Volume 4 ~ Issue 2 (Version 1)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Activity of Guaiacol Peroxidase of Solanum Lycopersicum In presence of Detergents and Chaotropic Agents

Country

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 Iran

Authors

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Shahryar Saeidian

Page No.

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01-05

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020101-05   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/04210105   

Browning of damaged tissues in fresh fruits and vegetables results mainly from the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones by peroxidase. The activation of Peroxidase by sodium dodesyl sulphat investigated, but reports on the effect of detergents and chaotropic agents on activity of Peroxidase are scarce. Here the effect of some detergents and chaotropic agent on activity of enzyme in soluble and in partial purified fraction was investigated. Sarkosyl inhibited activity of enzyme for oxidation of guaiacol and H2O2, although has inhibitory effect in higher concentrations. Other ionic, Nonionic detergents and Chaotropic agents showed inhibitory effect on activity of Peroxidasein partial purified fraction. Inhibitory effect of Urea, GnHcl, NP-40, Triton x-100 and Sodium cholate in presence of these substrates investigated so GnHcl and NP40 showed that they are potent inhibitor of peroxidase and sodium cholate showed that it is a weak inhibitor of guaiacol peroxidase. Results identified and confirmed the differences in structure and conformation of enzyme in soluble and in partial purified fraction for oxidation of different substrates.

 

KEYWORD: Catechol, Pyrogallol, Purification, Sarkosyl

[1.] H.B. Dunford (1991). Horseradish peroxidase: structure and kinetic properties. In: Everse J, Everse KE, Grisham MB (eds.) Per¬oxidase in Chemistry and Biology (pp. 1–24) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
[2.] K. Wakamatsu and U. Takahama (1993). Changes in peroxidase activ¬ity and peroxidase isoenzymes in carrot callus. Physiology of Plants 88: 167–171
[3.] H.W. Krell (1991). Peroxidase. An important enzyme for diagnostic test kits. In: Lobarsewski J, Greppin H, Penel C and Gaspar Th (eds.) Biochemical, Molecular and Physiological Aspects of Plant Peroxidases (pp. 469–478) Univ. M. Curie-Sklodowska and Univ. Geneva, Lublin and Geneva.
[4.] W. Adam. M. Lazarus, C.R. Saha-Moller, O. Weichold, U. Hoch and P. Schreier, (1999), Biotransformations with peroxidases. Advance Biochemical Engineering 63: 74–108.
[5.] D.W. Stanley, M.C. Bourne, A.P. Stone and W.V. Wismer. (1995). Low temperature blanching effects on chemistry, firmness and structure of canned green beans and carrots. Journal of Food Science 60: 327–333.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Gender Based Case Control Study of Anthropometric and Renal Profile in Rural Diabetic Population

Country

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India

Authors

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Mrs.Munilakshmi. U||Dr. Susanna T.Y||Dr. Shashidhar K.N||Dr. Madhavi Reddy ||Dr. Lakshmaiah. V|| Ravishankar. S

Page No.

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06-11

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020106-11   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/042106011   

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender specific changes in anthropometric and renal parameters for the prediction of microvascular complications commonly diabetic nephropathy at its earlier stages through screening of diabetic patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied total 150 subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, duration of diabetes within 10 years mean age 50-60 years and equal number of age and gender matched clinically proven healthy controls during the year March 2011- January2012 were enrolled in our study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were done by standard methods.

RESULTS: On comparison between non diabetics and diabetic subjects, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), obesity index, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum creatinine, spot urine albumin (AER)and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were significantly higher in diabetic males compared to non diabetic males and WC, BMI, DBP, FBS and SCr were significantly higher in diabetic females on comparison with non diabetic females.In the Normoalbuminuric group (ACR<30mg/g) WHR and AER was higher in males as compared to females and in Microalbuminuric group (ACR 30-300mg/g)WHR, AER, FBS and ACR were significantly higher in males compared to females.

CONCLUSION: Significant increase in WHR was observed between male and female diabetics above the cutoff values as per the recommendations made by National Institute of Health Guidelines, and this study also confirmed that AER was higher in diabetic males compared to females which are clinical hallmarks for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular risk factors.

 

KEY WORDS: Albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), body mass index (BMI), diabetic nephropathy, waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR).

[1] To¨yry JP, Niskanen LK, La¨nsimies EA, Partanen KP, Uusitupa MIJ Autonomic neuropathy predicts the development of stroke in patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Stroke. 1996;27:1316 –1318.
[2] Steinberg HO, Brechtel G, Johnson A, Fineberg N, Baron AD. Insulinmediatedskeletal muscle vasodilatation is nitric oxide dependent. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:1172–1179.
[3] Suarna C, Dean RT, May J, Stocker R. Human atherosclerotic plaque contains both oxidized lipids and relatively large amounts of alpha-tocopherolandascorbate. ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 1995;15:1616–1624.
[4] Lee J, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, Landsberg L, Weiss ST. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in the obesityinsulin resistance syndrome: the Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol.1995;142:288 –294.
[5] Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CPJ. Precursors of essential hypertension: pulmonary function, heart rate, uric acid, serum cholesterol, and other serum chemistries. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131:1017–1027.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Simultaneous Determination of Cefotaxime Sodium and Paracetamol by LC-MS

Country

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india

Authors

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C H Latha Saranya || J C Thejaswini ||B M Gurupadayya||B Y K Sruthi

Page No.

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12-18

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201012-18   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421012018   

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of cefotaxime sodium and paracetamol. Sulfamethoxazole was used as the internal standard. A phenomenex Luna C18 column provided chromatographic separation of the analyte which was followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 152.1 for paracetamol and 478.1 m/z for cefotaxime sodium. The mass transition of internal standard sulfamethoxazole was found at 254.0 m/z. The method involves simple isocratic chromatography conditions with mobile phase acetonitrile:20mM ammonium acetate buffer in the ratio of 40:60 and mass spectrometric detection that enables detection at ppm levels. The retention times were 3.477 and 5.601 min for Cefotaxime sodium and paracetamol respectively. The proposed method has been validated with linear range of 1-40 ppm for both the drugs. The precision values are ≤ 2 %. The accuracy of the method was found to be 98-102 %.

KEY WORDS: Cefotaxime sodium, Paracetamol, Sulfamethoxazole, LC-MS.

[1] United States Pharmacopoeia, Asian edition (Rockville, The United States Phamacopoeial Convection Inc, 2004).
[2] Martindale, The Complete drug reference, 35th ed (Great Britain, Council of Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 2007).
[3] L.O. Gentry, Cefotaxime and prophylaxis: New approaches with a proven agent, American Journal of Medicine, 88(4), 1990, 32-37.
[4] S.A. Signs, T.M. File and J.S. Tan, High pressure liquid chromatographic method for analysis of Cephalosporins, Antimicrobial Agents Chemotheraphy, 26(5), 1984, 652-655.
[5] S.S.N. Ling, K.H. Yuen and S.A .Barker, Simple liquid chromatographic method for the determination of Cefotaxime in human and rat plasma, Journal of Chromatography. B Analytical Technology Biomed Life Sceiences, 783(1), 2003, 297-301.
[6] D. Dell, J. Chambarlain and F. Coppin, Determination of Cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography, Journal of Chromatography, 226(2), 1981, 431- 440.
[7] R.L. Yost and H. Derendorf, Rapid chromatographic determination of cefotaxime and its metabolite in biological fluids, Journal of Chromatography, 41(1), 1985, 131-138.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antibacterial Activity of Liquid Hand Washes Against Daily Encounter Bacteria

Country

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Pakistan

Authors

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Ahmad Naeem Sajed|| Dr. Shagufta|| Dr. Sajjad Haider|| Prof. Dr.Nosheen Wasim Yousaf|| Dr. Imran Ahmed|| Shan Ali|| Dr. Sadaf Imran

Page No.

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19-23

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201019-23   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421019023   

Hands are out in the open to a lot of substances which comprises of dirt touching during personal hygiene, raw and contaminated materials. Bacteria are deposited on skin from external source causing variety of infections. Cleaning hands with antibacterial hand washes stops the spread of bacteria or loose transient flora preventing cross infections. 195 samples were used for determination of MIC and MBC of different antibacterial hand washes with inoculations of a variety of bacteria. Phenol was used as control to measure up its activity with liquid soaps. In the list of liquid soaps, safeguard was found with highest efficacy in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while Johnson and Johnson baby liquid soap had maximum activity against various microorganisms. In order as Johnson and Johnson > Dettol >Safeguard >Lifebuoy >Lux. Staphylococcus aureus had growing resistance against various liquid soaps as Safeguard < Johnson and Johnson < Dettol < Lifebuoy < Lux liquid soaps. Escherichia coli had lessen in sensitivity against various liquid soaps as Safeguard > Johnson and Johnson > Lifebuoy > Lux > Dettol. The MBC values were found to be two to three times greater than its MIC values. The results prove that liquid soaps have a greater effect on inhibition and removal of bacterial population than plain soaps.

 

KEYWORDS: Liquid soaps, activity, pathogenic bacteria

[1] Johnson SA, Goddard PA, Iliffe C, Timmins B, Rickard AH, Robson G, and Handley PS, Comparative susceptibility of resident and transient hand bacteria to para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan, J. Appl. Microbiol. 93, 2002, 336-344.
[2] Vineeta, A. F., Nursing staff workload as a determinant of methicillin-resiatant
[3] Staphylococcus aureus spread in an adult intensive therapy unit. J. Hosp. Infect., 43, 2006. 109-113.
[4] Lucet, J.C., Rigaud, M.P., Mentre, F., Kassis, N., Deblangy, C., Anderemont, A. and Bouvet, E., Elimination before and after different hygiene techniques: a randomized clinical trial. J. Hosp. Infect., 50, 2002. 276-280.
[5] Yolande, Y. L., and K. Bressler, The dirt on soap. 49, 2010, 53-55.
[6] Richards, M. J., Edwards, J.R., Culver, D. H., Gaynes, R.p., Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Crit. Care Med., 27, 1999, 887-892.
[7] Jabbar, S. A., Comparative susceptibility of resident and transient hand bacteria to parachloro meta-xylenol and triclosan. J. Appl. Microbiol., 93, 2010, 336-344.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Key Regulatory Considerations for the Development of Biosimilar Pharmaceutical Products

Country

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Switzerland

Authors

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Samrat Sisodia

Page No.

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24-26

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201024-26   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421024026   

Abstract : Regulatory authorities are faced with different kinds of challenges when dealing with biosimilar products compared to other conventional generics. This is one of the reasons which made the FDA in the U.S. to delay authorizing biosimilars which have been in existence in Europe since 2005. Legal and scientific issues were sorted out in 2007 thus allowing the U.S. to approve Omnitrope and Valtropin. The BPCI Act was signed into law in 2009 and it was responsible for creating biological drug approval. Other important components of biosimilars are data exclusivity and patents whose aim are to preserve knowledge and innovation. They recognizes that an originator invest a lot of time and resources before producing a product. This document ends by discussing the challenges and opportunities of producing biosimilar products, and the issues to be considered before developing a biosimilar product.

 

Keywords –Biosimilars, Biologics, FDA, BPCI, Regulatory Strategies

[1] Ahmed I, Kaspar B, Sharma U. (2012). Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States. Clinical Therapeutics. Vol.34 (2): pp. 400-19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22244050
[2] Humi, R., A. (2012). Pharmaceutical Competitive Intelligence for the Regulatory Affairs Professional. New York: Springer
[3] Chirino, A., J., & Mire-Sluis, A. (2004). Characterizing biological products and assessing comparability following manufacturing changes. National Biotechnology . Vol.22: pp.1383-1391.
[4] Schellekens, H. (2008b). The first biosimilar epoetin: but how similar is it? Clinical Journal of American Social Nephrology . Vol.3: pp.174-178.
[5] Declerck, P., J. (2013). "Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: a science-based regulatory challenge". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 13 (2): 153–6
[6] Calo-Fernández, B, Martínez-Hurtado, J. (2012). "Biosimilars: Company Strategies to Capture Value from the Biologics Market". Pharmaceuticals 5 (12): 1393–1408.
[7] Prugnaud, J &Trouvin, J. (2012). Biosimilars: A New Generation of Biologics. New York: Springer.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review on the Phytochemical and Anti-Hyperglycaemic Properties of the Fractionated Anacardium Occidentale L Leaves, Seeds and Stem Barks Extracts

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Omojate C Godstime||Felix O Enwa|| Clement O Anie|| Oghenejobo Micheal||
Akpotu Mark

Page No.

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27-32

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201027-32   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421027032   

Despite considerable progress in the management of dysglycaemia by synthetic drugs, the search for improved and safe natural antidiabetics is ongoing, since the plant kingdom offers a wide range of oral hypoglycaemics.The phytochemical profile and the antihyperglycaemic properties of the various fractions of Anacardiumoccidentale L leaves, seeds as well as the stem barks extracts, on normoglycaemic animal models were reviewed.The extractants were tested for the presence of elementary phytochemicals following standard procedures.The phytochemical analysis of A. occidentaleextracts revealed the presence of a variety of rich secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, glycosides and volatile oils. In the assay, various concentrations of the leaves, seeds and stem bark extracts 25ug/ml, 50ug/ml and 100ug/ml, were prepared. Also, 50ug/ml solution of anacardic acid, the active antidiabetic principle in cashew extract was prepared. The solutions were administered to the mouse and rat cell models, and incubated for 18hours, after which the glucose uptake was measured. In the case of the seeds extract, only 100ug/ml had a significant effect. Glucose uptake was significantly elevated in cells incubated with high dose of the extract and insulin, as compared with either the insulin or the extracts alone. The results obtained from this research that the leaves, seeds as well as the stem barks extracts of A. occidentale could be a lead candidate for the synthesis of potent antidiabetics or a nutraceutical for the management of dysglycaemia, which had posed a new threat to the global health security.


Keywords- Dysglycaemia, Insulinopenia, Phytochemicals, Pancreatectomize

[1.] Tiwari A.K. and Rao, J.M. (2002).Diabetes mellitus and Multiple Therapeutic Approaches of Phytochemicals- Present Status and Future Prospects.Current Sci., 83.30-38.
[2.] Sokeng, D.S., Kamtchouing, P., Watcho, P., Jatsa,H.B., Moundipa, P.F., Ngounou, F.N., Lontsi, D.,Bopelet, M. (2001).Hypoglycémic activity ofAnacardiumoccidentaleL. Aqueous extract innormal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes Res. 36: 001-009.
[3.] http//www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail418.php. Accessed on July 6, 2013.
[4.] Kubo J. (1999). Anti-Helicobacter pyloriAgents From the Cashew Apple.J. Agric. Food Chem. 47.533-537.
[5.] Akinpelu D.A.(2001). Antimicrobial Activity of AnacardiumoccidentaleBark.Fitoterapia 72.
[6.] Sobrevia L, Mann G.E. (1997). Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric oxide Signaling Pathway in Diabetes and Hyperglycaemia. ExpPhysio 82. 423-454


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Healthy Progeny through Ayurved

Country

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Mumbai

Authors

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Dr.Rutuja Gaikwad

Page No.

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33-37

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201033-37   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421033037   

Motherhood is ultimate and cherished desire of every woman. When she achieves it, she feels completeness in her life. A woman has to prepare mentally and physically ahsve jovial pregnancy and less complicated delivery.Today due to changing lifestyle Medical world is concerned about increasing rate of congenital imperfections in the new born which is posing confront to the aim of healthy humanity.Ayurveda- A complete and holistic health science, not only deal with preventive and curative aspects of health but also has a strong footings in the field of healthy progeny.
Healthy mother, father, proper diet of the mother, practice of wholesome living and dietary regimen and healthy mind/psychological status of parents & good deeds of soul in previous incarnation play a prime role in achieving healthy offspring.Here is an attempt to achieve healthy progeny through our own science "Ayurved"

[1] Agnivesha & Dridhabala, Charak Samhita – Khand 1 &Chaukhamba Sanskrit Prakashan.
[2] Ambika Datta Shastri, Sushrut Samhita - Ayurved Tatwa sandeepika, Chaukhamba Sanskrit prakashan, 3rd edition (1974) ommentary
[3] Anant Damodar Athawale Ayurvediya, Astang Sangraha by Vruddha vagbhatta edited muudranalaya 1980.
[4] Hemraja Sharma and Y.T. Acharya, Kashyap – Samhita - by Kasyapa edited Publication Nirnaga sagar press, Bombay.
[5] .Jeffcott's principle of gynaecology - Jeffcott Norman 2001
[6] Textbook of Gynaecology - D.C.Dutta 3rd editon.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effect Of Retention Sutures For Prevention Of Abdominal Wound Dehiscence After Laparotomy In High Risk Patients(A Prospective Study)

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Mohanad abdulretha

Page No.

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38-43

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040201038-43   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0421038043   

Wounds and their management are fundamental to the practice of surgery.Surgical wound dehiscence after laparotomy remains a serious complication.To evaluate the effect of prophylactic retention sutures in patients with a high risk for wound dehiscence who underwent midline laparotomy. Patients and methods:One hundred fifty(150) cases were randomized to form two groups with 75 patients each: a prophylactic group by using retention sutures and an non prophylactic group. A central randomization for both hospitals was performed. Two patients in the non prophylactic group and three patients in the prophylactic group In the non prophylactic(control) groupStandard midline incision and continuous mass closure tech- nique was used in each case using a running looped 1/0 nylon string located 1 cm from the edge of the lineaalba.In the prophylactic group, the fascia was sutured using the same technique as the non prophylactic group; however, retention sutures were added using a 1/0 nylon string every 10 cm and contained 5 cm of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, rectus muscle, and abdominal fascia (except peritoneum) on each side. All fascia closures were performed by tow attending surgeons who adhered strictly to the protocol.Occurrence of abdominal dehiscence was assesseddaily by precise examination of the wound. Results:The incidence of abdominal wound dehiscence was 3 patients (4%) in the prophylactic group and 10 patients (13.3%) in the control (nonprophylactic )group (P = 0.007 ) therefore it is significantConclusion:Ourconclsion that prophylactic retention sutures can decrease the incidence of abdominal wound dehiscence but although there is decrease incidence of post operative evisceration ,wound infection and post operative pain , there was no significant difference.

[1] Chin G, Diegelman R, Schultz G: Cellular and molecular regulationof wound healing. In Wound healing Edited by: Falabella A, Kirschner R. Boca Roton FL; Taylor, Francis Group; 2005:17-37. Hugh TB: Abdominal wound dehiscence, editorial comment. Aust NZ J Surgery 1990, 60:153-155
[2] Holmes J.D. Classification of wounds and their mana gement. In: Lumley JSP, Caraven JL. SurgInt 1999;45:63-5 A. G. Greenberg and R. P. Saik, "Wound Dehiscence— Pathophysiology and Prevention," Archives of Surgery, Vol. 114, No. 2, 1979, pp. 143-146.
[3] Gislason H, Gronbech JE, Soreide O. Burst abdomen and incisional hernia after major gastrointestinal operationsdComparison of three closure techniques. Eur J Surg 1995;161:349.
[4] Penninckx FM, Poelmans SV, Kerremans RP, et al. Abdominal wound dehiscence in gastroenterological surgery. Ann Surg 1979;189:345.
[5] Wissing J, van Vroonhoven TJ, Schattenkerk ME, et al. Fascia closure after midline laparotomy: Results of a randomized trial. Br J Surg 1987;74:738.