December - 2021 (Volume-11 ~ Issue-12 ~ Series-1)

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Menthol asa Pain Reliever and Halitosis Treatment

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Fenti Fatmawati || Alvina Putri Wachyuni || Nina Nirmala || Soni Muhsinin || Deny Puriyani Azhary

Page No.

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01-05

Background: Menthol is a chemical compound from nature,that is widely used as a basic ingredient in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Menthol is produced in the form of crystals or granules.DL-Menthol and L-Menthol are widely used as flavoring, disinfectant and cooling compounds in confectionery products, chewing gum, toothpaste, cosmetics, cigarettes and flu ointments and medicines.

 

KEYWORDS: Cooling; Halitosis; Menthol; Pain Reliever; Peppermint.

[1]. Umezu T. Identification of novel target molecules of l-menthol. Heliyon. 2021;7(6). doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07329
[2]. Ahmad B, Jaleel H, Shabbir A, Khan MMA, Sadiq Y. Concomitant application of depolymerized chitosan and GA3 modulates photosynthesis, essential oil and menthol production in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Sci Hortic (Amsterdam). 2019;246(September 2018):371-379. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2018.10.031
[3]. Ishaque S, Arshad A, Haider M, Fatima F. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal. Biol Clin Sci Res J. 2021:1-9.
[4]. Jeffries O, Waldron M. The effects of menthol on exercise performance and thermal sensation: A meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2019;22(6):707-715. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.002
[5]. Nayak P, Kumar T, Gupta AK, Joshi NU. Peppermint a medicinal herb and treasure of health: A review. Phytopathology. 2020;9(3):1519-1528. doi:10.22271/PHYTO.2020.V9.I3Y.11525


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Brexit and Impact on Pharmaceutical Industry

Country

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India

Authors

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Shaik Azeem || S B Puranik || Syed Kashif

Page No.

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06-10

The continuing uncertainty around Brexit has caused concern in the pharmaceutical industry and among health care professionals and patients. The exact consequences of Brexit on the pharmaceutical supply chain in the United Kingdom will depend on whether a deal is reached and what it entails, but it is likely to be affected by the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Regulatory issues and delays in supply have the potential to negatively affect the ability of UK residents to receive an adequate and timely supply of necessary medicine. Brexit will mean changes to the established relationships between the UK and the EU covering the development, authorisation and supervision of medicines, as well as trade between the UK and other EU member states. Such changes are likely to have a significant impact on public health in both the UK and the remaining 27 countries of the EU and the non-EU members of the European Economic Area (EU27/EEA). Pharmaceutical companies will have to comply with the new legal requirements associated with the withdrawal, which will not be without cost1.

 

Keywords: United Kingdom, Brexit and European Economic Area

[1]. Milne-Ives, M., Lam, C., van Velthoven, M., & Meinert, E. (2020). The Impact of Brexit on the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain of the United Kingdom: Scoping Review Protocol. JMIR research protocols, 9(9), e17684. https://doi.org/10.2196/17684
[2]. Lorgelly PK. The Impact of Brexit on Pharmaceuticals and HTA. Pharmacoecon Open. 2018 Jun;2(2):87-91. doi: 10.1007/s41669-018-0072-5. PMID: 29557537; PMCID: PMC5972122.
[3]. European Medicines Agency [Internet] EMA , cited July 2017 https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/about-us/history-ema/relocation-amsterdam
[4]. Francois Maignen, Mikel Berdud, Grace Hampson & Paula Lorgelly. (2017).
[5]. Public Health and Economic Implications of the United


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Citrus Lemon Against Streptococcus Pyogenes And Escherichia Coli

Country

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Libya

Authors

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Mustafa J. Shuaib || Taher I. Shailabi || Elham O. Borwis || Akram S. Muhammed

Page No.

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11-16

Background: The therapeutic activities of citrus lemon have been reported in several studies including antimicrobial ,anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activities. Objectives: To determine the potential antimicrobial activity of ethanol and methanol extracts of citrus lemon peel and lemon juice in inhibiting bacterial isolates. Methods and Materials: The antimicrobial effects of citrus lemon alcoholic extracts of peel and juice against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial isolates were studied.......

 

Keywords: Citrus lemon; lemon juice; Escherichia coli; Streptococcus pyogenes; Antimicrobial

[1]. P. M. C. Huijbers, D. G. J. Larsson, and C. F. Flach, "Surveillance of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in human populations through urban wastewater in ten European countries," Environ. Pollut., vol. 261, p. 114200, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114200.
[2]. S. S. Kadri, "Key Takeaways from the U.S. CDC's 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report for Frontline Providers," Crit. Care Med., no. 2, pp. 939–945, 2020, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004371.
[3]. I. J. O. Bonkoungou et al., "Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in human diarrheic stool and drinking water samples in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso," Heart Int., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2021, doi: 10.21010/ajidv15i1.7.
[4]. J. F. Rodrigues, R. M. F. Piazza, L. C. S. Ferreira, and M. B. Martinez, "Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli," Brazilian J. Microbiol., vol. 47, pp. 3–30, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2016.10.015.
[5]. E. R. Ekawati and W. Darmanto, "Lemon (Citrus limon) Juice Has Antibacterial Potential against Diarrhea-Causing Pathogen," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 217, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/217/1/012023.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies On Proximate And Phytochemical Constituents Of Euphorbia Hirta L. And Mucuna Pruriens Seed Var

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Dimphna Nneka Ezikanyi || Agu Chidimma Lilian

Page No.

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17-22

Euphorbia hirta and Mucuna pruriens seed are known to be used traditionally in treatment of different ailments. Both plants are dominant in almost all parts of Nigeria. Proximate and phytochemical constituents of both plants were studied in other to discover their major constituents. Proximate and phytochemical analyses carried out followed standard procedures. Proximate constituents of carbohydrates, proteins and moisture were high in both plants. Qualitative phytochemical present in both plants were terpenoid, steroid, saponin, phenol, tannin, reducing sugar, alkaloid whereas phlobitannin was absent in both plants. In Euphorbia hirta alkaloids (68.17), phenols (61.95) were highest followed by terpenoid (45.74), flavonoids (45.68), tannin (45.06), , saponin (43.04) whereas that of steroids (38.84) and reducing sugar (26.84) were lower. In Mucuna pruriens steroid (57.92) and saponin (55.65) had the highest values followed by flavonoids (48.00), alkaloid (41.96), phenol (36.62), reducing sugar (33.76) whereas tannin (26.63) and terpenoid (17.63) had lowest value. Result revealed that both plants have good nutritional and phytochemical values important in medicinal plants

[1]. Ahmad M. P., Hussain A.,Siddiqui H.H., Wahab S. (2012). Macroscopical, anatomical and physico-chemical studies of Euphorbia hirta linn. Growing widely on eastern Uttar Pradesh region of India. International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research 3(7) DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i7.528
[2]. Kumar S.,Malhotora R. and Kumar D.(2010). Euphorbia hirta:its chemistry,traditional and Medicinal uses and pharmacological activities. Pharmacogn Rev. 4(7):58-61
[3]. Kusuma S, Aniel K. O., Lakshmi N. K. and Venkata R. K. (2016). In vitro Physicochemical, Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Antidiabetic studies on Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) DC seeds. International Journal of Bioassays 5(06):4650
[4]. Narayanan AS, Raja SS, Ponmurugan K, KandekarSC, Natarajaseenivasan K. (2011). Antibacterial activity ofselected medicinal plants against multiple antibioticresistant uropathogens. Enef Microbes 2(3):235-43.
[5]. Okafor S. (2015). Proximate Composition and Mineral Analysis of Mucuna utilis (Velvet Bean). IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 8(10):42-45


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Correlation Between Lifestyle And Pulmonary Tuberculosis Incidence In Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Cikra Ikhda Nur Hamidah Safitri || Suhaib Il Istifani || Leonov Rianto || Yugo Susanto

Page No.

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23-26

Tuberculosis bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) can result in infectious disease, namely Pulmonary TB. Nearly one-third of the population in the world has been infected with Pulmonary TB and most Pulmonary TB patients are those at productive age (15-50 years old). Pulmonary TB can spread to other body organs, such as brain layers, kidneys, bones, and lymph nodes. Pulmonary TB becomes a health issue in the world, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a literature review is needed to dig up information on adolescent lifestyle with pulmonary TB incidence. This study aimed to identify the correlation between adolescent lifestyle and pulmonary TB incidence. The method used in compiling this article was critical review. Proquest (within 2016-2021) and Google Scholar (within 2016-2021) are the databases used in this review. The keywords used in this study were lifestyle, pulmonary TB incidence, and adolescents.......

 

Keywords: Lifestyle, Pulmonary TB Incidence, and Adolescents

[1]. Velayutham B, Jayabal L, Watson B, Jagadeesan S, Angamuthu D, Rebecca P, Devaleenal B, Nair D, Tripathy S, Selvaraju S. PLoS One. 2020 Oct 15;15(10):e0240594. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240594. eCollection 2020. PMID: 33057399
[2]. Chandrasekaran P, Mave V, Thiruvengadam K, Gupte N, Shivakumar SVBY, Hanna LE, Kulkarni V, Kadam D, Dhanasekaran K, Paradkar M, Thomas B, Kohli R, Dolla C, Bharadwaj R, Sivaramakrishnan GN, Pradhan N, Gupte A, Murali L, Valvi C, Swaminathan S, Gupta A; CTRIUMPH Study Team. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1;13(8):e0199360. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199360. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30067752
[3]. Bhargava A, Bhargava M, Velayutham B, Thiruvengadam K, Watson B, Kulkarni B, Singh M, Dayal R, Pathak RR, Mitra A, Rade K, Sachdeva KS. BMJ Open. 2021 May 20;11(5):e047210. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047210. PMID: 34016663
[4]. Lesnic, E., Ustian, A., Niguleanu, A., Malic, A., & Paladi, C. (2016). Social features of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Сhisinau. Туберкульоз, легеневі хвороби, ВІЛ-інфекція, (2), 36-39.
[5]. Wessels, J., Walsh, C. M., & Nel, M. (2019). Smoking habits and alcohol use of patients with tuberculosis at Standerton Tuberculosis Specialised Hospital, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Health SA Gesondheid, 24.