March - 2022 (Volume-12 ~ Issue-3 ~ Series-1)

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Nigella sativa: A Review

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Nailatul Fhadillah || Ifora Ifora || Sri Oktavia

Page No.

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01-09

Inflammation acts as the body's physiological response to infection and injury and maintains tissue homeostasis in various hazardous conditions. Therefore, this article was designed to provide up-to-date information on the phytochemical and anti-inflammatory activities of Nigella sativa. This review presents the literature evidence from 2011 to 2021. As a source of literature review, three bibliographic databases were used (Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar). A total of 18 studies were used in this paper based on the eligibility criteria, and this review includes ten articles on phytochemicals and eight articles on an anti-inflammatory. Phytochemical compounds contained in Nigella sativa are alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenolics, saponins, terpenoids, and resins. Pharmacological investigations reported the anti-inflammatory activities of Nigella sativa by inhibiting edema formation, decreasing the development of granulomatous tissue, reducing arthritis, reducing leukocyte count, increasing IL-10 and TGF-β gene expression, and inhibiting NO production decreasing IL-6 and TNF expression.

 

KEYWORDS: Phytochemical; Pharmacology; Anti-inflammatory; Nigella

[1] A. U. Ahmed, "An overview of inflammation: Mechanism and consequences," Front. Biol. China, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 274–281, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s11515-011-1123-9.
[2] J. N. Fullerton and D. W. Gilroy, "Resolution of inflammation : a new therapeutic frontier," Nat. Publ. Gr., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 551–567, 2016, doi: 10.1038/nrd.2016.39.
[3] H. Agarwal, A. Nakara, and V. K. Shanmugam, "Anti-inflammatory mechanism of various metal and metal oxide nanoparticles synthesized using plant extracts: A review," Biomed. Pharmacother., vol. 109, pp. 2561–2572, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.11.116.
[4] L. Chen et al., "Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs," Oncotarget, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 7204–7218, 2018, doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.23208.
[5] M. Soleha, A. Isnawati, N. Fitri, R. Adelina, H. T. Soblia, and W. Winarsih, "Profil Penggunaan Obat Antiinflamasi Nonstreoid di Indonesia," J. Kefarmasian Indones., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 109–117, 2018, doi: 10.22435/jki.v8i2.316.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antioxidant Activity of Fraction Mikroencapsulation of Kesumba Keling Seeds (Bixa orellana L.) Bixa orellana L

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Annisa Nanda Fatina || Yuvianti Dwi Franyoto || Lia Kusmita || Ika Puspitaningrum || Mutmainah

Page No.

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10-15

Fraction of kesumba keling seeds (Bixa orellana L.) contains the compound bixin which is known to have antioxidant properties. To improve stability and acceptability, this fraction was microencapsulated using gum arabic and maltodextrin. This study aims to determine the antioxidant activity of the microencapsulated fraction of kesumba keling seeds (Bixa orellana L.). The microencapsulated formulation used gum arabic and maltodextrin encapsulants. Evaluations carried out on the results were yield, solubility of microcapsules, flow rate, efficiency of microcapsules and antioxidant activity. As a parameter, the antioxidant activity was tested using the DPPH method (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydarzyl) which was measured using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry with several variations in concentration. The results obtained showed a solubility of 85.558%, flow rate of 4.596 g/s, efficiency of microcapsules 99.628%,. The conclusion obtained is proven to be microencapsulated fraction of kesumba keeling seed (Bixa orellana L.) has antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 3.264 ppm very strong category

 

KEYWORDS: Bixa orellana L., microencapsulation, DPPH

[1]. Santi, Ni, M. 2021. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Bunga Gemitir ( Tagetes erecta Linn). Jurnal Farmagazine, VIII: 25–31.
[2]. Cahyani, I.M., Anggraeny, E.N., Nugraheni, B., Retnaningsih, C., dan Kristina Ananingsih, V. 2018. The optimization of maltodextrin and arabic gum in the microencapsulation of aqueous fraction of Clinacanthus nutans using simplex lattice design. International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, 8: 110–115.
[3]. Shahid-ul-Islam, Rather, L.J., dan Mohammad, F. 2016. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review. Journal of Advanced Research, 7: 499–514.
[4]. Gallardo-Cabrera, C. dan Rojas-Barahona, A. 2015. Stability study of an aqueous formulation of the annatto dye. International Food Research Journal, 22: 2149–2154.
[5]. Wati, R.R., Sriwidodo, A.Y.C. 2020. Review Teknik Mikroenkapsulasi Pada Ekstrak Mangosteen ( A Review Of Microencapsulation Techniques In Mangosteen Extract ). Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3: 241–248


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A study on clinicopathology and treatment outcome of laryngopharyngeal reflux.

Country

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India

Authors

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Swati Mondal || Monoj Mukherjee || Ashim Sarkar

Page No.

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16-20

Objectives :To analyze the demographic, clinicopathological and treatment aspects of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective institutional based observational study over a period of January 2020 to December 2020 in the department of ENT, Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan. This study includes 100 cases who presented with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease during the study period. The patients of both sex, age more than 18 years were included in the study and patients who did not give consent were excluded from the study. Results: The age of patient with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in the study group ranged from 20 to 70 years and most commonly affected age group is 31 to 40......

 

KEYWORDS: Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease; Sticky sensation; Gastric suppression.

[1]. G Ciprandi, D Patil, V Damini et al. Laryngopharyngeal reflux management in clinical practice. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. Jan- Feb 2021;35(1 Suppl. 2):55-59. doi:10.23812/21-1supp2-11
[2]. Vaninder K dhillon, Lee M Akst. How to Approach Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: An Otolaryngology perspective. Review Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016 Aug;18(8):44. doi: 10.1007/s11894-016-0515-z. Afflitions PMID:27417389 DOI:10.1007/s11894-016- 0515-z
[3]. Hans F Mahieu, C Frits Smit. Diagnosis and management of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Review Curr Opion Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun;14(3):133-7. Affiliations PMID:16728888 DOI:10.1097/01.moo.0000193192.01978.a5
[4]. Michiel J Bove, Clark Rosen. Diagnosis and management of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Review Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Jun; 14(3):116-23. Affiliations: PMID:16728885 DOI:10.1097/01.moo0000193177.62074.fd
[5]. Charles N Ford. Evaluation and management of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Review JAMA. 2005 Sep


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Covid-19 Vaccine-Related Adverse Effects and Perceptions in Haryana State of India

Country

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India

Authors

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Themba Andile Msibi || Dr. Kamal

Page No.

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21-42

Background: Coronavirus (CoVs) are said to be a largely diverse enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that are believed to be belonging to a subfamily called Coronavirinae in the family of Coronaviridae. Coronavirus diseases have been known as mild until the two previous outbreaks in the past few decades, which their prevalence was severe. Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are said to range from asymptomatic or mild-to-severe disease to respiratory failure. Covishield COVID-19 vaccine is a recombinant type of a vaccine, which is a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein. Covaxin COVID-19 vaccine is an inactivated type of vaccine that has been developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell. Common adverse effects that have been associated with these vaccines ranging from pain and swelling on the injection site, dizziness and weakness, rashes all over the body to increased heartbeat.......

 

KEYWORDS: COVID-19 vaccine; adverse effect; perceptions; Covishield; Covaxin; SARS-CoV; MERS-CoV

[1]. Kovski P.V., Kratzel A., Steiner S., Stalder H., Thich V. 2021. Coronavirus biology and replication: Implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 19. 155-170. https//doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6
[2]. Qun L., Guan X., Peng W., Wanget X. et al. 2020. The New England Journal of Medicine: "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, Chine of Novel Coronavirus- Infected Pneumonia", N Engl j Med. 382:1199-1207,2020, at NEjM.org
[3]. He F,Deng Y.,Li W. 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know?Journal of Medicine Virology.92(7), 719-725
[4]. Zhou D., Zhang P., Bao C., Zhang Y., Zhu N. 2020. Emerging Understanding of Etiology and Epidemiology of the Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in Wuhan, China.Preprints. 2-8. Doi:10.20944/preprints202002. 0283.v1. Available online: www.preprints.org
[5]. Lone S.A.,Ahmad A. 2020.COVID-19 pandemic- an African perspective, Emerging Microbes & Infections,9:1, 1300-1308, DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1775132. http//doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1775132


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence of Malaria Parasites among Patients Attending Hospitals in Igbesa, Ado/Odo-Ota Local Government

Country

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Authors

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Ajayi, Jacob Babasola || Ajayi, Oluseyi Abike

Page No.

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43-46

Background: According to the latest World malaria report, there were 228 million cases of malaria in 2018 compared to 231 million cases in 2017. The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 405 000 in 2018, compared with 416 000 deaths in 2017. Nigeria is a high endemic country of malaria. This study is on the prevalence of malaria in two hospitals in Igbesa, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out between May and June 2019. A total of two hundred (200) individual were examined. Microscopic examination was carried out on the thick film prepared. The overall total prevalence showed a total number of 85 (85%) positive for malaria. The patients of age group 11-20 years had the highest rate of infection (100%) in both hospitals. Also adult ages 21-30 years of age had (85%) prevalence of malaria.Percentage of students infected with malaria was 84.5% while trader and factory workers had prevalence of 85% and 88.8% respectively. There is need for rigorous control measures and enlightens campaign to further educate occupants of this area on malaria transmission. Campaign, Malaria, Patients, Igbesa

[1]. Alioune, B., Adam, S., Robert, P., Lawrence, B., Abdoalaye, B. Use of HRP-2 based rapid diagnostic test for Plasmodium falciparum malaria: assessing accuracy and cost-effectiveness in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal. Malar. J., 2010; 9:153.
[2]. Chansuda and Awallndin. A review of malaria diagnostic tools: Microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Test. Malar. J., 2006; 9:153.
[3]. Chimere, O., Wellington, A., Oyibo, R.I., Philip, U. Prevalence of malaria in pregnant women in Lagos, Southwest, Nigeria. Kor. J. Parasitol., 2009; 47(2): 179-183
[4]. Kalu et al (2012) prevalence of Malaria Parasite in Aba and Umuahia Urban Area of Abia State.
[5]. Malcom M (2001) Malaria in non-endemic areas. America Journal ofMedical and Tropical Infections 25: 28-29.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Species Composition, Density, Abundance and Percent Occurrence of Spiders at Three Different Sites of Mysore City, Karnataka

Country

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India

Authors

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NIJAGAL B.S || S PADMA || ANJU MICHAEL || LORITA D'SOUZA

Page No.

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47-53

Background: Field survey on Spider species composition, density, abundance and percent occurrence was conducted in three selected sites of Mysore city during January to April, 2019 using active searching, beating, leaf sampling and net sweeping techniques. A total of 1,210 individuals of 105 species belonging to 22 families were recorded. The Salticidae was the most dominant family having highest number of species recorded (25.71%), followed by Araneidae (20.95%), Theridiidae (10.47%), Oxyopidae and Uloboridae (6.6% each), Tetragnathidae, Sparassidae and Thomisidae (3.8% each), Lycosidae and Philodromidae (2.85% each), Linyphiidae and Pholicidae (1.90% each) and families Cheiracanthiidae, Corrinidae, Clubionidae, Dictynidae, Gnaphosidae, Hersilidae, Liocarnidae.......

 

KEYWORDS: Arachnida, Araneae, Spider Diversity, Mysore city.

[1]. Arthur Cardoso Avila, Cristina Stenert, Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues and Leonardo Maltchik (2017). Habitat structure determines spider diversity in highland ponds. Ecological Research. 32: 359–367.
[2]. Avila.C.A, Stenert.C, Rodrigues. L.N.E and Maltchink.L (2017).Haitat structuredetermines spider diversity in highland ponds. Ecological society of Japan. 32: 359-367.
[3]. Codington, J.A (2005). Phylogeny and classification of Spiders. Spiders of North America: an identification manual (chap 2). American Arachnological Society. 18-24
[4]. Downie, I.S., Wilson,W.L., Abernethy,V.J., McCracken,D.I., Foster,G.N., Ribera,I., Waterhouse,A. and Murphy,K.J. (1999). The impact of different agricultural land-uses on epigeal spider biodiversity in Scotland. Journal of Insect conservation. 3: 273-286.
[5]. Heiko Metzner (2019). World wide database of Jumping spiders (Arachnida, Araeae, Salticidae) (1996-2019). Retrieved fromhttps://www.jumping-spiders.com/version=full