Volume 3 ~ Issue 1 (Version 1)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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V- type proton ATP-ase to target cancer cells with the aid of Cyanobacterial metallothionein

Country

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India

Authors

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Srinivasan sakthivel || Yogeshwaran sakthivel

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-311013  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/03110103

ATP-ases are a group of enzymes that utilizes ATP hydrolysis, and the subsequent release of energy, to achieve a cellular function. The cellular functions involving ATP-ases are plentiful and diverse including initiation of DNA replication, DNA repair and remodeling, protein folding and chaperoning, protein degradation, intracellular transport, and ion transport. A large number of these enzymes represent attractive drug targets, and drugs targeting ATP-ases, such as proton pump inhibitors. Two families of molecular chaperones, heat shock protein 90 and heat shock protein 70, possess N-terminal nucleotide binding domains (NBD) and require ATP-ase activity for their functions. NBD is charged and highly polar in nature and there is no crystal structure yet published. These two families of ATP-ases represent significant therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. The ATP-ase activity of Hsp90, in interaction to Cyanobacterial mettalothionein is essential for targeting cancer affected cells and can be used highly as a drug targeting molecule. Inhibition of ATP-ase activity at nucleotide binding site of the Hsp90 leads to prevent tumor growth. Till now, only two antibiotics (ansamycin and geldanamycin) were discovered for inhibiting ATP-ase enzymes. This article discuss about V-type proton ATP-ases, interaction with Cyanobacterial mettalothionein for targeting cancer spoiled cells in Cancer treatment.

1). Benson JD, Chen YN, Cornell-Kenon SA 2006. Validating cancer drug targets. Nature, 441: 451-456.
2). Biamonte MA, Van de WR, Arndt JW, Scannevin RH, Perret D et al,2010. Heat shock protein 90: inhibitors in clinical trials. J. Med. Chem., 53 (1), 3–17.
3). Calderwood SK, Khaleque MA, Sawyer DB, Ciocca DR 2006. Heat shock proteins in cancer: chaperones of tumorigenesis. Trends Biochem. Sci., 31: 164-172.
4). Chene P 2002. ATPases as drug targets: learning from their structure. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 1 (9), 665–673.
5). Chiosis G, Vilenchik M, Kim J, Solit D 2004. Hsp90: the vulnerable chaperone. Drug Discov., 9: 881-888.
6). Collins I, Workman P 2006. New approaches to molecular cancer therapeutics. Nat. Chem. Biol., 2: 689-700.
7). Da' Rocha Dias S, Friedlos F, Light Y 2005. Activated B-RAF is an Hsp90 client protein that is targeted by the anticancer drug 17-allylamino- 17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Cancer Res., 65: 10686-10691.
8). Drysdale MJ, Brough PA, Massey A, Jensen MR, Schoepfer J 2006. Targeting Hsp90 for the treatment of cancer. Curr. Opin. Drug Discovery Dev., 9 (4), 483–495.
9). Gaspar N, Sharp SY, Pacey S, Jones D, Walton Met al, 2009. Acquired resistance to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (tanespimycin) in glioblastoma cells. Cancer Res., 69 (5), 1966–1975.
10). Grbovic OM, Bas

so AD, Sawai A 2006. V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103: 57-62.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Twins Birth in Kano, Northern Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Ibrahim A Yakasai || Ayyuba Rabiu

Page No.

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04-08

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-311048  

ANED   05.3013/03110408  

Objectives: To determine the incidence of twin pregnancy at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital and associated maternal and perinatal morbidity. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study of patients with twin pregnancy, who delivered at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) from 1st January, 2005 to 31st December, 2009. Case notes of the patients were retrieved from the records department and the data analyzed using Epi Info and Minitab electronic statistical software Results: Three hundred and forty nine pregnant women were admitted and delivered of twins during the period under review. One ninety four case notes were available from the record officers giving a retrieval rate of 55.6% The mean age was 27.7±4.9 and the mean parity was 2.3±2.21. 69.6% of the twins' mothers were booked. The rate of twin delivery was 22.9/1,000. Pregnancy induced hypertension (12.9%), pre-labour rupture of membrane (7.7%) and footling breech (4.1%) were the leading complications. The mean gestational age at delivery was 37.1±2.4. 57 patients (29.4%) had caesarean section due to various intrapartum complications. Five babies (1.3%) died in the early neonatal period, 25 (6.5%) were stillborn, 23 (5.9%) were asphyxiated and 195 (50.3%) were low birth weight. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean birth weight and Apgar scores of first and second twins. Conclusion: The incidence of twin pregnancy increases with advanced parity and maternal age. The maternal and perinatal morbidity were found to be significantly high in twin pregnancy in this study.

 

Keywords: Twins, Perinatal outcome, Kano, Nigeria

[1]. Lewi L, Deprest J. fetal problems in multiple pregnancy. In High Risk Pregnancy (Ed.) James DK, Steer PJ, Weiner CP, Gonik B. 3rd Edn Elsevier Saunders.
[2]. Bush MC, Pernoll MC. Multiple Pregnancy. In: Decherney AH, Nathan L, Goodwin TM, Laufer N. (Eds). Current Diagnosis & Treatment Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 10th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2007.p. 301-10.
[3]. Nwobodo EI, Boobzom DN, Obed J. Twins Birth at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital: incidence, pregnancy complication and outcome. Nig J Med11(2, ) 2002, 67-9.
[4]. Galadanci SH, Ashimi AO, Iliyasu Z. Prevalence and outcome of multiple pregnancies in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Nigeria. J Basic Clin Sci,1(1) 2004,18-21.
[5]. Green-top Guidelines No. 51 December 2008. Management of Monochorionic twin pregnancy. RCOG London.
[6]. Bortolus R, Parazzini F, Chatenoud L, Benzi G, Bianchi MM, Marini A. The epidemiology of multiple births. Hum Reprod Update 5, 1999,179-87.
[7]. Goetghebuer T, Ota MO, Kebbeh B, John M, Jackson-Sillah D, Vekemans J et al. Delay in motor development of twins in Africa: a prospective cohort study. Twin Res 6, 2003,279-84.
[8]. Nylander PP. The factors that influence twinning rates. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 30,1981,189-202.
[9]. Creinin M, Keith LG. The Yoruba Contribution to our understanding of the twinning process. J Rep Med.34 1989, 379-87.

[10]. Anebue UU, Ezegwui HU, Ozumba BC. Retained Second Twins in Enugu, Nigeria. Int J Gynecol Obstet 81, 2003, 281-285.

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies on fatty oil derivatives of Pithcellobrium dulce and Buchanania lanzan: possible industrial application

Country

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India

Authors

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Anup Banerjee || Keya Banerjee

Page No.

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09-12

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-3110912  

ANED   05.3013/03110912   

Amide derivative prepared from the fatty oil of Pithcellobrium dulce has been found to disperse calcium and magnesium ions. The property can be used in removing the limitation of fatty acid soaps (usually sodium salt) which are good surface active agents but precipitate in hard water. In the preparation of amide derivative, no solvent has been used, thus a green approach has been attempted. The prepared derivative has been identified by IR, NMR and HPLC. In the second part of the study, preparation of a wood adhesive using natural source – Buchanania lanzan flour, has been tried due to high cost and environmental concerns of petroleum based phenol – formaldehyde and urea – formaldehyde resins. The method is economical and ecofriendly. Pithcellobrium dulce (Leguminosae)1 is a cultivated tree, distributed in Central Madhya Pradesh. Two saponins from P. salman2, a triterpenoid glycoside from P.arboreum and P cubense3 and chemical composition of P. multiforum4 have been reported. The linoleic –oleic acid rich oil has been analysed in our Laboratory5 Soaps precipitate with calcium and magnesium, which are present in hard water. To overcome this difficulty, dispersing agents are used alongwith soap based detergents. For preparation of these dispersing agents - large amount of organic solvents are used.6-8 In the present study, solvent has not been used. Buchanania lanzan (Anacardiaceae)9 is a middle sized tree, distributed in dry hot forests of Bundelkhand10. Kernels11 and bark12 have been worked out. Fatty oil analysis has been carried in our Laboratory.13 The flour in presence of phenol and formaldehyde has been evaluated in the present study – to know its performance as a possible adhesive.

[1]. "Useful plants of India" , CSIR, New Delhi,1986, 464
[2]. I.P.Varshney, P.Vyas , H.C. Shrivastava,. and P.P Singh, Ind. J.Chem., 1978, 16 B, 166
[3]. H. Ripperger, A. Preiss, and J. Schmidt, Phytochem, 1981, 20, 2434
[4]. S.P Gunasekera, G.A. Cardell, and N.R. Franswarth, J.Nat.Prod., 1982, 45, 651
[5]. A.K. Banerjee, and M. Jain, Fitoterapia, 1988, LIX, 405
[6]. N. Schonfeldt, J. Am. Oil Chem Soc., 1968, 45,80
[7]. F.D Smith, J.K. Weil, W.M. Linfeld, J. Am. Oil Chem Soc. 1974,51, 435
[8]. R.G .Bistline, W.R. Nolde, F.D .Smith, W.H. Linfield, J. Am. Oil Chem Soc., 1977, 54,371
[9]. "Useful plants of India" , CSIR, New Delhi, 1986, 90
[10]. "Flora of Sagar", Botany Department, University, Sagar1984 ,4
[11]. MR .Raikar, and N.G. Magar, J .Ind. Chem.Soc., 1973, 2, 59
[12]. R .Mitra, and S .Mehrotra, Herba Hungarica, 1981, 20, 15
[13]. A.K. Banerjee, . and M. Jain, Fitoterapia 1988, LIX,406
[14]. J.K., Weil, N .Parris, and A.J .Stirton, J. Am.Oil Chem. Soc., 1970, 47, 91

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clinical Management of Pyometra in Bitches

Country

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India

Authors

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L. Ramsingh || K. Sadasiva Rao || K.Muralimohan

Page No.

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13-14

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31101314  

ANED   05.3013/03111314   

A total 7 (Seven) cases of pyometra of Labrador dogs aged 6-7 years were brought to the College of Veterinary Science, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Hospital, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. The history of anorexia, dullness, depression, vomiting, polydysia, poyurea with slight to moderate vulvar discharge since last 3 to 5 days there was no mating of history mating. Pyometra in bitches is polysystemicdiestrual disorder which if not treated can induce high mortality. It is acute or chronic in nature .It is one of the common causes of death in order bitches. Progesterone induce the endometrial hyperplasia usually precedes the development of pyometra. Endometrial thickening is caused by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of endometrial glands which may show secretary activity (Neislon and Feldmen 1986).In pyometra, there is usually nearly complete closures of cervix prevent the escape of mucopurulent and discharges from uterus with a distention of uterus horns. The cases with closed cervix are more toxic than those in which discharges is present (Robert, 1971)

[1]. Ayyappan,S.,Thilager,S.,Balasubramanian,N.N.and Mohammed, M.S.D.M(1997) Radilogical feature of canine pyometra .indianVeterinary journal 74:1061-62.
[2]. Christiansen ,I.J.(1984) reproduction in the dog and cat.bailliere and Tindall , London,pp 67-71.
[3]. Feldman,E.C.andNelson,R.W.(1987) canine and feline endocrinology and Reproduction.W.B. sanders, Philadelphia.
[4]. Haque,S., and Ahmed, A.(2003) pyometra in the bitches clinical report. Indian journalof veterinary medicine 23:51.
[5]. Jain,N.C.(1986) indianschalms veterinary heamatoligy4thEdn,Lea and FEbiger ,Philadelphia.
[6]. Renton, J.P.,Douglas, T.A and watts ,C.(1971) pyometra in the bitch journal of small animal practices 12:249-54.
[7]. Robert ,S.J.(1971).infertility in bitches and queens .veterinary Obstetrics and genital diseases.2ndEdn .,CAB publisher and Distributors India .,pp.227-36.
[8]. Singh,K.P.Singh,B.,Singh,J.P.andSingh,H.N.(2008) pyometra in bitches Twocase reports intaspolivet 9:99
[9]. Wykes,P.M.and Olson ,P.N.(1993)the diseases mechanics in small Animal Surgery,Edn by M.JosephBojrabLeaandFebiger, Philadelphia,pp.570-73
[10]. Yeager,A.E.andConcannon,P.W.(1995) Ultrasonography of the reproductive trect of the female dog and cat .Indian Kirks current veterinary theraphy XII Small Animal Practice EdnBonagura ,D.andKrikRW.W.B.SaundersCo.philadelphia.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Reproductive Disorders and Dystocia in Canines

Country

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India

Authors

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L. Ramsingh || K.SadasivaRao || K.Muralimohan

Page No.

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15-16

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31101516  

ANED   05.3013/03111516    

Pyometra, transmissible venereal tumor and dystocia had maximum prevalence out of various reproductive disorders in canines. Survival rate 62% of dystocia affected female canines following the treatment of dystocia is usually not satisfactory.

 

Keywords:- Canine, Dystocia, Reproductive disorders, Survival rate

[1]. Bennett,D(1980).Normal and abnormal parturition.In : Morrow,D.A: therapy in theriogenology, Philadelphia.W.B.Saunders pp595-06.
[2]. Freak,M.J (1975) practitioners breeders Approach to canibe parturition. Veterinary .Rec.96:303-08.
[3]. Gandotra,V.K. Prabhakar, S., Sinkla, V.K.,Chauhan,F.S.and Sharma, R.D. (1993.) Incidence of physiopathological reproductive problems in canines. Indian veterinary journal70:467
[4]. Gilbert,R.O.(1992) Diagnosis and treatment of pyometra in bitches and queens. Commp.cont.Edu Pract.Veterianry14:777-84
[5]. Hardy, R.M.and Osborne,C.A.(1974) canine pyometra :pathogenesis,physiology diagnosis and treatment of uterine and extra –uterine lesion. J.Am,Anim.Hosp.Assoc 10:245-68.
[6]. Jackson, M.A.(2004) hand book of veterinary Obstetrics 2nd Edn ., Saunders ,UK,pp.147-49.
[7]. Johnston, S.D., Kustritz, M.V.R.and Olson P.N.S.(2001)canine and feline theriogenology.saunders.1st Edn., Philadelphia.
[8]. Ogilive,G.K.and Moore, A.S.(1995) Tumors of reproductive system.In.Managing the veterinary cancer patient :a practice manual Ed: Trenton, N.j.,Veterinary Learning Systems.pp.415-29
[9]. Robert ,S.J.(1971.veterinary Obstetrics and genital diseases.2ndEdn .,CAB publisher New delhi
[10]. Rogers,K.S.(1997) Transmisible venereal Tumor.Comp.Cont.Edu.Pract.vet19:1036-45.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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An Epidemiological Study of Fatal Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning At Rajkot

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Sanjeevkumar Chaudhary || Dr. S.G. Momin || Dr. Dipak H. Vora || Dr. Pikesh Modi || Dr. Viral Chauhan || Dr. Dipak Chotaliya

Page No.

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17-23

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31101723  

ANED   05.3013/03111723    
Major occupation in Saurashtra region of Gujarat is farming with majority of population living in rural areas where the cases of accidental and suicidal poisoning are common and incidences are increasing day by day due to the use of pesticides for a wider variety of purposes. A detailed knowledge about the nature and magnitude of the poisoning cases in this particular area is not only important for early diagnosis and prompt treatment but also it may help to form policies to curb the access of the population to certain very toxic substances. The present study was undertaken in the department of Forensic Medicine at Rajkot (Gujarat) to know the pattern of fatal poisoning. Total 208 cases of death due to fatal poisoning were selected for this prospective study, which were brought to us for postmortem examination during the span of one year (From January 2007 to December 2007). Various aspects like relation with age, sex, kind of poison, hospitalization, caste and time between consumption and death were noted in 208 cases of poisoning. Our study revealed that most of the victims of fatal poisoning were Hindus, married males of middle socio-economic status who died due to self ingestion of some poison. Male: Female ratio was found to be 1.36:1. In the present study higher number of fatal poisonings episodes can be ascribed to pesticides but on the basis of WHO classification of poison, Aluminium Phosphide is most common fatal poison.
[1]. Nandy A. Forensic toxicology Principles of Forensic Medicine. 2nd Ed. pp. 438-54.
[2]. Glaister. Law relating to poisoning: Med Juris Toxicol. 1957; 10: 466-67.
[3]. WHO. Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. Geneva, WHO 1990.
[4]. Reddy KSN: The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 29th Edition. K. Saguna Devi, Hyderabad, 2010; 449.
[5]. Senanayke NPH. Mortality due to poisoning in developing agricultural country over 20 years. Hum Exp Toxicol 1995; 14: 437-45.
[6]. Klaassen CD. Principles of toxicology and treatment of poisoning. Goodman & Gilman. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th International Ed, McGraw Hill, New York. PP 67-80.
[7]. Jay Ram KS. Death pills from pesticides. Nature 1991; 353: 177.
[8]. Parikh CK. Parikh's Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 6th Ed. CBS Publishers, New Delhi 2000; 10.41-10.49
[9]. Wilson R, Lovejoy FH, Jaeger RJ, et al. Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter: epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings. JAMA 1980; 24: 148 – 150.
[10]. Saraswat PK, Gupta BP, Malhotra VK, et al. Prevalence of fatalities due to aluminium phosphide poisoning in Southern Rajasthan. J Forensic Med 1985; 2: 1 – 7.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Practice Assessment of Adolescent with Type 1 Diabetes in Endocrine Gland Diabetic

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Ahmed A. AL-Husaunawy || Najim abass J. Al awwadi || Razzaq J. Al Rubaee

Page No.

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24-28

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31102428  

ANED   05.3013/03112428    

Diabetes Mellitus is a global health problem, which strikes millions of people worldwide. Objective To assess the Practice of adolescents with ―type1 diabetes. Methodology A descriptive study (cross-sectional design) had been done on children with type 1 diabetes, starting from the 26th April 2011 to 26th June 2011. Non –Probability (purposive) sample of (100) children, the ages range between (12-20) years, male and female .Previously diagnosed for at least (3) months with Type 1 diabetes. They visited the Diabetic Center for check –up and get their medicine (insulin). The data are collected through the use of semi-constructed questionnaire, which consists of two parts; (1) Socio demographic data form that consist of 11-items (2) Practice items this part consists of four domain: and(36)domain. Reliability of the questionnaire is determined through a pilot study and the validity through a panel of (18) experts. The data were described statistically and analyzed through the use of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures. Results The findings of the present study indicate that the diabetes mellitus affect the Practice domains. The maximal effect presented by the foot care domain, and method of injection domain. There is no significant association of Practice with Demographic, age, Gender, Residency, family history and source of information. But high significant to BMI, Education Level, Reasons effect visit ,Duration& Information. Recommends the Coordination of the efforts between the Ministry of Health and the staff of diabetes clinics in collaborative team –work to edit a national guide- booklet; one for health providers and another for people with diabetes mellitus, producing an attractive way for readers according to their age groups, and generalized all over the clinics concerning with diabetes in this country and the Expansion of the building and opening new departments that include( eye, neurology, dental, and Nutrition)

 

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Adolescents, Descriptive study, Cross-sectional design, Data collection.

[1]. AL-Azzawi abdul-Kadir Knowledge and Practices of young Adolescents with type" 1 Diabetes"Related to Self –Administration of Insulin. (2002)Pp23,24.
[2]. American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:S12-S54.
[3]. Evertsen ,Jennifer .,Increasing Incidence of Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Southeastern Wisconsin: Relationship with Body Weight at Diagnosis, September 2009 , Volume 4 , Issue 9 ,p6873
[4]. Jeannette, M.,Rossello, Maria I., Jimenenz,Chafey.,Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Depression in Adolescents with Diabetes: APilot Study, Revista Interamericana dePsicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology - University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico ,2006, Vol. 40, Num. 2 pp. 219-226
[5]. Jennifer Buccino BASc RD CDE, Katherine Murray BSc, Sarah Farmer BSc . Systematic Review of the Dietary Management of Children With Type 1 Diabetes, dietary management of children with type 1 diabetes, University of Toronto, ortavio, Canada(2003) p219
[6]. Orlando, Valerie A. Oral Health Knowledge and Behaviors among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes International Journal of Dentistry Volume8 (2010) Pp10,1155.
[7]. Palaian Subish,2006), Attitude, and Practice Outcomes: Evaluating the Impact of Counseling in Hospitalized Diabetic Patients in India. Knowledge, Vol. 31 No. 7 , July 2006 ,p 389.
[8]. Rafique G, White T,AzamS.I ., , beliefs and practices among people with diabetes attending a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. WHO Diabetes knowledge, Volume 12 No 5 September 2006.
[9]. RNAO, Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (2005). Assessment and Management of Foot Ulcers for People with Diabetes. Toronto, Canada: Registered Nurses' ,p25.
[10]. Zeidan Muna , they studied the Growth Status of A Sample of Children with( Type1 )Diabetes Mellitus In Baghdad Governorate, College of Health and Medical Technology, 2010, p 39

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development of HPTLC Method and Its Validation for the Estimation of Curcuminoids from Polyherbal Mouth Ulcer Gel Formulation

Country

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India

Authors

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Safeena Sheikh || Suhail Asghar || Showkat Ahmad

Page No.

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29-34

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31102934  

ANED   05.3013/03112934    

A rapid, simple, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of curcumin in mouth ulcer poly herbal formulation. The separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates Precoated with silica gel G60 F254. Good separation was achieved in the mobile phase of Chloroform: methanol: Glacial acetic acid (7.5: 2.0: 0.5 v/v/v) at Rf = 0.18, 0.31, 0.56 for bisdemethoxy curcumin, demethoxy curcumin and curcumin respectively. The method was validated successfully by checking precision, repeatability and accuracy. The present method can simplify the analysis of Curcuminoids in poly herbal formulations for their routine quality analysis.

 

Keywords:- Curcuminoids, curcumin, demethoxy curcumin, bisdemethoxy Curcumin, method development, validation, stability, densitometry, Quantification.

[1]. Ravindran P, babu KN, Sivaraman K. 2007. In; Turmeric the genus Curcuma, Boca 150-155.
[2]. Indian pharmacopoeia, Indian pharmacopoeia commission Ghaziabad: 2007, Vol-III, P-.
[3]. Kokate CK, "Practical Pharmacognosy", 2008, Edition-ΙV, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, page no. 107-111.
[4]. Mukherjee PK, "Quality Control of Herbal Drugs", 2007, An Approach to evaluation of Botanicals, Published by Business Harizons New Delhi.
[5]. Mukherjee K.P., 2002; "Quality control of herbal Drugs", 2nd Edition, Business Horizons, 2-14.
[6]. Patel B, "An Introduction to Analytical Method Development for Pharmaceutical Formulations", 6, 2008.
[7]. Rajpal V, "Standardization of Botanicals", 2002, Vol.-I, Published by Eastern publishers New Delhi, page no. 223-228
[8]. Rajpal V, "Standardization of Botanicals", 2005, Vol.-II, Published by Eastern publishers New Delhi, page no. 1- 10, 120- 132.
[9]. Anonymous, 2002 Indian pharmacopoeia, revised new edition, published by Indian Drugs manufactures association 102-B, poonam chambers, Mumbai, Page no. 67, 69.
[10]. Anonymous, 2007a: Indian pharmacopoeia, Ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India, New Dehli, 1996, 1, 41-42, 143-145.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Study of Erythron Status in Pregnant & Non-Pregnant Age Matched Females of Jodhpur Region

Country

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India

Authors

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Ruchi Kothari || Pradeep Bokariya || Varun Kothari

Page No.

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35-39

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31103539  

ANED   05.3013/03113539    

Objective: The effect of normal gestation on erythron status is a theme of continual interest in the developing countries like India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the haematological parameters related to the erythrocytes in pregnant and the normal age matched females of Jodhpur region. Material & Methods: A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant females and 30 pregnant women were examined for erythron related parameters which included total RBC count, Haemoglobin concentration, Packed cell volume, MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin), MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration) & Reticulocyte count. The subjects were of the age group 18-40 years. The Total RBC was done by haemocytometry method, Hb. estimation by Cyan MethHb method and PCV by Wintrobe's method. The red cell indices were calculated using the standard formulae. The reticulocyte count was done using Brilliant Cresyl Blue as the stain. The corrected Reticulocyte count was also calculated for each of the subjects. Statistical Analysis: The data thus obtained was analysed using statistical software EPI info 6.0. For validation of observations, Student's "t" test has been employed. Results: The mean Total RBC count among the control subjects was found to be 4.42 million/mm3 whereas it was 3.88 million/mm3 in pregnant women. The average Hb concentration in controls was 12.2g/dl and that in pregnant women was 10.2g/dl. The value of PCV in controls & pregnant females was 41% and 37 % respectively. Similarly the MCH & the MCHC was found out to be 27.65 pg & 29.81 % respectively for the control females and 26.28 pg & 27.56 % respectively for the pregnant women. The Reticulocyte count was 1.2 % in control group and 5 % for the pregnant females. Conclusion: The values of all erythron parameters in pregnant women are significantly low as compared to age matched controls, except reticulocyte count which indicates accelerated erythropoiesis to a great extent during pregnancy. This reticulocytosis was found in association with anemia and thus represents a response of haematopoietic system to physiologic stimulation of maternal erythropoeisis during pregnancy.

 

Keywords: erythron, pregnant, age-matched controls, reticulocyte count.

[1]. Witts CL. The Pathology and Treatment of Anemia. Lancet 1932; 1: 495
[2]. Peck TM, Arias F. Hematologic changes associated with pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynec 1979; 22(4): 785-98
[3]. Bell WR. Hematologic Abnormalities in Pregnancy. Med Clin North Am 1977; 61(1): 165-99
[4]. Reviews April. Anaemia in pregnancy in development countries. Brit J Obstet Gynaec 1998: 05; 385 – 90.
[5]. Taylor DJ, Lind T. Haematological changes during normal pregnancy: iron induced macrocytosis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1976; 83:760-7.
[6]. Akingbola TS, Adewole IF, Adesina OA et al. Haematological profile of healthy pregnant women in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 26:763-9.
[7]. WHO. Nutritional anaemias. Technical Report Series 503.Geneva: 1972.
[8]. Pritchard JA, Adams RH. Erythrocyte production and destruction during pregnancy. Amer J Obstet Gynec 1960; 79: 750-57
[9]. World Health Organization. The prevalence of anemia in women: a tabulation of available information. 2nd edition, Geneva: World Health Organization, Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, Nutrition Programme WHO/MCH/MSM/92.2, 1992
[10]. Koller O, Haram K, Sagen N. Maternal hemoglobin concentration and fetal health. In. Bern M.M.M, Frigoletto F.D.eds. Hematologic disorders in maternal-fetal medicine. New York, Wiley-Liss 1989; 31-46

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Optimization of Physico Chemical and Nutritional Parameters for the Production of Mevastatin Using Pencillium citrinum MTCC 1256

Country

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India

Authors

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N Harsha || S Subba Rao || V Sridevi || MVV Chandana Lakshmi || T Kanthi Kiran

Page No.

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40-45

Paper Index

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 DOI : 10.9790/3013-31104045  

ANED   05.3013/03114045    

Statins are the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are the class of drugs which are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They are the most efficient drugs for reducing plasma cholesterol. Mevastatin, also known as compactin is also a statin, catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevanolate. Mevanolate is a required building block for cholesterol biosynthesis and mevastatin interferes with its production by acting as a reversible competitive inhibitor for HMG-CoA reductase and thus blocking the enzyme. The present study was carried out on the production of mevastatin by solid state fermentation with Pencillium citrinum MTCC 1256 using sesame oil cake at 28oC. It deals with the study of parameters such as inoculum age, inoculum volume; nutritional suppliments such as carbon source, nitrogen source and their concentrations were optimized for the effective production of mevastatin.

 

Keywords:- carbon source, inoculum age, inoculum volume, mevastatin, nitrogen source, Pencillium citrinum MTTCC 1256, sesame oil cake, solid-state fermentation.

[1]. Nikhil S. Shaligram, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Rekha S. Singhal, George Szakacs, and Ashok Pandey ,
Compactin production in solid-state fermentation using orthogonal array method by Pencillium
brevicompactum, Bio.chem.Engg., 2008, J 41, 295–300.
Optimization of Physico Chemical and Nutritional Parameters…
www.iosrphr.org 45 | P a g e
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[6]. Shaligram, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Rekha S. Singhal, George Szakacs and Ashok Pandey, Compactin production in solid-state fermentation using orthogonal array method by Pencillium brevicompactum, Bio.chem.Engg., 2008, J 41, 295–300.
[7]. Endo A, Hasumi K, Yamada A, Shimoda R and Takeshima H, The synthesis of compactin (ML-236B) and monocolin K in fungi, J. Antibiot., 1986, 39,16–17.
[8]. Zafferahamad M and Bibhu Prasad Panda, Production of mevastatin by solid state fermentation using wheat bran as substrate, Research J. of Microbial., 2006, 1(5), 443-447.
[9]. Nikhil S. Shaligram, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Rekha S. Singhal, George Szakacs, and Ashok Pandey , Compactin production in solid-state fermentation using orthogonal array method by Pencillium brevicompactum. Bio.chem.Engg., 2008, J 41, 295–300.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacokinetic of simvastatin study in Malaysian subjects

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Khaled Alakhali || Yahaya Hassan || Nornisah Mohamed || Mohd Nizam Mordi

Page No.

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46-51

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31104651  

ANED   05.3013/03114651    

The pharmacokinetic of simvastatin 40 mg tablet was assessed in 9 healthy Malaysian male subjects after a single oral dose in Pinang Hospital, Malaysian. Blood samples were collected at specified time intervals, plasma separated and analyzed for simvastatin using validated LC-MS-MS method at unversiti sains Malaysia. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC0-24 Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, Ke, Cl and Vd were determined from plasma concentration-time profile for simvastatin. The results of this current method were consistent with other methods previously reported.

 

Keywords:- Malaysian subjects, Pharmacokinetic study, Simvastatin

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