Volume 4 ~ Issue 2 (Version 2)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparison of drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis assayed by MODS (Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility) with that of PM (proportion method) from clinical isolates of North East India

Country

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 India

Authors

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Leimapokpam Shivadutta Singh|| Pranab Behari Mazumder|| Gauri Dutt Sharma

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020201-06   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/04220106   

About one third of the world's population are infected with tuberculosis and has become a serious global concern of public health. The major problem in controlling tuberculosis is the rapidity and efficacy of detection methods adopted. This study was conducted with the objective to compare the drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis assayed by MODS (Microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility) with that of PM (proportion method) from clinical isolates of North East India. A total of 150 smear positive sputum specimens clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis referred to a clinical lab wa selected. Both the proportion method and MODS were conducted for the collected isolates. DST of MODS were compared with that of PM considering PM as gold standard. MODS detected INH, RIH, STR and EMB resistant isolates at 31% (n = 46/150), 29% (n = 49/150), 19.3& (n = 29/150) and 27.3% (n = 41/150), respectively .Specificity was very high for all the drugs resistance with more than 99% specificity. The accuracy, PPV and NPV of MODS in detection of the four drug resistant isolates was relatively high. DST assay by MODS is relatively simpler. The appreciable performance characteristic in detecting drug resistance including MDR TB may lead to its wider applications in different labs and general hospital for resource limited regions.

 

KEYWORDS: drug susceptibility, MODS, PM, rapid detection, tuberculosis

[1] Canetti G, Froman S, Grosset J, Haudway P, Langerova M, Mahler H T, Meissner G, Mitchison D A and Sula L. Mycobacteris: Laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance. Bull. World Health Organ. 1963; 29: 565 – 578.
[2] Caviedes L, Deelgado J and Gilman R H. Tetrezoliummicroplate assay as rapid and inexpensive clorimetric method for determination of antibiotic susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002; 20(40:5):1873 – 1874.
[3] Jorge Coronel MR, Luz Caviedes, David Moore: MODS - A USER GUIDE -Microscopic Observation drug Susceptibility Assay. v12. 114082008. Available at http://www.modsperu.org/MODS userguide.pdf.Accessed Jan 13rd 2009, vol. v12.114082008. Lima - Peru; 2008
[4] Kent, P.T., Kubica, G.P. Public Health Mycobacteriology. A Guide for the Level III Laboratory. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. 1985.
[5] Leimapokpam Shivadutta Singh, Pranab Beheri Mazumder and Gauri Dutt Sharma. Analysis of mutational pattern in multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a geographically isolated north eastern region of India. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences.2014;9:4-10.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Safety and Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon alpha-2a and Ribavirin Combination in Treatment of Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype-4

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Abdel-Hameed I.M. Ebid|| Abdallah Atef Derbala|| Ahmed A. Gomaa

Page No.

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07-13

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020207-13   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/042207013   

Introduction:Egypt has the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence in the world mostly caused by HCV genotype 4. The standard of care for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a combination of pegylated interferon (INF) and ribavirin (RBV). A new locally manufactured pegylated INF with different pegylation chemistry than products with well characterized clinical profiles has been introduced into the Egyptian market with a much lower price. Little is known about the safety and efficacy of this product. So, the aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy of this product.

Patients and methods: A total of 97 treatment naïve patients with CHC genotype 4 with mean age 46.68 ± 8.76 years old of whom 79 were males and 18 were females, were treated with pegylated INF alpha-2a and RBV for 48 weeks. Patients were monitored for safety and efficacy during the treatment and 24-week follow up periods.

Results: fifty-one (52.58%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The rate of SVR varied significantly by age, baseline fibrosis stage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and (WBC). Most adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity and were well tolerated. The overall continuance rate without dose reduction was 37.11%. Three patients discontinued treatment, one died and the others discontinued due to fundal hemorrhage and neutropenia, respectively. Hematologic toxicity included anemia with a frequency 60.82%, neutropenia 4.12%, and thrombocytopenia 1.02%.

Conclusion: The efficacy and safety profile of the drug is comparable to previously approved original products. Considering its low cost, it represents an opportunity to fight the HCV epidemic in Egypt at reasonable an affordable costs.

 

KEYWORDS – HCV, Interferon, Ribavirin, SVR.

[1] Alter, H.J. and L.B. Seeff. Recovery, persistance, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: a perspective on long-term outcome. in Seminars in Liver Diseases. 2000. GEORG THIEME VERLAG.
[2] Perz, J. Estimated global prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection. in 42nd Annual Meeting. 2004. Idsa.
[3] Armstrong, G.L., et al., The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Annals of internal medicine, 144(10), 2006, 705-14.
[4] El-Zanaty, F. and A. Way, Egypt demographic and health survey 2008. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health, El-Zanaty and Associates, and Macro International; 2009.
[5] Mohamoud, Y.A., et al., The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Egypt: a systematic review and data synthesis. BMC Infect Dis, 13, 2013, 288.
[6] Ray, S.C., et al., Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis C virus throughout Egypt. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 182(3), 2000, 698-707.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Tunica Vaginalis Flap as a second layer for Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (Snodgrass method) in reoperation for hypospadias

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Dr. Hazim R. Akal

Page No.

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14-20

Paper Index

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DOI: 10.9790/3013-040202014-20   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422014020   

Purpose: Reoperation for failed hypospadias has been considered to be seriously bothersome because abundant penile skin doesn't tend to remain for urethroplasty or for penile shaft skin coverage. In this study, the tubularization of incised urethral platewrapped by tunica vaginalis flap as the second layer to increase the success rate of operation and decrease the incidence of urethrocutaneous fistula.

Materials and Methods: Between March 2008 and November 2013, 23 boys, (3.5 -18) years old, who were treated using a Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty(Snodgrass method) and vascularized tunica vaginalis flap as a second layer,for previously failed hypospadias repair. The hypospadias defects included 12 (52%) distal (coronal or subcoronal), 6 (26%) distal penile and 5 (22%) mid shaft defects (three of them have residual chordee).17patients had one operation and 6 had two operation previously. all patients did not have foreskin because of the previous surgery. There was no apparent scarring of the plate. Wound infections, meatal stenosis, and urethrocutaneous fistula were considered as treatment complications. Success rates of surgery were recorded. Failure was defined as need for re-operation.

[1] Bruno Leslie a, Luiz L. Barboza a, Petrus O. Souza.Dorsal tunica vaginalis graft plus onlay preputialisland flap urethroplasty: Experimental studyin rabbits Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. July 2008.09.003.
[2] Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Aggarwal, Satish Kumar; Sinha, Shandip; Ratan, Simmi K.Soft tissue covers in hypospadias surgery: Is tunica vaginalis better than dartos flap?Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons . Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 17
[3] Kadian YS, Rattan KN, Singh J, Kajal P, Tunica vaginalis: an aid in hypospadias fistula repair: our experience of 14 cases. Afr J paediater surg. 2011 May- Aug;8(2):164-7
[4] Shankar KR, Losty PD, Hopper M, Wong L, Rickwood AM. Outcome of hypospadias fistula repair. BJU Int. 2002;89:103–5.
[5] Handoo YR. Role of tunica vaginalis interposition layer in hypospadias surgery. Indian J Plast Surg. 2006;39:152–6.
[6] Routh JC, Wolpert JJ, Reinberg Y. Tunneled tunica vaginalis flap is an effective technique for recurrent urethrocutaneous fistula following tubularized incised urethroplasty. J Urol. 2006;176:1578–80.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Correlation of Obesity Indices with Peak Expiratory Flow Ratein Males and Females

Country

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India

Authors

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Saraswathi Ilango|| Christy A|| Saravanan.A|| Dr. Prema Sembulingam

Page No.

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21-27

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202021-27   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422021027   

As body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio WHR) are indices of obesity and as obesity is knownto reduce flow rates, an attempt had been made to correlate these indices with peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and see whether there is anygender difference in this. 40 males and 40 females in the age group of 18 to 22 years participated in this study in which 20 were obese and another 20 were non obese. Anthropometric parameters were recorded from which BMI and WHR were calculated and PEFR was recorded by using peak flow meter. The data were analysed in SPSS 17.0usingStudents't' test.Our results revealed that PEFR was significantly lower in obese males (p < 0.003) but not in obese females (p <0.2) when compared to their non-obese counterparts. And in males, PEFR was negatively correlated with BMI (p < 0.002, r=0.470) but not with WHR. In females there was no correlation of PEFR with either BMI or WHR. This may be because of the genderdifference in fat distribution - males having central distribution which may reduce compliance and PEFR whereas females having peripheral distribution which may not affect the compliance and PEFR.

 

KEY WORDS: Body mass index, Obesity, Peak expiratory flow rate, Peak flow meter, Waist- hip ratio

[1] World Health Organization Tech Rep Series, 854. Overweight adults. In: Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry;1995:312-4.
[2] World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO Obesity TechnicalReport Series 894. Geneva:WHO 2000.
[3] Bjorntorp P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Int J Obese 1996;20:291-302.
[4] AkshySood and Kathia A. Ortiz-Cantillo. AmmericanCollge of Chest Physicians, PCCSU, Volume 22. 2008
[5] Carey IM, Cook DG, Strachan DP. The effects of adiposity and weight change on forced expiratory volume decline in a longitudinal study of adults. Int J ObesRelatMetabDisord1999;23:979-85
[6] Raison J, Cassuto D, Orvoen-Frija E, et al. Disturbances in respiratory function in obese subjects. In: Ailhaud G, editor Obesity in Europe '91 Proceedings of the 3rd Congress onObesity. London: John Libbey and Company Ltd; 2001: pp227-30.
[7] Chen R, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Bolton-Smith C, Hannah MK, Morrison C. Association of dietary antioxidants and waist circumference with pulmonary function and airway obstruction. Am J Epidemiol2001;153:157-63


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparison of Dexmedetomidine with Fentanyl in Attenuation of Pressor Response during Laryngoscopy and Intubation

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Sagar Gandhi||Dr VigyaGoyal ||Dr Krishnaprabha Radhakrishnan||Dr Mahesh Balakrishnan

Page No.

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28-38

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202028-38   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422028038   

The pressure response, which is part of a huge spectrum of stress response, results from the increase in sympathetic and sympathoadrenalactivity.Acomparision between dexmeditomedine and fentanyl in suppressing the pressorresponse is studied.

OBJECTIVE This study was done to compare the effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine with Fentenyl in attenuating the pressor responses associated with laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in groups belonging to normotensive ASA grade 1, 2 risk surgical patients.

MATERIAL The study was carried out on 100 patients belonging to ASA grade I and II, aged 15 to 65 years, including either gender, scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia.

RESULT DEXMEDETOMIDINE when used as I.V. premedicant in dose of 0.6 μg/kg provides beneficial effect in attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as compare to FENTANYL in dose of 2 μg/kg .

[1] Dahlgren N, Messeter K.- Treatment of stress response to laryngoscopy And intubation with Fentanyl. Anaesthesia 1981; 36(11): 1022 – 6.
[2] Kautto UM. Attenuation of the circulatory response to laryngoscopy And intubation by Fentanyl. ActaAnaesthesiolScand 1982; 26(3): 217- 21.
[3] D E Martin et al – Low dose Fentanyl blunts circulatory response to tracheal intubation 1982;61:680-4
[4] Dundee JW, Hassard TH. The induction dose of ThiopentoneAnaesthesia 1982; 37: 1176-1184.
[5] Splinter WM – Haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in geriatric patients: effects of Fentanyl, Lidocaine and Thiopentone. C J Anes 1989 jul; 36(4):370-6
[6] J P Ebert –Circulatory response to laryngoscopy: the comparative effects of Placebo, Fentanyl and Esmolol can j anes 1989/36:3/pp 301-6


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Host Modulation- Promising Direction In Periodontal Therapy

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr.Priyadarshni Rangarajan ||Dr.Hariharavel Vp || Dr.Ieshwaryah Kumanan3

Page No.

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39-43

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202039-43   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422039043   

The primary etiology of the periodontal disease is chronic inflammation due to bacterial infection. It is the host's reaction to the presence of bacteria that mediates tissue destruction .Since the destruction of periodontium is believed to be due to the host response , it is intellectual and logical to consider therapeutic approaches that modulate the host response in addition to antibacterial approaches in periodontal therapy. Improved knowledge of bacterium –host interactions and of the process leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations .The objective of this article is to review and update the fundamental scientific concepts of host modulation and to furnish an approach to the main types of therapy used, based on the scientific literature.

 

KEYWORDS : Periodontitis, Anti-Inflammatory, Host Response, Pathogenesis, Adjunctive Therapy.

[1] Page RC, Kornman KS. The pathogenesis of human periodontitis: An introduction. Periodontol 2000 1997; 14:9-11.

[2] Trevethick MA, Oakley I, Clayton NM, Strong P. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric damage in experimental animals: underlying pathological mechanisms Gen Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;26(7):1455-9. Review

[3] .Sala A, Zarini S, Bolla M. Leukotrienes: lipid bioeffectors of inflammatory reactions Biochemistry (Mosc). 1998 Jan;63(1):84-92. Review.
[4] Nyman S, Schroeder HE, Lindhe J. Suppression of inflammation and bone resorption by indomethacin during experimental periodontitis in dogs. J Periodontol. 1979 Sep;50(9):450-61
[5] Williams RC, Jeffcoat MK, Howell TH, et al. Altering the progression of human alveolar bone loss with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen. JPeriodontol 1989;60:485-490.\
[6] Williams RC, Jeffcoat MK, Howell TH, et al. Ibuprofen: An inhibitor of alveolar bone resorption in beagles. J Periodont Res 1988;23:225-229.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Intake of the "Chahuis" Bedbug Thasus Gigas Burn (Xamues) By Diabetic Patients for Glucose Control

Country

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Mexico

Authors

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Zamora López María Del Carmen||Jiménez Pérez Adriana Jocelyn||Castillo Sandoval Adriana||García García Michel Alejandro||Canales Martínez María Eloísa||Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

Page No.

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44-49

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202044-49   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422044049   

Objective: To determine whether the intake of chahuis or Xamues bedbug has favorable effects on glucose control in people with type II diabetes. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted through the application of a survey among 58 randomly selected people in the municipality of Actopan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Results: All the participant 100% knew about the bug, 95% eat the bedbug, 25% of the studied sample had diabetes, of which 14% ate the insect as an option to control their blood glucose, thus neglecting their medical treatment. Most of the respondents were seniors; the educational level in most of the respondents is Elementary (62%). Conclusions: Consumption of Xamues in this population is not only associated with a likely positive impact on glucose control but are associated other therapeutic properties, such as the exquisite taste shown in the preparation of various typical dishes of this region.

KEY WORDS. Type II Diabetes, Thasus gigas, detachment, glucose control, therapeutic.

[1] West KM: Epidemiology of Diabetes and Its Vascular Lesions., ed.[NY]: Elsevier; 1978: 19-39
[2] Diabetes, organización mundial de la salud. 2012; Available in: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/es/
[3] 3.Wilson Rodger, Non- insulin- dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus. 2013; Available in: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1336077/pdf/cmaj00253-0033.pdf
[4] Thomson & Thomson, Genética Médica. 7nd Ed. Barcelona, España: Elsevier- Masson; 2007.
[5] International Diabetes Federation [IDF]. ¿Qué es la diabetes? 2013; Available in: http://www.idf.org/worlddiabetesday/toolkit/es/gp/que-es-la-diabetes
[6] 6.Asociación Mexicana de Diabetes [AMD]. (s.f.). ¿Qué es la diabetes? 2013; Available in: http://www.amdiabetes.org/que_es_la_diabetes.php
[7] Pacheco Leal, D. Bioquímica Médica, Limusa, ed. México, 2004.

 


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clinical Significance of 99mTc-MDP Imaging & Molecular Biology in the Diagnosis of Bone Metastases

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr.Karan Peepre||A.N. Tiwari||J.P. Sharma|| Dr.Karan Peepre

Page No.

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50-55

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202050-55   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422050055   

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women. Skeletal metastases are clinically significant because of associated symptoms, complications such as pathological fractures and their profound significance for staging treatment and prognosis. Detection of bone metastatic lesions allows radiation therapy or surgical interventions to prevent pathological fractures from disabling the patients. High sensitivity of bone scanning in determining the presence and extent of metastatic disease makes extremely important tool in decision making. Bone scans demonstrate metastatic lesions much earlier than X-ray,C.T.,MRI. To help diagnose pathology of the skeletal system, patients are injected with radiopharmaceuticals composed of Technetium-99m and a bone-seeking molecule such as analogs of calcium, hydroxyl groups or phosphates. In fact the most commonly used molecule is organic diphosphonate bound to Tc-99m. These patients are then scanned by a gamma camera 2-4 hours later; typically, both anterior and posterior scans are taken.Purpose of study was to diagnose, staging and see the treatment response in breast cancer patients. 99mTechnetium methylene di-phosphonate (99mTc MDP) bone scintigraphy was performed for the detection of bone metastases in histopathologically proven patients of breast cancer. 53 patients of breast cancer were investigated with gamma camera. On visual analysis there was positive scan findings (bone metastases) in 19 patients (35.84 %) and negative scan findings (normal bone scan) in 34 patients (66.6%). 99mTc-MDP skeletal scintigraphy elucidates, non-invasively, tumour characteristics and may be indicative for prognosis and response to chemotherapy and hormonal treatment.

KEYWORDS: Gamma camera, Bone scan, Bone metastases, Breast cancer, 99mTc-MDP, Skeletal scintigraphy

[1] Waddington, C. H. Molecular Biology or Ultrastructural Biology? Nature, 190, 184 (1961). PubMed

[2] Lauren A.Kingsley,Pierrick G.J.Fournier, John M.Chirgwin and Theresa A.Guise ; Molecular Biology of Bone Metastasis; Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.

[3] Lauren A.Kingsley,Pierrick G.J.Fournier, John M.Chirgwin and Theresa A.Guise ; Molecular Biology of Bone Metastasis; Molecular Cancer Therapeutics.
[4] L. D. Rybak, D. I. Rosenthal. Radiological imaging for the diagnosis of bone metastases. J NUCL MED 2001;45:53-64; Vol. 45 - No. 1 –page-53.
[5] Kozlow W, Guise TA. Breast cancer metastasis to bone: mechanisms of osteolysis and implications for therapy. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia2005; 10:169–80.
[6] Kakonen SM, Mundy GR. Mechanisms of osteolytic bone metastases in breast carcinoma.
Cancer 2003; 97:834–9.
[7] G J Cook, Houston, et al. Detection of bone metastases in breast cancer by 18FDG PET: differing metabolic activity in osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1998.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Vegetation Ecology of Coastal belt of Khejuri area of Purba Medinipur District with special reference to Hijli coast, West Bengal, India

Country

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India

Authors

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Debabrata Das|| Manika Das

Page No.

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56-77

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040202056-77   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0422056077   

The present article deals with vegetation admixed with populated shoreline elements along with some exotics which broadcast valid and successional change that can develop community as natural kind if managed by local people. The forest department (FD) is engaged with plantation of varied types of elements since two decades ago. The types of vegetation therefore three types as per the present situation either natural or plantation or preliminary natural followed by plantation type. This is due to the potential use of plants for different purposes either for fuel wood production or by other purpose they served. As a coastal line, all the managerial systems always associated with framing or making shelter belt or green belt for multipurpose reasons. The main theme was to sustain species in the present habitats and withstand there against natural calamities like devastating storms, heavy flood or to check the erosion which is annual and reoccurrence type. Therefore, the species planted there as artificial kind is Casuarina equisetifolia along with Acacia auriculoformis and a few strips of Eucalyptus for the sustenance of life. These species used for fuel wood production as well as for protection of the habitats in the upper strand. But the species planted along the shoreline are Sonneratia apetala, Avicennia officinalis, A. marina, A. alba and Prosopis juliflora. Other species they planted the same site are Acacia nilotica, but the species grew there with stunted growth and dynamics of stability was confined. Therefore, the types of special vegetation required here are to check the habitats as well as to develop biodiversity through the growing vegetation and reaching climax formation by halophytes. Though mixed pattern of vegetation found here are mesophytic, xerophytic, hydrophytic, halophytic, halophytic associate type and exotic introduced type. Most of the species grow there as plantation type except a few true halophytes near the High Tide (HT) and Low Tide (LT) area. Ground vegetation of Aleuropus lagopoide, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica cover the disturbed area grazed by cattle which need immediate protection. A general discussion along with vegetation cover of true halophytes both in natural habitat and in plantation stands have been made for critical analysis as preliminary study. A total number of 16 plant species have been critically analyzed along with some potential plants with market demand have been discussed thoroughly. These will generate oxygen for categorically different researchers in the field of biology in near future to manage the ecosystem more usable than the present and will provoke sufficient path to generate income for eco-sustenance of life.

KEYWORDS: Khejuri-Hijli, Coastal area to shore, Ecology of Vegetation, Dynamics of Halophytes, Purba Medinipur, Sustainable Development.

[1] Mandal, M; Dandapath, P K; Bhusan, S. Digha Sankarpur Littoral Tract-A Geographical Case Study, Int. J. Applied & Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(4), 2013, 46-54.

[2] Chakraborty, S K. Coastal Environment of Midnapore, West Bengal: Potential Threat and Management, Jour. Coast. Env, 1(1), 2010, 27-40.

[3] Chakraborty, T; Mondal, A K and Parui, S. Studies on the Phytoresources of Coastal dune flora at West Bengal and adjacent Orissa, India, Int. Jour. of Sc. and Nature, 3(4), 2012, 745-752.

[4] Das, D. Pedalium murex L. (Pedaliaceae) –A New Record of Purba Medinipur District to the state of West Bengal, IOSR Jour. Of Business and Management, 13(4), 2013, 54-56.

[5] Ghosh, R B and Das, D. A Preliminary census on pathogenic flora of crop plants in Midnapore District, West Bengal, Indian J. Applied & Pure Bio., 12(1), 1997, 25-30.

[6] Dey, M K; Hazra A K and Chakraborty, S K. Functional role of Microarthropds in nutrient cycling of Mangrove–estuary ecosystem of Midnapore coast of West Bengal, India, Int. Jour. of Environmental Technology and Management, 12(1), 2010, 67-84.