungal nail infection. Pharm J. 2006;276:597–600.
[4] Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM, Rech G, Tosti A. Treatment of onychomycosis with oral antifungal agents. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005;2:435–40.
[5] Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Lorenzi S, Iorizzo M. Treatment of non dermatophyte mold and candidaonchomycosis. DermatolClin. 2003;21:491–97.
[6] Aly, R., and T. Berger. 1996. Common superficial fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22(Suppl. 2):S128– S132.
[7] Brodell R T, Elewski B E. Superficial fungal infections: errors to avoid in diagnosis and treatment. Postgrad Med. 1997;101:279–287.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor of the Uterus (Uterine Carcinosarcoma): A Case Report

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Siva Ranjan D. || Dr. J Surendar || Dr. Rama Swamy A S. || Dr. Manjunatha H K.

Page No.

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49-52

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-49-52 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039049052

:Malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the uterus (Uterine Carcinosarcomas) are rare and aggressive malignancies consisting of an epithelial (carcinoma) and a mesenchymal (sarcoma) tumor component and are considered as metaplastic endometrial carcinomas. Gebhardt in 1899 appears to have reported the first case of carcinosarcoma of uterus. Carcinosarcoma though rare, representing less than 5% of all uterine tumors, account for 16.4% of all deaths caused by a uterine malignancy. Here, we present a case of 51 years old post menopausal women admitted to hospital with complaints of metrorrhagia and abdominal pain of 3 months duration. While hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy remains the mainstay of treatment, high rates of recurrence, and metastasis suggests a need for lymphadenectomy and post operative adjuvant treatment.

 

KEYWORDS: Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor, Carcinosarcoma, Hysterectomy

[1] Brooks SE, Zhan M, Cote T, et al. Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis of 2677 cases of uterine sarcoma 1989–1999. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:204–208.

[2] S. A. El-Nashar and A. Mariani, ―Uterine carcinosarcoma,‖ Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 54, 2, pp. 292–304, 2011.

[3] Meyer, R.: in Veit-Stoeckel, 6: 770-774, I930.

[4] J. S. Bosquet, S. A. Terstriep, W. A. Cliby et al., ―The impact of multi-modal therapy on survival for uterine carcinosarcomas,‖ Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 419–423, 2010.

[5] A. Ahuja, R. Safaya, G. Prakash, L. Kumar, and N. K. Shukla, ―Primary mixed mullerian tumor of the vagina—a case report with review of the literature,‖ Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 207, no. 4, pp. 253–255, 2011.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections Among Children Between Ages 1-5 Years In A Children's Specialist Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Oluwagunke Theresa Osamudiame

Page No.

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53-59

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-53-59 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039053059

This study investigated the incidence of symptomatic bacteriuria among male and female children aged between 1-5 years at chidren's specialist hospital,Ilorin Metropolis, Ilorin, Kwara State. The aim of this study was to isolate the organisms responsible for symptomatic bacteriuria and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates. The bacterial agents were isolated from a total of 200 early morning mid-stream urine samples collected between November 2005 and January 2006. Eight bacterial species were isolated out of which Escherichia coli was the most predominant with a frequency of 21.57% while Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis had the lowest frequency of 2.27% each. Their susceptibility patterns to seven antibiotics: Augumentin, Sparfloxacin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Ceftazindine and Tetracycline was determined. Incidence of symptomatic bacteriuria among the children was found to be 44% with female preponderance over male. Female had a higher incidence of symptomatic bacteriuria(60.2%). Children aged 1 year had the highest incidence (26.1%) while those aged 2 years had the lowest (13.6%). The bacterial isolates showed varying degree of antibiotic resistance sensitivity pattern (between 50 and 80%) with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis showing resistance to four antibiotics. All the isolates showed varying degrees of multidrug resistance with S.aureus, S.epidermidis and P.aeruginosa showing complete drug resistance. It is important to undertake regular monitoring of uroparhogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to find sufficient ways to control the abuse of antibiotics in the community.

 

KEY WORDS: Children, Drug resistance, Escherichia coli, Symptomatic bacteriuria.

[1] Smith M.B.H. Screening for urinary infection in asymptomatic infants and children In: Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination. Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care. (Ottava: Health Canada, 1994) 220-30
[2] Jha,B.K,Singh, Y.I. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in school going children. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 5(17), 2007, 81-84.
[3] National Centre For Health Statistics. Detailed diagnoses and procedures for patients discharged from short-stay hospitals: United States.1985. Vital and health Statistics.Government Printing Office.87-1751.
[4] Kunin C.M. Detection, Prevention and management of Urinary Tract Infections (4th edition. Lea and Febiger ,Philadelphia,1987)..


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Review of Breast Cancer Cases Admitted In Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Malaysia

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Dr. Krishna Kumar Mallick || Mr. Lim Huay Cheen

Page No.

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60-62

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-60-62 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039060062

It has been observed globally that breast cancer cases usually report to the doctors at a late stage. The impact of 'late reporting' has been of great consequences on the post-treatment morbidity and mortality of the patients. In the present project, it has been tried to assess breast cancer cases admitted and treated at Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah,Alor Setar, which is the main referral hospital of Kedah State of Malaysia. For this project we analyzed about 332 breast cancer cases admitted in this hospitalbetween 2008 to 2012. Abbreviation: HSB—Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, AlorSetar .BC---Breast Cancer. CT---Computerized Tomography. F---Female. M---Male. NCR - National Cancer Registry.

 

KEY WORDS : Breast cancer, carcinoma-in-situ, intra ductal carcinoma, breast conservative surgery.

[1] Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2008, vol.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base no. 10 (Internet). Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on cancer, 2010.
[2] http://globoscan.iarc.fr.
[3] O Zainal Ariffin, I.T. Nor Saleha, NCR Report,2007, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, 2011.
[4] About Breast Cancer, Epromed Services, SdnBhd for the college of Radiology, Academy of Medicine of Malaysia.
[5] Cheng Har Yip, Nur Aishah Mohd. Taib, Ibraham Mohamed, Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Malaysia, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer prevention, Vol. 7, 2006. <http://www.apocpcontrol.com/paper_ file/issue_abs/volume7_No3/Cheng%20Har%20Yip.pdf>
[6] Breast Cancer, Medscape, WebMD, LLC


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Factors Determining Quality Of Life of Geriatric Patients With HIV/AIDS: A Cross Sectional Study In South India

Country

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India

Authors

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Sudhir || Deepa.K|| Ashok N.C ||Murali Dhar

Page No.

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63-67

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-63-67 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039063067

BACKGROUND: With the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), people with HIV are aging .This number is expected to grow because of the aging of younger cohorts with HIV as well as new infections among persons over 60. With this upward shift in the age of people living with HIV, it is important to consider ways to promote successful aging in this growing population.

 

OBJECTIVE: To study the factors determining the quality of life of geriatric HIV/AIDS patients.

 

METHODOLOGY: This cross sectional study was done in 320 HIV/AIDS patients aged more than 60 years at ART centre K.R Hospital, Mysore. WHO-QOL-Bref a summarized quality of life questionnaire was used to assess the Quality of life and pre-structured and predesigned questionnaire was used for determining various factors influencing QoL. Statistical analysis was done using SYSTAT 13 software. To test the significance, t test was applied. RESULTS: Out of 325 patients included in the study 220 were male and 100 were female, 180 of them were from rural area and 210 were married. Multiple linear regression showed social relation had maximum effect on QoL. Factors which were statistically significantly related with better QoL were male sex, married marital status , higher education, employed, higher CD4 count and lower stage of disease. CONCLUSION: The long-term effects of disease management on the aging population are something that both health care providers and policy makers often overlook. This is especially true with older persons with HIV/AIDS. Important epidemiologic and clinical differences exist between younger and older HIV-infected persons. Health care providers need to address the issues of sexuality in older patients and the similarity between the conditions associated with HIV and those of aging, such as dementia.

 

KEY WORDS: CD4 Count, Quality of life ,HIV/AIDS, Geriatric

[1] Mack K, Ory M. AIDS and older Americans at the end of the Twentieth Century. JAIDS. 2003;33(2):S68–S75.
[2] Vance DE. Aging with HIV: Bringing the latest research to bear in providing care. Am J Nurs. 2010;110(3):42–47.
[3] National Association of HIV Over Fifty. (2003).Educational Tip Sheet HIV/AIDS and Older Adults.[Online]. http://www.hivoverfifty.org/tip.html
[4] Linsk, N. (1994). HIV and the elderly. Families in Society, 75 (6), 362-372.
[5] Emlet CA. Experiences of stigma in older adults living with HIV/AIDS: A mixed method analysis. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. 2007; 21(10):740–752.

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Current State and Future Perspectives of Nanotechnology In Dentistry

Country

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India

Authors

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Yogesh Upadhyay

Page No.

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68-71

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-68-71 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039068071

Nanotechnology has been considered as multidisciplinary field of scientific research about different types of nanoparticles as well as the application of new nanomaterials and nanodevices in numerous areas of human interest. It offers advances in industry, engineering, information and communication technology, electronics, environmental science and energy savings, economics etc. New nanoproducts and nanotehnology could be applied in almost all fields of human activity. Potential benefit of nanomaterials and nanorobots applied in medicine and dentistry is of main concern when thinking about nanoadvances. However, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue between scientific and public opinions due to the insufficient knowledge of potential hazard to human health and environment. Some of the raised questions are what are the advantages and disadvantages of nanotechnological evolution, and what kind of future can be expected when changes gain wider scale? The aim of this study was to present the importance of nanotechnology in various areas, especially in medicine and dentistry, and to point out possible consequences of their use to human health and environment.

 

KEYWORDS: nanotechnology; nanomaterials; dentistry

[1] Balogh L. Why do we have so many definitions for nanoscience and nanotechnology? Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med. 2010; 6:397-8.
[2] Sahoo SK, Parveen S, Panda JJ. The present and future of nano- technology in human health care. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med. 2007; 3:20-31.
[3] Jandt KD, Sigusch BW. Future perspectives of resin-based dental materials. Dent Mater. 2009; 25:1001-6.
[4] Ryan V, Hart TR, Schiller R. Size determination of streptococcus mutans 10449 by laser light scattering. Biophys J. 1980; 31:313-24.
[5] Mitra SB, Wu D, Holmes BN. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. JADA. 2003; 134:1382-90.
[6] Davies S. How we talk when we talk about nano: the future in lay- people's talk. Futures. 2011; 43:317-26.
[7] Burri R, Bellucci S. Public perception of nanotechnology. J Nanopart Res. 2008; 10:387-91.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effect of Sitagliptin in Combination with Glimepiride on Glycemic Control and Islet Cell Diameter/Proliferation in A Model of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Noha A. Mohamed|| Sawsan A. Zaitone|| Yasser M. Moustafa

Page No.

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72-80

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0309-72-80 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/039072080

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of monotherapy with sitagliptin, or its combination with glimepiride in glycemic control, islet cell diameter and its proliferation in type 2 diabetic rats. Rats were fed with a high fat diet followed by injection with a low dose of streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Then, rats were switched to normal diet and for other 28 days. Monotherapy with sitagliptin did not affect the body weight, while its combination with glimepiride did not induce a significant change. The combination increased the % change in body weight compared to sitagliptin alone. All the treatment regiment enhanced glucose clearance as indicated by a reduction in the area under the curve. Pancreatic immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis were performed to measure the diameter of islet cells, insulin-positive area and the number of Ki-67 positive nuclei. In sitagliptin group, diameter of large-sized islets was 2-fold greater than those observed in diabetic group. The monotherapy with glimepiride did not change the islet-cell diameter. Further, the combination group showed better glycemic control and greater cell proliferation compared to monotherapies. Consequently, we conclude that the combination therapy of sitagliptin/glimepiride has synergistic effect.

 

KEY WORDS: beta cell, diabetes, glimepiride, sitagliptin, rats.

[1] DM. Nathan, JB. Buse, MB. Davidson, RJ.Heine , RR.Holman , R.Sherwin , B. Zinman. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy, Diabetes Care, 29, 2006, 1963–72.
[2] SE. Inzucchi: Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: scientific review, JAMA, 287, 2002, 360–372.
[3] A. Bergman, D. Ebel, F. Liu, J. Stone, A. Wang, W. Zeng, L. Chen, S. Dilzer, K. Lasseter, G. Herman, J. Wagner, R. Krishna. Absolute bioavailability of Sitagliptin, an oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers, Biopharm Drug Dispos, 28 , 2007, 315–322.
[4] DJ. Drucker, MA.Nauck. The incretin system: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes, Lancet, 368, 2006, 1696–1705.
[5] R. Brazg, L. Xu, C. Dalla Man, C. Cobelli, K. Thomas, PP. Stein. Effect of adding sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, to metformin on 24-h glycemic control and beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes ObesMetab ,9, 2007, 186-193.
[6] CF. Deacon, JJ. Holst. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition as an approach to the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes: a historical perspective. Biochem Biophys Res Commun , 294, 2002, 1-4.