Volume 4 ~ Issue 2 (Version 3)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Spectroscopic analysis on Synthesis 1-Methyl-3-(2'-Phenylethyl)-1H,3H-Quinazoline-2,4-dione

Country

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 Nepal

Authors

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Sushika Joshi (Mulmi)

Page No.

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01-04

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020301-04   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/04230104   

Carbomethoxy-methylanthranilic acid was synthesized from methylanthranilic acid with methylchloroformate in presence of potassium carbonate. Cyclisationreaction of N- carbomethoxymethylanthranilic acid was performed by heating to get N-methylisatoic anhydride. 2- metholamino-N-(2'-phenylethyl) benzamidewas formed from Isatoic anhydride and phenylethyl amine. High yield of 1-methyl-3-(2'- phenylethyl)-1H,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione alkaloids were formed by condensation and cyclisation reaction between amide and methylchloroformate. The synthesis compound was identified with the help of its melting point, C13NMR and H1NMR spectra

 

KEYWORDS: C13NMR, H1NMR, Carbomethoxy-methylanthranilic acid,quinazoline, alkaloid

[1] Fujita E., Johne S., Kasai R., Node M., Tanaka O. (1984), Biological Activity of natural and SyntheticQuinalones, Progress in the chemistry of organic natural (46), 221-219.
[2] David L Dreyer and R. C.Brenner (1980), Alkaloids of some Mexican ZanthoxylumSpecies, Phytochemistry, vol 19, pp 935-939.
[3] Saxena S., M. Verma, A. K. Saxena and K. Shanker (1991), Anti-Inflammatory quinazolinonesIndian J. Pharma. Sci., 1991 (53) (2),48-52.
[4] Berichte der DeutschenChemisishenGesellshaft, Jahrg, XXXXII, pp. 3193.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Early diagnosis of exudates information and deduction of diabetic
retinopathy using level set segmentation based on multi wave
propagation

Country

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India

Authors

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S. Vijayalakshmi|| P. Sivaprakasam

Page No.

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05-10

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04020305-10   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/042305010   

Diabetic retina is a result of increase in the blood glucose level leading to damage of
retinal blood vessels causing temporary or permanent blindness. The increase in number of cases of diabetic retina emphasizes the need of early detection before it reaches the severe stage. The diabetic retina unless other type of medical scans has multiple clots of bloods inside the vessels. Hence single curve is not sufficient to detect the multiple clots. A methodology is proposed here for the detection of multiple clots for solving a non unique solution level set segmentation.

[1] Normalized cuts and image segmentation.Author(s): JianboShi ,Malik, JIEEE Transactions onPattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Date of Publication: Aug 2000.Volume: 22 , Issue: 8 Page(s): 888 - 905.
[2] Effective Level Set Image Segmentation With a Kernel Induced Data Term,Ben Salah, M. Ben AyedI., Mitiche, A.Date of Publication: Jan. 2010.Image Processing, IEEE Transactions onImage Processing. Volume: 19 , Issue: 1 .Page(s): 220- 232
[3] Level Set Segmentation With Multiple Regions .Brox, T.Weickert, J , IEEE Transactions on Image Processing . Date of Publication: Oct. 2006. Volume: 15 , Issue: 10, Page(s): 3213- 3218
[4] Distance Regularized Level Set Evolution and Its Application to Image Segmentation. Chunming Li,ChenyangXu ;ChangfengGui ; Fox, M.DIEEE Transactions on Image
[5] Product Type: Journals & Magazines


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Carotenoids From Red Fruit (Pandanus Conoideus Lam.) Extract Are Bioavailable : A Study In Rats

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Mathelda Kurniaty Roreng|| Nurheni Sri Palupi|| Endang Prangdimurti

Page No.

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11-16

Paper Index

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DOI: 10.9790/3013-040203011-16   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423011016   

Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) is a Papuan indigenous fruit. This fruit has the potential of becoming functional food because of its carotenoid compounds that acts as an antioxidant and provitamin A. The high content of carotenoid in red fruit promotes the fruit empirically to prevent and cure various diseases. However, it has not been known how much carotenoid from red fruit can be absorbed and utilized by the body. This study aims (1) to evaluate the carotenoid bioavailability of red fruit extract; and (2) to the determine retinol accumulation factor in rat liver. The study was conducted with the approaches of carotenoid depletion and repletion. After 14 weeks depletion period and 2 weeks repletion period, it was obtained that retinol accumulation factor in red fruit extract group was 49.02 and positive control group was 42.41. This indicate that to generate 1 μg retinol in rat liver required 49.02 β-carotene from red fruit extract or 42.41 μg of pure β-carotene.

KEYWORDS: Bioavailability; carotenoid; red fruit; retinol, vitamin A.

[1] J.A.Olson, Biological actions of carotenoids, J Nutr ,119, 1989, 94-95.

[2] D. Dutta, R. Utpal Chaudhuri, C.Runu, Structure, Health Benefits, Antioxidant property and processing and storage of carotenoids [review], Afr J Biot, 4, 2005, 1510-1520.

[3] G.F.M. Ball, Fat soluble vitamins assay in food analysis (New York: Elselvier Science Publish.Co.Inc, 2000).

[4] World Health Organization. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005. WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency (Geneva : WHO, 2009).

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Current Conceptson the Etiology and Treatment Of Infectiousarthritis

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Atiqah C.Abdullah|| Murtaza Mustafa|| Muhammad Iftikhar|| Malik J.Shah

Page No.

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17-22

Paper Index

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DOI: 10.9790/3013-040203017-22   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423017022   

Infectious arthritis is an important joint infection in rheumatology emergency. Infection is usually hematogenously acquired during overt or occult bacteremia.Septic arthritis is an unusual complication of arthroscopy or arthroscopic reconstruction of knee surgery. Health care acquired infections are associated with higher mortality rate. Up to 50% of patients reporting decreased joint function or mobility. Any organism can cause infectious arthritis include: gonococcus, S.aureus, MRSA,streptococci ,mycobacteria,fungi and virus. Diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of infectious arthritis mainly dependent on the identity of infecting pathogen and host factors. Therapy of infectious arthritis is with antimicrobials with ability to penetrate into synovial fluid,e.g.nafcillin,clindamycin,vancomycin, and cephalosprorins.Oral ciprofloxacin is the drug of choice for known susceptible pathogens. Antifungal include:amphotericin B,flucytocine,and newer extended spectrum triazole.

 

KEYWORDS: Infectious arthritis, Infectingorganism, Arthroscopy,Treatment.

[1] Christopher A.OHI .Infectious Arthritis of Native Joints. In Mandell,Douglas and Bennett'sPrinciples and Practice of Infectious Diseases,7th Ed .MandellGI,BenntteJE ,Dolin R (editors),Churchill Livingstone Elsevier,2010.
[2] Kaandorp CJ, SchaardenburgD,KrijnenR,et al .Risk factors for septic arthritis in patients with joint disease. A prospective study. Arthritis Rheum.1995; 38:1819-1825.
[3] Gupta MN,Strurrock RD,Field M.A prospective 2-year study of 75 patients with adult-onset septic arthritis .Rheumatology (oxford).2001;40:24-30.
[4] Gupta MN,Strurrok RD,Field M.Prospective study of patients with culture proven and high suspicion of adult onset septic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis.2003;62:327-331.
[5] Lipsky BA,Weigelt JA,Gupta V,et al. Skin. Soft tissue. Bone and joint infections in hospitalized patients: epidemiology and microbiological, clinical, and economic outcomes. Infect control Hosp Epidemiolol.2007;78:1790-1798.
[6] Garcia De La Torre. Advances in the management of septic arthritis. Rheum DisNorth Am.2003;29:61-75
[7] SapicoFI,LiqueteJA ,Sarma RI .Bone and Joint infections in patients with infective arthritis. Review of a 4-year experience .Clin Infect Dis.1996;22:783-787.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Grain and Milling Quality of Barley and Their Suitability for Preparation of Traditional South Indian Products

Country

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India

Authors

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Madhavi Reddy.M|| Raja Reddy.P|| Raghavendra Prasad BN|| Munilakshmi U

Page No.

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23-27

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040203023-27   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423023027   

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is grown as a commercial crop in some hundred countries world-wide and is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Barley assumes the fourth position in total cereal production in the world after wheat, rice and maize, each of which covers nearly 30% of the world's total cereal production, hence the study was undertaken to evaluate the milling quality characteristics of different cereals and organoleptic evaluation of traditional food products. The 1000 kernel weight (44.5g) and volume (55.7ml) of the barley grains were significantly higher than wheat (42.8g) and (53.0ml) and rice (32.7g) and (46.0ml). The chemical composition of the barley grains were more for proteins( 13.7g), fat(1.7g) followed by wheat( 12.6g, 1.3g) and rice (8.5 g,0.9g). The cooking time for rice was less (20 min) than wheat (24min) and barley (27min). The viscosity of cooked grains was more in rice (7.4cm) followed by wheat (6.5cm) and barley (5.9cm). The mean score for appearance was highest (3.72) for barley followed by wheat (3.52) and rice (3.20). This may be attributed to the presence of carotenoids, which naturally occur in barley at higher concentrations than wheat and rice. It is less palatable than wheat. Flour made from barley can be used as substitute for wheat flour. Further research is needed to improve the palatability of barley and to formulate more barley recipes.

[1] Mahdi GS. Modulating effects of barley in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Ph.D. Thesis. University of London, England. 1993; 17.
[2] Badr A, Muller K, Schafer-pregi,EI Rabey H, Effgen S, Ibrahim HH, Pozzi C, Rohde W, Solomini F. On the origine and domenstration history of barley. Mol Biol Evol.2000; 17(4):499-510.
[3] Fischbeck G. Contribution of barley to ariculture: A brief overview. In Slafer GA, Molina-Cano JL, Savin R, Araus JL, Romagosa. Barley Science, Recent advantages from molecular biology to agronomy of yield and quality. Food products press, Binghamton, USA.2002:1-14.
[4] Bird AR, Jackson M, King RA, Davies DA, Usher S, Topping DL. A novel high-amylase barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) lowers plasma cholesterol and alters indices of large-bowel fermentation in pigs. Br J Nutr.2004; 92:607-15.
[5] Coles GD, Roberts SJ, Butler RC, Morrell MK, Rowarth JS. The role of beta-glucan in barley. In: Salovaara H, Gates F, Tenkanen M, editors. Dietary fiber components and functions. Wageningen: Academic Publishers; 2007.p.65-74.
[6] AOAC 2002. Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
[7] Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S, Araki S, Ito K, Hayashi K, Watari J, Sakata Y, Ikegami S. Effects of high B-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentration and visceral fat area in Japanese men – a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trail. Plant Foods Hum Nut.2008; 63:21-5.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Physico chemical analysis of Kandhaga Rasayanam, a Siddha herbomineral formulation

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr.Meena .R ||Dr. Ramaswamy. RS||Shakila. R

Page No.

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28-34

Paper Index

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DOI: 10.9790/3013-040203028-34  

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423028034   

BACKGROUND : Standardization of AYUSH drugs is the need of the hour. Kandhaga rasayanam is a Siddha herbo mineral drug indicated for skin diseases, urinary infections.

AIM AND OBJECTIVE : To do physicochemical analysis for the drug Kandhaga rasayanam

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The drug is prepared as per the methods mentioned the classic siddha literature.The drug is subjected to physicochemical analysis such as total ash, loss on drying, total sugar, reducing sugar, fat content, microbial load, heavy metal analysis , Thin Layer Chromatography and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography as per the Pharmacopeial laboratory standards of Indian medicine.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The drug is free of microbial contamination and shows positive for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones, flavanoids etc.The total ash value is 2.0%. The heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium are below detectable limit.

Key words: Herbomineral , High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, Physico chemical Analysis, Phytochemistry, Siddha.

 

 

[1] Dr.Kuppusamy mudhaliar, Dr.Utthamarayan,( Siddha Vaidhya Thirattu (Indian medicine and homoeopathy, Chennai-106,February
1998 ) 235.
[2] Dr.Kuppusamy mudhaliar, Dr.Utthamarayan,( Siddha Vaidhya Thirattu (Indian medicine and homoeopathy, Chennai-106,February
1998 ) 235.
[3] Dr.R.Thyagarajan,(Gunapadam Thadhu Jeeva Vaguppu, Indian medicine and Homoeopathy, Chennai-106,Ed - 4 1992 ) 235.
[4] Dr.D.R.Lohar,(Pharmacopoeial laboratory for Indian medicine , Department of Ayurvedha, yoga and Naturopathy, Siddha, Unani
and Homoeopathy ( AYUSH), Ministry of health and family welfare, 2011) 20.
[5] 13.Anonymous , (Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials, .WHO:Geneva; 1998, )
[6] JB( Phytochemical methods, Chapman and Hill, London 1973).
[7] Harbone Trease G.E and W.C.Evans,(pharmacognosy,Brailliar Tiridel and Macmillian Publishers, London Ed-11).


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Case Report of Polycystic Kidney Disease

Country

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TANZANIA

Authors

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Henry Mayala

Page No.

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35-38

Paper Index

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DOI: 10.9790/3013-040203035-38   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423035038   

Background: Polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing water like fluid. Polycystic kidney disease isn't limited to your kidneys, although the kidneys are the most severely affected organs. The disease can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. A common complication of polycystic kidney disease is high blood pressure.
Case presentation: In this report a 49 years old man who is a known diabetic type 2 and hypertensive for 3 years was treated as an outpatient for the first time at Sanitas Hospital with the presenting complains of right flank pain and generalized headache, with the family history of diabetes mellitus type 2. Clinical and imaging findings are suggestive of polycystic kidney disease
Conclusion: Polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of secondary hypertension in children and in adults, it is responsible for cardiovascular and kidney complications, thus making it necessary for this case report.


Key words: polycystic kidney disease, abdominal pelvic ultrasound, abdominal CT-scan

 

 

1. Mayo clinic internal medicine
2. Emedicine
3. www.kidney.org/atoz/pdf/polycystic.pdf
4. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/polycystic-kidney-disease-beyond-the-basics


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Insects Thasus gigas Burm (Xamuis) to the problem of Diabetes in Actopan Hidalgo, Mexico

Country

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Mexico

Authors

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Calderón Nava Oscar Esaú||Pérez Hernández Itzel||Cruz Almaraz Luis Daniel||Ruvalcaba Ledezma Jesús Carlos

Page No.

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39-42

Paper Index

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DOI:10.9790/3013-040203039-42   

ANED :: ANED :05.3013/0423039042   

Type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to increase around the world and this has cause the seeking of alternative therapies, amongst them the ingestion of insects such as Thasus gigas burn.

Objective To analyze the use of the insect Thasus gigas Burm, (Xamuis), in the treatment aimed to control type 2 Diabetes Mellitus based on the opinion of the adults within the Actopan, Hidalgo population.

Methodology. A transverse descriptive study of observational characteristic.

Results. The knowledge about these insects seems to be prominent amongst the women, a group in which the disease also dominates; apparently they consume the insects based on empirical knowledge. Conclusion. It is necessary to conduct research in which the effect of the consumption on the levels of glucose of such insects is evaluated.


Key words: Thasus gigas Burm, Diabetes, empirical knowledge, glucose.

 

 

[1]. Alberto Calderón Montero. Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology, Genetics and Pathogenetic Mechanisms. Revista Española de cardiología. 2007: 7 (8); 3-11
[2]. BOLETÍN EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DIABETES MELLITUS TIPO 2 PRIMER TRIMESTRE-2013, Dirección General de Epidemiología, Secretaria de Salud. Epidemiología Manual de Procedimientos Estandarizados para la Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2
[3]. Secretaría de Salud Manual de Procedimientos Estandarizados para la Vigilancia Epidemiológica de la Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 Subsecretaría de Prevención y Promoción de la Salud Dirección General de Epidemiología. Available online, 2013 in: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BgtlP3iDgIkJ

:www.epidemiologia.salud.gob.mx/doctos/infoepid/vig_epid_manuales/10_2012_Manual_

DM2_vFinal_31oct12.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=mx
[4]. Guías ALAD de diagnóstico, control y tratamiento de la Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2, online 2013. available in: http://www.alad-latinoamerica.org/phocadownload/guias%20alad.pdf