June - 2020 (Volume-10 ~ Issue-6 ~ Series-1)

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

General Considerations of Disintegration of Enteric Coated Tablets, an Important Issue

Country

::

India

Authors

::

TASNEEM ARA || GHULAM NABI LAWAY || ABDUL SAMIEH DEVA || ISHRAT AHMAD KUTAY || BARINA DEVA || NITISH BHATIA

Page No.

::

01-04

Disintegration plays a central role in ensuring the intended biopharmaceutical performance of the dosage form. Enteric coated dosage forms are intended to resist the release of their active ingredients in the acidic gastric fluid but to disintegrate and release their contents in the less acidic environment of the intestine. The official compendia recognize the use of enteric coated dosage forms in situations where the drug may be destroyed or inactivated by the gastric juice or where it may irritate the gastric mucosa. Thus intended gastric enteric coating when shows signs of cracks, softeness due to laeching, diffusion etc; does not ensure safety from gastric toxicity. Thus rendering the intended dosage form ineffective both pharmacokineticaly as well pharmacodynamically.Thus The disintegration test should fulfill its prime objectives of prevention of the disintegration, cracking or softening of the tablets in 2hours in the acidic environment and assure the disintegration of the intended dosage form in the alkaline medium of the intestinal environment within a given period of time.

 

Keywords: Enteric coating, Gastric residence time, Disintegration

[1]. Lachman L, Liberman H, Kanig J. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy; Third Edition: 293-345, 346-373.
[2]. Singh Deep Hussan, Roychowdhury Santanu, Verma P., Bhandari V.A review on recent advances of enteric coating,IOSR Journal of PharmacyVolume 2 Issue 6 , Nov-Dec. 2012 , PP.05-11,
[3]. Aulton M. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design. International Student Edition: 304-321, 347-668.
[4]. Vyas S, Khar R. Controlled Drug Delivery Concepts and Advances; First Edition: 219-256.
[5]. Ansel H, Allen L, Jr. Popovich N. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems; Eighth Edition: 227-259.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

A Comparative Study on Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents on Serum Electrolytes in Type-2 Diabetic Patients

Country

::

India

Authors

::

J. Poorna Sindhu || J. Devi Priya || L. Divya Bhargavi || B. Satyanand, Dr. N. Keerthi Kishore || P. Rana Kishor || Satheesh S Gottipati || Dr. P.Srinivasa Babu

Page No.

::

05-14

To compare the effect of oral hypoglycemic agents on serum electrolytes in Diabetic patients. Objectives; to compare the effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents on serum electrolytes in Diabetic patients and to prevent further complications related to electrolyte disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital for about 6months in department of general medicine. Study population: 99 patients of either sex were taken into consideration. Inclusion criteria: Known diabetic patients (more than 1 year), Subjects In and out patient departments. Exclusion criteria: Patients with de Novo diabetes, known electrolyte abnormalities renal impairment hepatic impairment, CHF............

 

Keywords: Hypoglycemic agents, Electrolyte abnormalities, Monotherapy.

[1]. Aisha Javaid, Ruqaiya Hasan, AsmaZaibAndSh1amaMasroor, A Comparative Study Of The Effects Of hypoglycemic Agents On Serum Electrolytes In The Diabetic Patients, Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2007. 18(2):4-19
[2]. Shashikala E, Raghawa Rao B. N. V, Study of glycemic response of oral anti-diabetic drugs in type 2 diabetic patients, International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2018, 6(2):645-652.
[3]. MI Yeon Kang, Blood electrolyte disturbances during severe hypoglycemia in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes, Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 2015. 15(3):14-20

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts and cassanediterpenoids isolated from the stem and the root barks of Erythrophleumsuaveolens (Guill. and Perr.) Brenan (Fabaceae)

Country

::

Côte d'Ivoire

Authors

::

Kabran Aka Faustin || KablanAhmont Landry Claude || Ballo Daouda || Konan Dibi Jacques || AttiouaKoffi Barthélemy || Ahoua Angora Rémi Constant || AdikoN'dri Marcelline || Sissouma Drissa

Page No.

::

15-19

Our research work focused on Erythrophleumsuaveolens (Fabaceae), a plant of Ivorian flora used externally in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. In order to provide a scientific basis for this use, we carried out in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts (stem and root barks) and 6 cassanediterpenoids (nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous) isolated from this plant in our previous work. Methanolic extracts of stem and root barks, and isolated compounds from E. suaveolens were evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at the final concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. The methanolic extract of stem bark was active on all the strains studied (Staphyloccocus aureus ATTC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CIP, Staphyloccocus aureus Sensible, Escherichia coli CIP, Staphyloccocus aureus CIP) but the methanolic extract of root bark was active only on two strains (Staphyloccocus aureus Sensible, Staphyloccocus aureus CIP).In addition, only nor-cassamide (cassanediterpenoid amide) showed activity on Staphyloccocus aureus Sensitive strain. These preliminary results could justify the use of E. suaveolens in traditional medicine.

 

Keywords: Fabaceae, Erythrophleumsuaveolens, antibacterial activity, Staphyloccocus aureus.

[1]. Ninh The Son. Genus Erythrophleum: Botanical description, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology.Phytochem. Rev. 2019;18 (3): 571-599.
[2]. Dongmo AB, Kamanyi A, Anchang MS, Nkeh BC, Njamen D, Nguelefack TB, Nole T, Wagner H. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the stem bark extracts of Erythrophleumsuaveolens (Caesalpiniaceae), Guillemin &Perrottet. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 77: 137-141.
[3]. Akinpelu BA, Dade CA, Adebesin FI, Iwalewa EO, OyedapoOO.Effect of stem-bark of Erythrophleumsuaveolens(Guill. &Perri.) saponin on fresh water snail (Lanisteslybicus) tissues. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.2012; 6 (11): 446-451.

[4]. Fadeyi SA. In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants. BMC Complementary Altern. Med. 2013; 13(1): 79-82.
[5]. Kablan LA, Dade JME, Say M, Okpekon TA, Yapo KD, Ouffoue SK, Koffi AP, Retailleau P, Champy P. Four new cassanediterpenoid amides from Erythrophleumsuaveolens. Phytochem.Lett. 2014; 10: 60-64.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Investigation on Anti-Fungal Properties of Cow Urine on Pathogenic Fungi

Country

::

 

Authors

::

Emeh, Amara A. || Anyanwu, Gladys O. || Amadi, Regina E. || Onyewenjo, Simon C. || Chukwudifu, Azubuike J.

Page No.

::

20-24

This study was performed to investigate the anti-fungal properties of cow urine on pathogenic fungi. The investigation was done against Aspergillus species Penicillium species, Mucor species, and Candida species were isolated from human urine. Standard microbiological methods were adopted in the determination of the antifungal properties of the cow urine. Zone of inhibition ranged from 8mm to 18mm. The cow urine did not inhibit the growth of Mucor species. Candida species was inhibited at 8mm, Penicilium species and Aspergillus species were inhibited at 18mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the cow urine showed that cow urine inhibited the growth of Aspergillus and Penicillium species at 50%, while Candida species was inhibited at 100% concentration of cow urine and Mucor species was not inhibited at all. Fungicidal activity was recorded against Aspergillus species at 100% while other fungal isolates were resistant to the urine samples. Further studies should be carried out to justify the possible utilization of cow urine against fungal infection.

 

Keywords: Antifungal, Microbiological, concentration, properties, fungicidal, pathogenic, inhibitory.

[1]. Bobbarala, V., Katikala, P. K., Chandrasekhar Naidu, K., & Penumajji, S. (2009). Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F2723. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(4), 87–90. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2009/v2i4/29438
[2]. Brakhage, A. A. (2005). Systemic Fungal Infections Caused by Aspergillus Species : Epidemiology , Infection Process and Virulence Determinants. 875–886.
[3]. Brakhage, A. A., & Langfelder, K. (2002). Menacing Mold: The Molecular Biology of Aspergillus fumigatus . Annual Review of Microbiology, 56(1), 433–455. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.160625
[4]. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Basic Facts about Mold and Dampness.
[5]. Cheesebrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries Part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Formulation and evaluation of in-vivo antibacterial activity of herbal gel containing leaf extract of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Neena Sonowal || Dr. Malay K Das || Kalyani Saikia || Namrata Koushik

Page No.

::

25-32

Herbal medicine has a remarkable role in treatment of diseases in human as well as in animals and become globally important in both medicinal and economical field. Herbal medications are considered safer than allopathic medicines as herbal medications associated with minimal side effects. Preparation of extract and their formulations for better absorption and penetration of the active moiety into the systemic circulation can increase its survival. The present research has been undertaken to formulate and characterize an antibacterial gel using the hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Oroxylum indicum. The fresh leaves were collected and extracted by Soxhlation using water:ethanol (70:30) as solvent.The gel formulation was designed by using Carbopol 934 polymer, sodium carbonate and required amount of distilled water. The skin pH was maintained by drop wise addition of Tri-ethanolamine. The physicochemical parameters of the formulation were determined. The interaction study between extract and excipients was done by FTIR spectroscopy.

 

Keywords: Oroxylum indicum, extraction, formulation, herbal gel, antibacterial efficacy.

[1]. Singh V, Raghav PK, "Review on pharmacological properties of Ceasalpiniabonduc L.", International Journal of Medicinal Aromatic Plants (2012); 2(3):514-530.
[2]. Sarkar B, Devgan M, Chowdary AY, Ramaiah M, "Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Gel Containing Extract of Cedrusdeodara", International journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences (2015); 4(1):67-70.
[3]. Dubey D, Sahu MC, Rath S, Paty PB, Debata KN, Padhy NR, "Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants used by aborigines of Kalahandi, Orissa, India against multidrug resistant bacteria", Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012) S846-S854.
[4]. Talari S, Sampath A, Sujatha K, Nanna SR, "Antibacterial Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Oroxylumindicum an Endangered Ethnomedicinal Forest Tree", Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS), 2013; 7(1): 24-28.
[5]. Sen A, Batra A, "Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of medicinal plant: Meliaazedarach L.", International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(2):67-73, ISSN- 0975-7066.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Role of Tranexamic Acid in the Arrest of Massive Postoperative Haemorrhage from Open Abdominal Myomectomy: A Case Report

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Obi K C || Okafor I I || Enemuo V C

Page No.

::

33-36

Background: Massive postoperative haemorrhage is a dreaded life-threatening complication of a wide variety of surgeries like myomectomy. Tranexamic acid, a safe and potent antifibrinolytic agent with non-specific haemostatic property, is currently the drug of choice for arresting bleeding from diverse causes even when the aetiology is not immediately apparent. Aim: To use this case report to advocate for liberal use of tranexamic acid during myomectomy. Case report: Mrs. B U is a 28-year old Para3+0 woman, presented with a huge abdominal mass of 9 years duration and a reducible umbilical hernia. Her abdominal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. She had open abdominal myomectomy and umbilical hernia repair that was complicated with massive postoperative haemorrhage of 1.3 litres. Intravenous 1g of tranexamic acid arrested the bleeding. She had four pints of blood transfused. Conclusion: Tranexamnic acid is a potent, safe and life-saving drug for arresting postoperative haemorrhage from myomectomy and should be used liberally during the procedure to avert complications.

 

Keywords: Open Myomectomy, Postoperative Haemorrhage, Tranexamic acid.

[1]. Thompson MJ, Carr BR. Intramural myomas: to treat or not to treat. Int J Womens Health 2016;8:145–9.
[2]. Mimura T, Hasegawa J, Ishikawa T, et al. Laparoscopic ultrasound procedure can reduce residual myomas in laparoscopic myomectomy for multiple myomas. J Med Ultrason (2001) 2016;43:407–12.
[3]. Yelamanchi Savitha Devi, Yendru Katyayani Swapna, T. Kamalakar Naidu et al. Myomectomy for uterine preservation and fertility. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol .2019 July;8(7):2668-2677 www.ijrog. doi:10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20193023
[4]. Saha MM, Khushboo, Biswas SC, et al. Assessment of blood loss in abdominal myomectomy by intramyometrial vasopressin administration versus conventional tourniquet application. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:QC10–3.
[5]. Lee B, Kim K, Cho HY, et al. Effect of intravenous ascorbic acid infusion on blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016;199:187–91.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluation of Polypharmacy and Appropriateness of Prescription in Respiratory Associated Diseases among Geriatric Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Anns Abraham || Ankit Kumar || Mr. Ranjeet Kumar

Page No.

::

37-43

Background: Polypharmacy has always been a challenge to geriatric patients. There is a sharp increase in the elderly population in India. Due to age related problems and comorbid conditions polypharmacy is common in elderly patients. Therefore it is always been important to access the impact of polypharmacy in geriatric population. Materials and method:In this prospective observational studya 100 patients (>60 years) of either gender were selected from general medicine ward with respiratory associated disease. Medication appropriateness for each patient was analyzed separately based on their medical history and clinical findings by applying screening tool to alert to right treatment (START) and screening tool of older people's potentially inappropriate prescriptions(STOPP) and Beers criteria............

 

Keywords: Polypharmacy, appropriateness of prescription, Beers criteria, START/STOPP criteria, geriatric.

[1]. Mortazavi SS, Shati M, Keshtkar A, et al. Defining polypharmacy in the elderly: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open 2016;6: e010989.
[2]. Urfer M, Elzi L, Dell-Kuster S, Bassetti S (2016) Intervention to Improve Appropriate Prescribing and Reduce Polypharmacy in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Unit. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166359.
[3]. American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. J Am Geriatr soc.2012;60:616 [4]. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel (2015). "American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication use in older adults". J Am GeriatrSoc. 63 (11):2227–46. [5]. Allegri N, Rossi F, Del Signore F, Bertazzoni P, Bellazzi R, Sandrini G, Vecchi T, Liccione D, Pascale A, Govoni S. Drug prescription appropriateness in the elderly: an Italian study. Clinical interventions in aging. 2017;12:325.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Chemical Stability Profile of Two Artemether Injection BrandsBeing Transported and Stored in an Uncontrolled Conditions

Country

::

Sudan

Authors

::

Dr. Abdrhman Mahmoud Gamil

Page No.

::

44-56

The manufacturers stability data of a product may not reflect its true stability profile during its presence in the distribution channels. WHO recommended additional study when the transportation and storage conditions are uncertain and not complying the manufacturer labelled conditions. Artemether injection is one of the most important antimalarial remedies in Sudan National Protocol. Samples of two brands are transported and stored at five state capital cities and accompanied by dataloggers then returned back to the centre for testing for its active ingredient contents at zero time, one month, 6 months and 12 months. The reference thermal exposure was computed and the stability profile curve is plotted.it had been found that the exposure period above 25 ͦC is 51% to 65% of the total period and up............

[1]. Bolton S and Charles Bones 2010, Pharmaceutical Statistics Practical and Clinical, fourth edition, by Marcel Dekker, Transformation of Outlier PP 295. Regression analysis PP 173-200.
[2]. Chinese Pharmacopoeia 1995
[3]. Hogerzil, Goeje and AbuRaid ,1991, Inland Stability Study (Sudan), WHO/DAP/914, WHO Action Programme on Essential Drugs and Vaccines.
[4]. Huber, 2003, Pharmaceutical Process Validation, Third edition By Marcel Dekker, PP 514.
[5]. International pharmacopoeia,2003, third edition, volume 5, pp 187-198.