July - August - 2012 (Volume-2 ~ Issue-4 ~ Part-4)

Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Prevalence and incidence of byssinosis in ginning mill factory workers
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr Sujatha Talikoti, Dr Anand.N.Patil, Dr Manjunatha.A, Dr Sumangala.patil
Page :: 01-03
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-244013  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02440103  


Background: Occupational exposure to cotton flax and hemp dust leads to a disabling lung disease known as, Byssinosis has been shown develop in response to dust exposure in cotton processing. Byssinosis is characterized by shortness of breath and chest tightness. In Northern part of Karnataka, there are many ginning factories associated with processing of cotton. The present study therefore was under taken to evaluate the incidence and prevalence.

Materials and methods: The study is conducted on 110 workers of ginning factory situitaed in BIJAPUR. District North Karnataka. 50 control subjects were selected from non- teaching staff BLDRA'S Sri B M Patil medical college Bijapur. The study subjects were divided in to Group-I [67 who actually work with cotton and directly exposed to cotton dust]. Group-II [43 workers who are not directly exposed to cotton dust but working in other departments of mill].Assessment of workers suffering from byssinosis done for –Group-I & II , by using questionnaires designed by Murlidhar based on Schillong's recommendations for diagnosis of byssinosis [recording] of occupational history was also taken . Statistical analysis was done by 'Z' TEST to calculate level of significance. ANOVA test was applied to compare the mean values of various groups.

Results: In the present study, we observed that 8.95% of workers directly exposed to cotton dust suffered from byssinosis . Those in Group –II did not show any signs of byssinosis. Depending upon the age group of the subjects, chronic bronchitis [13], chronic cough [21], chronic phlegm [9] . Grade wise analysis of byssinotic , shows that 6 are suffering from byssinosis, 4 suffering from Grade-1,2 from Grade-II none of them suffered from either Grade—1/2 or III of byssinosis.
Conclusion: The prevalence of byssinosis and other respiratory symptoms increased with increase in duration of exposure and advancement of age.


Keywords––Byssinosis, pulmonary function tests.

[1]. 1 Schilling RSF. "World wide problems of byssinosis". chest:1981:79: 3-55.
[2]. 2 Murlidhar V, Murlidhar VJ. Kahere V. "Byssinosis in a Bombay textile mill". Natl Med J India; 1995 Sep-Oct: 8(5): 204-7.
[3]. 3 Gupta MN."Review of byssinosis in India". Indian J Med Res: 1969: 57:1776-89. El Batawi MA,
[4]. 4 Schilling RSF,Valic F, Warford J. "Byssinosis in Egyptian cotton industry: Change in ventilatory capacity during the day". Br J Ind Med:1964: 27:225- 234.
[5]. 5 Bouhuys A, Heaply LJ, Schilling RSF, et al: "Byssinosis in the United States". N Engl J med; 1967:277:170.
[6]. 6 El Batawi MA, Schilling RSF,Valic F, Warford J. "Byssinosis in Egyptian cotton industry: Change in ventilatory capacity during the day". Br J Ind Med:1964: 27:225- 234.



Paper Type :: Review Article
Title :: The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis of HIV Type-1
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Babalola, Michael Oluyemi.
Page :: 04-16
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-2440416  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02440416  


I hereby bring into perspective, the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis of HIV Type -1 and the first proposal for the application of this innovative concept in the field of HIV research, to holistically devise strategies at undermining the prowess of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and overcoming its scourge. The strengths of HIV are the biological attributes that facilitate the pathogenicity, establishment of infection and spread of the virus. They include , the possession of Reverse Transcriptase enzyme for reverse transcription of RNA genome to DNA, ability to maintain persistence by forming a provirus, ability to specifically target and replicate in the immune cells, antigenic mimicry and adoption of host derived glycan shield for immune evasion, HIV-1 strains harbor enhanced biological fitness upon recombination, HIV has exceptionally high rate of replication and disrupts the Blood- Brain Barrier. The weaknesses of HIV are the internal attributes and requirements for survival of the virus that invariably present as opportunities and targets for elimination. These include: the requirement for CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine co-receptors for fusion prior to internalization, presence on HIV-1 envelope of conserved determinants that mediate CD4 binding, the Achilles heel of HIV is a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered 421 to 423 on gp 120, the capsid proteins reveal potential weakness at the inner core of the virus, HIV proteins retain virus internal carbohydrate, and the virus thrives on human proteins. The various host factors that were harnessed as opportunities for infection by HIV include, the ability to establish infection via multiple portals of entry, Sexually Transmitted Infections(STIs) increase the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, STIs boost HIV shedding in the genital tract and amplifies infectiousness, presence of hidden HIV reservoirs that serve as foci of dissemination, the genital anatomical structure of the female genital tract aids biological susceptibility, the immune status of the host, and underlying illness or subsequent exposure to a bandwagon of opportunistic pathogens. The Threats to HIV are the external conditions that are inimical to the virus establishment and which may be harnessed for elimination of the pathogen. They include: limited host reservoir, the virus is susceptible to a Lectin isolated from ripened banana fruits as potent inhibitor of HIV replication, the development and application of Abzymes, development of agents that can selectively target only HIV infected cells, sustenance of global AIDS funding, and evolution of a potent HIV / AIDS Vaccine.

[1]. Aids Research Alliance (2009) Prostratin: A new approach Targeting HIV infected cells.
[2]. Altfeld, M., Kalife, E.T., Qi, Y., et al.,(2006). HLA Alleles Associated with Delayed Progression to AIDS Contribute Strongly to the final CD8(+) T Cell Response against HIV-1. PLoS Med. 3(10):403.
[3]. Baeten, D. et al, (2007)"HIV-1 subtype D infection is associated with faster disease progression than subtype A, in spite of similar HIV-1 plasma viral loads" 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( Abstract no. 68)
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[8]. Chen, B., Vogan, E.M., Gong, H., Skehel, J.J., Wiley, D.C. and Harrison, S.C.(2005). Structure of an unligated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus gp120 core. Nature 433:834- 841.
[9]. Chun, T.W., Davey, R.T. Jr., Ostrowski, M., et al., (2000).Relationship between pre-existing viral reservoirs and the re-emergence of plasma viremia after discontinuation of HAART. Nat. Med. 6: 757-761.
[10]. Cumont, M. C. et al., (2007) ―TGF-b in intestinal lymphoid organs contributes to the death of armed effector CD8 T cells and is associated with the absence of virus containment in rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus,‖ Cell Death Differ. 14 (10): 1747-1758.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus pusillus (murray) g.don
Country :: India
Authors :: A. Navitha, D. A. Helen Sheeba, C. Ramesh, M. Sartaj Banu
Page :: 17-21
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-24401721  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02441721  


Many plant drugs are studied for effecting in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. In the present study ethanolic extract of herb of Catharanthus pusillus was evaluated for hypoglycemic effect in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats using both 18 hour fasted rat model and oral glucose tolerance test. A comparison was made between the actions of ethanolic extract Catharanthus Pusillus and known anti diabetic drug Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, p.o). The ethanolic extract of Catharanthus Pusillus was administered at different doses to normal and diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract at 500 mg/kg body weight dose level exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001). Phytochemical screening of aqueous, methanolic, ethanolic and chloroform extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and carbohydrates. It is concluded that ethanolic extract of herb of Catharanthus Pusillus posses anti diabetic activity.


Keywords––Hypoglycemic activity, Oral glucose tolerance test, Catharanthus Pusillus Streptozotocin induced Diabetes.

[1]. Boyle J P, Honeycult A A, Narayan K M, Hoerger T J, Geiss L S, Chen H and Thompson T J, (2001), "Projection of Diabetes Burden Through 2050: Impact of Changing Demography and Disease Prevalence in The US", Diabetes Care, Vol. 24, pp.1936-1940.

[2]. Chandra Shekhar Joshi, Ekambaram Sanmnga Priya and Subramanian Venkataraman, (2007), "Hypoglycemic and Antilipid Peroxidative Effects of a Polyherbal Formulation, Diakyur, in Experimental Animal Models", Journal of Health Science, Vol. 53, No.6, pp.734-739.

[3]. Don G (1999), Catharanthus Roseus In: Ross I.A (Ed.), "Medical Plants of The World", Human Press, Totowa, NJ, pp.109-118. [4]. Fiona R Coulson, David B Jacoby and Allison D Fryer, (2002), "Increased Function of Inhibitory Neuronal M2 Muscarinic Receptors in Trachea and Ileum of Diabetic Rats", British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol.135, No. 6, 1355-1362.
[5]. Jagdish Kakadiya, Haresh Mulani and Nehal Shah, (2010), "Protective Effect of Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in Experimentally Induced Myocardialinfarction in Diabetes in Rats", Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 85-91.
[6]. Karuna Rasineni, Ramesh Bellam Konda, Sreenivasa Reddy Singareddy and Saralakumari Desireddy, (2010), "Antihyperglycemic Activity of Catharanthus Roseus Leaf Powder in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats" Pharmacognosy Res., Vol.2, No.3, pp.195-201.
[7]. Kerrie J. Way, Keiji Isshiki, Kiyoshi Suzuma, Tamotsu Yokota, Dmitriy Zvagelsky, Frederick J. Schoen, George E. Sandusky, Penelope A. Pechous, Chris J. Vlahos, Hisao Wakasaki and George L. King, (2002), "Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor is Increased in Injured Myocardium Associated With Protein Kinase C Β2 Activation And Diabetes", Diabetes, Vol.51, No.9, pp.2709-2718.

[8]. Marfella R, Amico M D, Di Filippo C, Piegari E, Nappo F, Esposito K, Berrino L, Rossi F, and Giugliano D, (2002), "Myocardial Infarction In Diabetic Rats: Role of Hyperglycaemia on Infarct Size and Early Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor", Diabetologia, Springer-Verlag, Vol.45, pp. 1172-1181.
[9]. Mohammed Fazil Ahmed, Syedmohammed Kazim, Syed Safiullah Ghori, Syeda Sughramehjabeen, Shaik Rasheed Ahmed, Shaikmehboob Ali, and Mohammed Ibrahim, (2010), "Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca Rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats", International Journal of Endocrinology, Vol.2010,
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Paper Type :: Original Article
Title :: The Estimation of Lethal doses for Acyclovir, Insulin and Ondansetron on developing chick embryos
Country :: India
Authors :: Pradeep Bokariya, BN Umarji
Page :: 29-31
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-24402931  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02442931  


There is paucity of data for lethal doses of insulin, ondansetron and acyclovir on developing chick embryo. The study was conducted to estimate the lethal doses for these drugs. Study also aims at observing Lowest published toxic concentration (TCLo), Lowest published lethal dose (LDLo), No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL), Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for these drugs. Total of 132 eggs were taken for study which were divided into four groups. The number of survived eggs was noted for specific dose of each drug and on the basis of same lethal doses for each drug was evaluated. EPI software was used for statistical analysis. Cent percent mortality was seen in group injected with 2mg of ondansetron. The dose 5IU(International Unit) of insulin was estimated as lethal dose and 2.5 mg for acyclovir.


Keywords – lethal doses, Acyclovir, Ondansetron, Insulin

[1]. Kiran K, Yunus MK, Liaqat AM Effect of Ethanol Vapour Exposure on Survival of Chick Embryos Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2009, 19 (3): 150-153
[2]. Chou CC, Jiang DD, Hung YP, Risk factors for cumulative mortality in broiler chicken flocks in the first week of life in Taiwan. Br. Poult. Sci., 2004; 45: 573-577.
[3]. Hamburger V, Hamilton H A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morphol. 1951; 88:49–92
[4]. Muhammad M, Muhammad LU, Ambai AG , Mani AU A Survey of Early Chick Mortality on Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Jos, Central Nigeria International Journal of Poultry Science 2010; 9 (5): 446-449
[5]. Manner J, Kluth D. A chicken model to study the embryology of cloacal exstrophy. J Pediatr Surg 2003; 38:678-81.
[6]. Bujanda L, Garcia-Barcina M, Juan VG, Bidaurrazaga J, de Luco MF, Gutierrez-Stampa M, et al. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. BMC Gastroenterol 2006; 6:35.
[7]. Landauer W. Rumplessness of chicken embryos produced by the injection of insulin and other chemicals. J. exp. Zool. 1945; 98, 65-77.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Evaluation of the efficacy of combination therapy in T. b .brucei – infected mice using extracts of annona senegalensis and eucalyptus camaldulensis
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Kabiru, Y. A, Okogun, J. I, Gbodi, T. A, Makun, H. A and Ogbadoyi, E.O
Page :: 32-37
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-24403237  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02443237  


African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting both humans and animals. Over 60 million people and 50 – 70 million animals are reported to be exposed to the disease. One of the major problems besetting the chemotherapy of the disease is parasite resistance to the available drugs. An attempt was made in this study to explore the potentials of combination therapy using methanol extracts of Annona senegalensis (leaf) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (leaf) in different combinations to treat T. b. brucei - infected mice. One animal in the group treated with a combination of crude methanol extracts of A. senegalensis and E. camaldulensis (1:1) had parasites cleared from circulation two weeks into the treatment period and continued to survive for more than three months. The untreated control died 2 weeks post-infection while the other groups did not survive beyond 20 days. The weight of the surviving animal increased tremendously over the period and infectivity tests using blood and cerebrospinal fluid from the animal were negative because parasites never appeared in the circulation of sub- inoculated animals. However, histopathological studies of the kidney and liver of the survived animal showed widespread intra renal tubular necrosis with thrombi formation and oedema of the hepatocytes. We conclude that in spite of the apparent long-term effects on the kidney and liver, the methanol extracts of the two plants, acting synergistically, possess appreciable potential for the development of drug combinations to overcome the problem of parasite resistance to conventional drugs.


Keywords––Annona senegalensis; Chemotherapy; Combination therapy; Eucalyptus camaldulensis; Trypanosomiasis.

[1]. World Health Organization. 2012. Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Fact sheet. No. 259
[2]. Pere, P., Simarro, A. D., Jose, A., Ruiz, P., Jose,´R., Franco, J., Jannin, G. 2011. The Human African Trypanosomiasis Control and Surveillance Programme of the World Health Organization 2000–2009: The Way Forward. WHO Report. Volume 5, Issue 2, e1007.
[3]. Ogbadoyi, E. O., Akinsunbo, O. A., Theophilus, Z. A and Okogun, J. I., 2007a. In vivo trypanocidal activity of Annona senegalensis Pers. Leaf against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Journal of Ethnopharmacology., 112: 85-89.
[4]. De Koning, H.P., 2001. Transporters in African trypanosomes: role in drug action and resistance. International Journal Parasitology., 31: 512-522.
[5]. Olliaro P., Taylor, W.R.J., 2003. Anti-malarial compounds: from bench to Bed side. J. Exp. Biol., 206: 3753-3759.
[6]. Ann, R., Francoise, B., Odile, D., Bernard, M., 2001. From classical antimalarial drugs to new compounds based on the mechanism of action of artemisinin. Pure Appl. Chem., 73: 1173-1188.
[7]. Igwe, A. C., Onabanjo, A. O., 1989. Chemotherapeutic effects of Annona senegalensis in Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology., 83 (5): 527- 534.
[8]. Gbile, Z. O., Adesina, S. K., 1985. Nigerian Flora and their Pharmacological Potential. University Press Ltd., Ibadan, p.15.
[9]. Adamu, Y. K., Aderonke, A. S., Emmanuel, O. O., 2010. Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark Extracts in Experimental African Trypanosomiasis. International Journal of Health Research, 3(1): 45-49
[10]. Ogbadoyi, E.O., Hafsatu, B., Adamu. Y. K., Chinenye. E. N., Solomon, I., Rasheedat, B.A., Emmanuella, I.O., Paul, B.M., Akinsunbo, A.O., Theophilus, Z.A., 2007b. Preliminary Studies of Antitrypanosomal Properties of Selected Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Journal of Research in Bioscience., 3 (3):38-43.




Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Congenital Uterine Anomaly: Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Bicornuate Uterus
Country :: India
Authors :: Tayade Surekha A, Naina Kumar
Page :: 38-40
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-24403840  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02443840  


We report a case of persistent breech presentation in a primigravida with bicornuate uterus that was initially diagnosed by early ultrasound scan. Persistent breech presentation later in the pregnancy necessitated an elective caesarean section at term. The diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively by exteriorizing the uterus. The literature regarding bicornuate uterus was reviewed.


Keywords––Bicornuate uterus, Persistent breech, Mullerian ducts.

[1]. Zlopasa G, Skrablin S, Kalafatic D et al. Uterine anomalies and pregnancy outcome following resectoscope metroplasty. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2007; 98: 129-133
[2]. Salim R, Jurkoric D. Assessing congential uterine anomalies: the role of three dimensioned ultrasonography. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, 2004; 1829-36
[3]. Hua M, Odibo A, Longman R, et al. Congenital uterine anomalies and adverse pregnancy outcome. A J Obstet Gynecol, 2011; 204(1): 334-335
[4]. Simon C, Martinex I, Pardo F, Tartajada M, Lellicor A. Mullerian defects in women with normal reproductive outcome. Fertil Steril 1991; 561192-3.
[5]. Nahum G G. Uterine anomalies; how common are they and what is their distribution and subtypes? J Reprod Med, 1998;43:877
[6]. Imo AOC, Sunday-Adeoye I. Radiological Assessment of the uterus and fallopian tubes in infertile women at Abakiliki Nigeria. Nigeria J Clin Pract, 2008;11: 211-215.



Paper Type :: Review Article
Title :: Probiotics for Management of Periodontal Disease: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy?
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr. Sandeep Lawande
Page :: 41-46
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-24404146  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02444146  


Probiotics are live microrganisms administered in adequate amounts with beneficial health effects on the host. The use of probiotics is widespread in the management of systemic infections and disease. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in the field of Dentistry, particularly Periodontics. This article reviews the role of probiotics for management of periodontal diseases and explores its potential as a novel treatment strategy.


Keywords––probiotics, periodontal disease, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium

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[2]. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert consultation on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria (October 2001).
[3]. Brown AC, Valiere A. Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy. Nutr Clin Care 2004; 7:56-68.
[4]. Tanboga I, Caglar E, Kargul B. Campaign of probiotic food consumption in Turkish children, oral perspectives "Probiotics for your child‟. Int J Pediatr Dent 2003; 13:59-64.
[5]. Flichy-Fernandez AJ, Alegre-Domingo T, Penarrocha-Oltra D, Penarrocha-Diago M. Probiotic treatment in the oral cavity: An update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010; 15:677-680.
[6]. Suvarna VC, Boby VU. Probiotics in human health: A current assessment. Current Science 2005; 88: 1744- 1788.
[7]. Stamatova I, Meurman JH. Probiotics and periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2009; 51:141-151.
[8]. Chatterjee A,Bhattacharya,H,Kandwal A.Probiotics in periodontal health and disease.J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011;15(1):23-28.
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[10]. Aas JA, Paster BJ, Stoles LN, Olsen I, Dewhirst FE. Defining the normal bacterial flora of the oral cavity. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 5721-5732.