Sep. - Oct. - 2012 (Volume-2 ~ Issue-5 ~ Part-2)

Paper Type :: Review Article
Title :: Effect of Microgravity on Signal Transduction and Gene Expression
Country :: India
Authors :: Miss Shivani Sharma
Page :: 01-07
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-252017  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02520107  

Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level......

[1]. Konstantinova IV, Antropova YN , Legenkov VI, Zazhirey VD: Study of reactivity of blood lymphoid cells in crew members of the Soyuz-6, Soyuz-7 and Soyuz-8 spaceships before and after flight. Space Biol Med 1973, 7: 48-55.
[2]. Kimzey SL: Hematology and immunology studies. In Biomedical results from Skylab. NASA-SP-377 National Aeronautics and Space Administration; 1977:249-282.
[3]. Cohrs RJ, Mehta SK, Schmid DS, Gilden DH, Pierson DL: Asympto-matic reactivation and shed of infectious varicella zoster virus in astronauts. J Med Virol 2008, 80:1116-1122.


Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Practices regarding colostrums and pre-lacteals among gadaba and konda dora tribes of vizianagaram district
Country :: India
Authors :: Giridhar L, Lakshmi G.
Page :: 08-12
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-2520812  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02520812  

Feeding of breast milk is the first fundamental right of the child. Some believe pre-lacteals are a necessary substitute for colostrums. The practice of giving pre-lacteal feed to baby is a traditionally accepted culture in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted on Gadaba and Konda Dora tribal populations at random from 95 tribal villages in Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. Data were collected from 300 lactating women from each tribe, age ranges between 15-45 years through in-depth interview method......

[1] Agarwal P, Singh MM, Garg S. (2007). Maternal health-care utilization among women in an urban slum in Delhi. Indian J Community Med;32:203-5
[2] Banerjee Sainath and Tanvi Mishra, (2006). Some post delivery practices. Solution Exchange for the Maternal and Child Health Community, Consolidated Reply .Query: Analyzing traditional birthing practices, from WHO India (experiences). Compiled by Meghendra Banerjee, resource person; additional research provided by Syed shahid abbas, research associate.
[3] Durga Rao. P., Sudhakar Babu. M., Narasimha Rao. V.L., 2006. Persistent traditional practices among the tribals of North Coastal Andhra, Stud. "Tribes and Tribals", 4(1): 53-56.


Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Effects of melatonin, vitamin Cand E alone or in combination on lead-induced injury in liver and kidney organs of rats
Country :: Iraq
Authors :: F. M. Aziz I. M.Maulood,M. A.H. Chawsheen
Page :: 13-18
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25201318  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02521318  

Context: Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular functions.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin, vitamin C, vitamin E and their combinations against the lead induced hepatic and renal injuries in female rats.

Materials and Methods: Fifty four adult female albino rats were used in this study.....

[1] Abdel Moneim AE, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S.(2011).The protective effect of flaxseed oil on lead acetate-induced renal toxicity in rats . J Hazard Mater, 30, 194:250-5.
[2] El-Sokkary GH, Abdel-Rahman GH, Kamel ES. (2005) Melatonin protects against lead-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats.Toxicol, 15, 213(1-2):25-33.
[3] Ferreira AG, Stefanello FM, Cunha AA, da Cunha MJ, Pereira TC, Bonan CD, Bogo MR, Netto CA, Wyse AT.(2011) Role of antioxidants on Na(+),K (+)-ATPase activity and gene expression in cerebral cortex of hyperprolinemic rats.Metab Brain Dis,26(2):141-7.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Expression of flak flagellin from Salmonella Typhimurium in tobacco seeds
Country :: Italy
Authors :: Luciana Rossi, Antonella Baldi, Vittorio Dell'Orto, Serena Reggi, Corrado Fogher
Page :: 19-22
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25201922  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02521922  

In the epidemiology of Salmonella Typhimurium, recognized as major zoonotic pathogens of animals and humans, swine plays an reservoir role. Novel methods are requires to control salmonellosis in livestock, and vaccination represent an efficacious way to prevent the disease, reducing antibiotic treatments, as suggested by EC Regulation 1831/2003. In this contest plants have considerable potential and represent a promising alternative for biopharmaceutical protein (plant-vaccine)....

[1]. P J Fedorka-Cray, L Collins Kelley, T J. Stabel, J T. Gray, JA Laufer, Alternate Routes of Invasion May Affect Pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium in Swine, Infection and Immunity, 63(7), 1995, 2658-2664.
[2]. A Rementeria, AB Vivanco, A Ramirez, FL Hernando, J Bikandi; S Herrera-Leon, A Echeita and J Garaizar, Characterization of monoclonal antibody directed against Salmonella enterica serva Typhimurium and serovar [4,5,12:i-], Applied and Enviromental Microbiology, 75 (5), 2009, 1345-1354.
[3]. WA Gebreyes and C Altier, Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Swine, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40 (8,) 2002, 2813-2822.



Paper Type :: Review Article
Country :: India
Authors :: Harsha Kharkwal, Preeti Panthari, Manish Kant Pant, Harendra Kharkwal, Amit Chandra Kharkwal, Devi Datt Joshi
Page :: 23-28
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25202328  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02522328  

Foaming Glycosides, traditionally known for their detergent properties are generally responsible for expectorant action. Pentacyclic triterpenoid and steroidal types have different applications due to different linkages in their structures. Now-a-days their use is not just restricted to cleaning purposes but has widened to other fields too such as health, beverages and cosmeceuticals. Their availability in different plant genus and marine world help to meet up to the industrial demands. Due to the huge industrial demands scientists are looking out for the new formulations and improved ways for finding new extraction techniques for different classes of saponins....

[1]. Vincken, J.P., Heng, L., Groot, A.D., Gruppen, H. 2007. Saponins, classification and occurrence in the plant kingdom. Phytochem. 68: 275-297.
[2]. Friedman, M. 2006. Potato glycoalkaloids and metabolites: role in the plant and in the diet. J.Agric. Food Chem., 54: 8655-8681.
[3]. Pelah, D., Abramovich, Z.,Markus, A.,Wiesman, Z. 2002. The use of commercial saponin from Quillaja saponaria bark as a natural larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. J Ethnopharmacol. 81:407-409.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: The effect of mret treatment on human astrocyte cells post exposed to ionizing radiation of 2gy and 8 gy
Country :: USA
Authors :: Igor Smirnov
Page :: 29-33
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25202933  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02522933  

The anomalous viscosity and electrodynamic characteristics (dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity) of MRET water was discovered during the experiments conducted at Moscow State University, Russia. It confirms the high level of long-range dynamic structuring of water molecules in polarized-oriented multilayer formations in activated water produced with the help of MRET activation process. The similarity of molecular formations of cell water and MRET activated water contributes to their compatibility, easy bio-availability and assimilation of MRET activated water in biological systems. The introduction of MRET water to biological systems can contribute to the enhancement of the cellular transduction mechanism and the proper function of cells in biological systems....

[1].Drost-Hansen, W.(1971) In"Chemistry of the Cell Surface"Part B. (H.D. Brown, ed.) Academic Press, New York, p.1
[2]. Drost-Hansen, W. and Singleton, J.L. (1991) "Our Aqueous Heritage: Evidence for Vicicnal Water in Cells" in "Fundamentals of Medical Cell Biology" (E.E. Bittar, ed.) Vol.3A, Chapter 5, JAJ Press, Inc.
[3]. Ling, G.N. (2003) "A New Theoretical Foundation for the Polarized-Oriented Multilayer Theory of Cell Water and for Inanimate Systems Demonstrating Long-range Dynamic Structuring of Water Molecules" Physiol. Chem. Phys. & Med. NMR 35: 91-130, USA



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Formulation and evaluation of controlled release ocular inserts of betaxolol hydrochloride
Country :: India
Authors :: Ashture Amar, Kankudte Ashish, Patil Ajaykumar, Joshi Anand
Page :: 34-38
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25203438  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02523438  

Betaxolol Hydrochloride is a cardio selective β1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent used in the treatment of chronic open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate Betaxolol HCl ocular inserts. In matrix type the formulations for Betaxolol containing 10%, 12%, and 14% w/v of Gelatin, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v for Chitosan were prepared by solvent casting method and plasticizer were used in different concentration for smoothing texture of the ocular inserts. The prepared batches of ocular inserts were evaluated for weight variation thickness, drug content uniformity, swelling index. An increase in average weight and thickness is due to increase in polymer concentration...

[1]. Swamy SMV et al Development of sustained ocular drug delivery system for betaxolol. Indian j Pharm Educ Res. 2006 July-September; 40(3): 165-68.
[2]. B. K. Dubey et al, design and characterization of sustained release levofloxacin ocular inserts. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research vol 2,NO 11(2011)
[3]. Narasimha Murthy.S Biodegradable polymer matrix based ocuserts of diclofenac sodium. Indian Drugs.1997; 34(6): 336-338.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: An isolated chicken ileum: Alternative to laboratory animals for isolated tissue experimentation
Country :: India
Authors :: V.R.Undale,P.N.Jagtap,A.V.Yadav, S.K.Sangamnerkar, C.D.Upasani, A.V.Bhosale
Page :: 39-45
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25203945  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02523945  

Animal testing means the use of non-human animals in experiments. About 50 to 100 million vertebrates including rodents and non rodents are used for the purpose of such experiments in education and research. The non judicious use of these animals has affected the eco system and therefore many countries and scientists are looking for the alternatives for animal testing. The two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture technique and in silico computer simulation. Still the alternative to animal testing needs to be developed...

[1]. Chand N, Eyre P. The pharmacology of anaphylaxis in the chicken intestine. Br. J. Pharmac. 1976; 57: 399-408.
[2]. Kulkarni SK.Editor.Handbook of Experimental pharmacology. 2nd Edition.New Delhi:Vallabh prakshan; 1997: 25-27.
[3]. Ghosh MN. Editor. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 2nd Edition. Calcutta: Scientific book agency; 1984: 84-85.


Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Development and validation of cleaning procedure of mixing equipment used for manufacturing ceftriaxone and Sulbactam injection tablet by using total organic carbon
Country :: India
Authors :: Nirav Patel, Sneha Jansari, Alpesh Arvadiya, Kalpesh Panchal, Hemant Desai
Page :: 46-50
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25204650  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02524650  

This paper presents a useful method using total organic carbon analyzers employing combustion for validating equipment cleaning procedures and verifying cleaning in a pharmaceutical plant. The study summarizes the initial steps that should be taken into account and focuses particularly on the solutions to some of the most critical considerations (e.g., detection and quantification limits, recovery)....

[1]. European Commission. Working Party on Control of Medicines and Inspections. Annex 15 to the EU Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice. Qualificationand Validation. European Commission: Brussels, 2001. Accessed December 5, 2007.
[2]. Office of Regulatory Affairs, FDA. Guide to Inspections Validation of Cleaning Processes. Accessed December 5, 2005.
[3]. Salazar, R. Validacio´n Industrial. In Su Aplicacio´n a la Industria Farmace´utica y Afines, 1st ed., Romagraf: Barcelona, Spain, 1999; pp 386 – 414.



Paper Type :: Research Article
Title :: Prevalence of microalbuminuria among sudanese type 2 diabetic patients at elmusbah center at ombadda - omdurman
Country :: Sudan
Authors :: Fayza Ahmed Rahamtalla, Atif A. Elagib, Ahmed Mahdi, Samia Mahdi Ahmed
Page :: 51-55
Paper Index :: DOI : 10.9790/3013-25205155  
Paper Index :: ANED : 05.3013/02525155  

Microalbuminuria is persistent albumin excretion between 30 and 300 mg/day, in patients with diabetes it is usually indicative of diabetic nephropathy which is most common cause of end stage renal disease, it is also associated with cardiovascular disease....

[1]. A.F. Amos, D.J. McCarthy, P. Zimmet. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14 (Suppl 5): S1-S85.
[2]. J. Michael, M.D. Fowler. Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes, Diabetes Foundation, Clinical Diabetes 2008; 26 (2). [3]. P.A. Svendsen, B. Oxenball, J.S. Christinsen. Microalbuminuria in diabetic patients: A longitudinal study. Crinol Suppl (Copenh) 1981; 242: 53-54.