Volume 3 ~ Issue 1 (Version 3)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Occurrence and Speciation of Hookworms Among Residents Of An Urban Community In Calabar South Local Government Area Of Cross River State, Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Akpan, S. S. and Agida, R. S.

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-313013  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/03130103

The occurrence of hookworms was studied among residents of Bayside in Calabar South from April to July, 2012. A total of 450 volunteers with an age range of 1 to 40 years participated in the study, from whom fresh stool samples were collected for microscopy. The overall prevalence of hookworm infections was 3.3% (15 v 450), with Necator americanus as the only species. Females were more infected with hookworms (1.7%) than males (1.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of hookworms among male and female subjects (x2 = 4.012; P > 0.05). Eggs of hookworm were cultured for 10 days using the Harada – Mori technique. Only filariform larvae of N. americanus were detected and identified using morphologic characteristics. Apart from hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides (18.7%) and Trichuris trichiura (1.3%) were also detected. This study has established a low association of N. americanus with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura as sympatric parasites within the study area.
Keywords: Hookworms, Occurrence, Speciation.

[1]. Adenusi, A. A. (1997). The distribution of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale among school children in Lagos, Nigeria. Transboundary Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91 (3): 270.
[2]. Adenusi, A. A. and Ogunyomi, E. O. A. (2003). Relative prevalence of the human hookworm species, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale in an urban community in Ogun State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 2 (11): 470 – 473.
[3]. Cowper, S. G and Woodward, S. F. (1961). Parasitic infections recorded at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, over a three year period (1957-1960). West African Medical Journal 10 :366-383.
[4]. Fisk, G. H. (1939). Helminthiasis in Lagos, Nigeria. Transboundary Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 32 : 645-652.
[5]. Okolie, N. J. C, (2007). Application of Harada – Mori's culture method for differentiating hookworm species in two major cities in South Eastern Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Science 1 (1) : 16 – 20.
[6]. Oyerinde, J. P. O. (1978). Human Ancylostoma infections in Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 72 (4) : 363-367.
[7]. Pawloski, Z. S., Schad, G. A. and Stott, G. J.(1991). Hookworm infection and anaemia: approaches to prevention and control. World Health Organization, Geneva: 96.
[8]. Rai, S. K., Shrestha, H. G., Nakanishi, M., Kubo, T., Ono, K., Uga, S and Matsumura, T. (1997). Hookworm infections recorded at University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal over one decade period. Japanese Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 25 :81-84.
[9]. Schmidt, G. D., Roberts L. S. and Janovy, J. (jnr.) (2010). Hookworm disease. In: Foundations of Parasitology: 423-426.
[10]. World Health Organization (1981). Intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 666, Geneva.
[11]. Yoshida, Y., Matsuo, K., Kondo, K., Arizona, N. and Ogino, K, (1974a). Scanning electron microscopy of hookworms 2. Adults and infective stage larvae of Necator americanus (Stiles, 1902). South East Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 5 : 510-514.
[12]. ____ (1974b). Scanning electron microscopy of hookworms 2. Adults and infective stage larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale (Dubini 1843). South East Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 5 :515-519.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence Of Obesity Among Children Studying In Government And Private Schools In District Anantnag Age Group (6-12 Years)

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Naheed Vaida

Page No.

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.04-11

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-3130411  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/031304011

The present study was conducted to compare the prevalence of obesity among children studying in government and private schools in the age group of 6-12 years in District Anantnag. An equal number of sample was taken from both government as well as private schools. A total number of hundred subjects were chosen randomly and all of them belonged to rural area. The data was obtained through self designed questionnaire. The main causes of obesity found among school children were decreased physical activity, increased levels of calorie intake and sedentary life style. Mostly the children from high socio-economic group were found to be more obese because of their sedentary life style and increased food intake levels. Owing to this increasing trend of obesity in school children it is necessary to take an early step towards this issue so that it may not become health hazard for the future generation. The problem of growing obesity should be solved as soon as possible by the coordinated efforts of both children and their parents. Children should follow an active life style and eat in right amounts to keep themselves healthy and free from the threat of obesity.
Key Words: Obesity, Prevalence, Physical activity, Children

[1]. Anderson P & Butcher KLP (2002), "Maternal Employment and overweight children: Nationals Bureau of Economic Research".
[2]. Eberstadt M (2003), "The Child Fat Problem", Policy Review, 117, Hoover Institute, Stanford University Review.org/FEB03/Eberstadt.htm.
[3]. Moran R (1999), "Evaluation and Treatment of Childhood Obesity", American Family Physician, American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp/990215ap/861.html.
[4]. Ogden C, Flegal K, Carroll M and Johnson C (2002), "Prevalence and Trends in Overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. Journal of American Medical Association, 288(14), 1728-1732.
[5]. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vinitha R, Thayyil M, Satish Kumar CK, Sheebal et. al.,(2002), "Prevalence of overweight in Urban Indian adolescent school children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 57:185-190.
[6]. Strauss R (2000), "Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem, Paediatrics, 105(1).
[7]. Steven L, Gortmarker, Aviva M ,Arthur M, Sobul AM, Karen P, Graham A, Colditz, William HD.( 1996), "Television Viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in United States 1986-1990.Arch PediatrAdolesc Med, 150(4) 356-362
[8]. Tanson W (April 14, 2003), "Adolescent obesity largely caused by lack of physical activity, study finds. News service, UNC school of public health. http://www.unc.edu/news.serv/research/apr03/sutherland040903.html.
[9]. Zaklad Z, Instylul M, Dziecka ul.K, Warszawa. (2006), "Simple obesity in children –A study on the role of nutritional factors.‟ Med WiekvRozwol, Jan-March 10(1) 3-191.

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Mitomycin-C Use in Ophthalmology

Country

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India

Authors

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Parul Singh||Abhishek Singh

Page No.

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12-14

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31301214  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313012014

Mitomycin-C is a chemotherapeutic drug that acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Its use and application in ophthalmology has been increasing in recent years because of its mandatory effects on wound healing. Current applications include pterygium surgery, glaucoma surgery, corneal refractive surgery, cictracial eye disease, conjunctivalneoplasia, dacryocystorhinostomy surgeries and allergic eye disease. This article reviews the current trends and uses of mitomycin-C in the eye and its related complications.
Key Words:Mitomycin-C, Ophthalmology, eye diseases.

[1]. Kunitomoro N, Mori S. Studies on pterygium:Part 4,a treatment of pterygium by Mitomycin-C installation. ActaSocOphthalmolJpn 1969;67:601-7.
[2]. Singh G, Wilson MR, Foster CS. Mitomycin –C eye drops as treatment for pterygium.Ophthalmology 1998;95:813-21.
[3]. Hayasaka S, Noda S, Yamamoto Y. Postoperative instillation of low-dose mitomycin C in the treatment of primary pterygium. Am J Ophthalmol 1988; 106:715.
[4]. Rubinfeld RS, Stein RM. Serious complications of topical mitomycin- C after pterygium surgery. Ophthalmology 1992;99: 1647-54.
[5]. Agarwal HC, Sood NN, Sihota R, Sanga L, Honavar SG Mitomycin-C in congenital glaucoma Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997 Dec;28(12):979-85.
[6]. Harish C Agarwal, DeepaliSaigal, RamanjitSihota Assessing the role of subconjunctival versus intrascleral application of Mitomycin-C in highrisk trabeculectomies, Indian journal of ophthalmology ,Year : 2001 Volume : 49 | Issue : 2 | Page : 91-95.
[7]. R Ehrlich, M Snir, M Lusky, D Weinberger, R Friling, and D DGaton Augmented trabeculectomy in paediatric glaucoma Br J Ophthalmol.2005 February; 89(2): 165–168.
[8]. Kottler UB, Dick HB. [Mitomycin C in refractive corneal surface surgery with the eximerlaser : first experience and review of the literature].[Article in German] KlinMonblAugenheilkd. 2005 Jun;222(6):499-504.
[9]. Teus MA, de Benito-Llopis L, Alió JL Mitomycin C in corneal refractive surgery.SurvOphthalmol. 2009 Jul-Aug;54(4):487-502.
[10]. Vigo L, Scandola E, Carones F Scraping and mitomycin C to treat haze and regression after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. J Refract Surg. 2003 Jul-Aug;19(4):449-54.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Lipid Peroxidation In Cerebral Malaria And Role Of Antioxidants

Country

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India

Authors

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Adil Raza||,Sumit Kumar Varshneya || M. Shahid || Haris M. Khan || M. Ashraf Malik || Abbas A. Mahdi || F. Shujatullah

Page No.

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15-18

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31301518  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313015018

Malaria is one of the most important vector borne disease caused by the different species of a Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum causes complicated malaria. One of the important complications is cerebral malaria. This study was designed to estimate lipid peroxidation in the form of a metabolite malondialdehyde (MDA) in relation to parasitemia in cases cerebral malaria.MDA in the serum of patients and that of healthy controls were estimated by the methods as given by Ohkhwa et al 1979. Mean MDA level in the controls was 1.14±0.20 n mole/ml (N=50), and mean MDA level in the cases was 3.03±0.84 n mole/ml (N=200). Which was significantly higher as compared to the controls (P<0.05). Pearson coefficient of co-relation between MDA level and parasitemia was +0.425 which shows strong positivity. There is higher lipid peroxidation in cerebral malaria because of release of reactive oxygen (ROS) from the infected RBCs and from the immunocompetent cells. MDA level increases as parasitemia increases.
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, cerebral malaria, ROS, MDA.

[1]. B.M. Greenwood, K. Bojang, C. Whitty, G.A.T. Targett, Malaria, Lancet,2005,365, 1487-1498.
[2]. H. M. Khan, F. Shujatullah, A. Raza, A. Akhtar, S. Gupta, Seasonal variations in vector borne infections-malaria and dengue, Journal of pure and applied microbiology, 2012, 6(spl edn),59-62.
[3]. E. Worrall, A. Rietveld, C. Delacollette, The burden of malaria epidemics and cost-effectiveness of interventions in epidemic situations in Africa, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg,2004, 71 (Suppl. 2), 136-140.
[4]. A. Raza, H.M. Khan, M.A. Malik, A.A. Mahdi, M. Shahid, F. Shujatullah, Serum retinol concentration in patients with acute falciparum malaria in Aligarh, India, J Infect Dev Ctries, 2009, 3(11),865-868.
[5]. A. M. DONDORP, Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and treatment of cerebral malaria, Neurology Asia, 2005, 10 , 67 – 77.
[6]. J. Eaton , J. R. Eckman , E. Berger, H.S. Jacob, Suppression of malaria infection by oxidant- sensitive host erythrocytes, Nature, 1976, 264, 758-760.
[7]. J. Golenser , E. Marva , M. Chevion, The survival of plasmodium under oxidant stress, Parasitology Today, 1991, 7, 142-146.
[8]. R. N. Rath, N. Panigrahi, B.K. Das, P. K. Das, Lipid peroxidation in acute falciparum malaria, Ind J Med Res 1991, 93, 303-305.
[9]. M. Amy , M. Gelasius , U.S. Anuraj, N. Grace , M. George, D.S. Richard, Antioxidant status and acute malaria in children in Kampala Uganda, Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001, 65,115-119.
[10]. H. Ohkawa, N. Ohishi, K. Yagi, Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction, Anal Biochem, 1979, 95, 351-358.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pesticide Resisdue Levels In Blood And Different Organs Of Pregnant Goat

Country

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India

Authors

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K. Murali Mohan || L. Ram Singh

Page No.

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19-21

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31301921  

ANED :: DOI: 05.3013/0313019021

Eighteen Goats With One Month Pregnancy Were Randomly Divided Into Control, Untreated And Treated Groups. The Blood Samples From Control, Untreated And Treated Animals At 0 Month The Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) Residues Were In The Range Of 0.0002 To 0.0003 Mg Kg-1 And These Values Are Non Significant Within The Groups. The Average Levels Of HCH Residues In Blood Samples From Untreated Group Progressively Increased From 0.0003 At 0 Month To 0.0018 Mg Kg-1 At The End Of 3rd Month. Similarly The HCH Values From Treated Group Showed A Significant Increase From 0 To End Of 3rd Month With An Average Value Of 0.0002 To 0.0527 Mg Kg-1. Four Animals Of Treated Group Were Aborted In The Fourth Month Of The Experiment And The Average Concentration Of HCH Residues In Placenta Was 0.0122 Mg Kg-1. The Accumulation Of This Insecticide In Placenta Was About 22.2 Per Cent Of Maternal Blood. The Consumption Levels Of HCH In The Treated Group At 4.04 Mg/Kg/Day Was Much Higher Than The MRL And Affected The Gestation.
Key Words: Pregnant Does, HCH, Blood, Organs, HCH Residual Effect

[1]. Agnihotri, N.P., Dewan, R.S. and Dixit, A.K . (1974). Indian J. Ento., 36: 1-4.
[2]. Barquet, A. et al. (1981). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 7: 469-479.
[3]. Courtney, K.D. (1979). Environmental Research, 20: 225-226.
[4]. Davidow, B. and Frawley, J.P. (1951). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 76: 780-783.
[5]. Frank, R. and Braun, H.E. (1984). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 32: 533-536.
[6]. I.T.R.C. (1987). Status Report on pesticide residues, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi p.12.
[7]. Joseph, D. et al. (1968). Am. J. Obst. and Gynaec., 101: 820-829.
[8]. Kapoor, S.K., et al. (1981). J. Assoc. Official Analytical Chemists, 64: p.14-15.
[9]. Khandekar, S.S. et al. (1982). Environmental Pollution, B4: 127-134.
[10]. Narsimha Rao, B. (1994). Pesticide Contamination Bulletin. AICRP on pesticide residues, College of Agriculture, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad p.4.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Associated Complications In Beta Thalassemia Patients

Country

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India

Authors

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Kirti Grow || Pankaj Abrol || Minakshi Vashist || Ritu Yadav || Shiksha Sharma

Page No.

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22-25

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31302225  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/0313022025

Every year approximately 100,000 children with Thalassemia major are born world over, of which 10,000 are born in India. The combination of regular blood transfusions and chelation therapy has dramatically increased the life expectancy of thalassemics into 4th & 5th decades of life. On the other hand, frequent blood transfusion has also led to iron overload with many complications including endocrinopathies, behavioral and neurotic problems, growth failure etc. In the present study analysis of beta thalassemia major cases was done to determine the frequency and extent of complications associated with thalassemia. Two hundred thirty one patients of beta thalassemia were studied in the present investigation. It is concluded that commonest complication of beta thalassemia major is growth failure. Other complications are also not uncommon and involve liver, heart and endocrine glands. This study would help in early detection of the associated complications in beta thalassemia patients which would be quite helpful to reduce the burden of disease through preventive measures.
Key Words: Associated complications, beta thalassemia, growth failure, cardiac complications and transfusion related complications.

[1]. N Thacker. Prevention of thalassemia in India, Indian Pediatrics, 44, 2007, 647-48.
[2]. DJ Weatherall, JB Clegg. The Thalassemia Syndromes (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2001).
[3]. HM Yaish. Thalassemia. http://www.emedicine.com/ PED/topic2229.htm Accessed 6th August 2007.
[4]. IC Verma, VP Choudhry, PK Jain. Prevention of thalassemia: A necessity in India, Indian J Pediatr, 59, 1992, 649-654.
[5]. M Manglani, MR Lokeshwar, VG Vani, N Bhatia, V. Mhaskar. 'NESTROFT' - an effective screening test for b-Thalassemia trait, Indian Pediatr, 34, 1997, 703 - 708.
[6]. N Ghotbi, T Tsukatani. An economic review of the national screening policy to prevent thalassemia major in Iran. From: www.kier.kyoto-u.ac.jp/DP/DP562. Accessed 6th August 2007.
[7]. JT Ostrowsky, A Lippman, CR Scriver. Cost-benefit analysis of a thalassemia disease prevention program, Am J Public Health, 75, 1985, 732-736.
[8]. World Health Organization: Human Genetics Programme. Division of Communicable Diseases. Community control of hereditary anaemias: memorandum for a WHO meeting. Bull WHO, 61, 1983, 63-80.
[9]. A Shamshirsaz, MR Bekheirnia, M Kanger et al. Metabolic and endocrinologic complications in beta-thalassemia major: A multicenter study in Tehran, BMC Endocrine Disorders, 3 (4), 2003, 23-34.
[10]. CK Low Louis. Growth of children with beta thalassemia major (Editorial), Indian J Pediatr, 72 (2), 2005, 159-64.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Design and Evaluation of Progesterone Microparticles Using Biodegradable Polymers

Country

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India

Authors

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Abhay Kumar||Sonali Dasgupta||Dr.Sailesh Kumar Ghatuary||Ms.Subhasri Mohapatra

Page No.

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26-28

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31302628  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313026028

Progesterone microparticle for injection were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. An aerosol method was used to prepare microparticles with a mean diameter of 23 m. Due to low yields produced by the spinning top aerosol generator, an aerosol method was used to prepare microparticles with a mean diameter of 12m. This decision was made to avoid excessive loss of isotope. It was observed that the drug/polymer matrix formulated in the form of microparticles for intramuscular injection can provide long-term drug release. It supports the concept that parenteral controlled release of the drug from the polymer/drug preparation was a viable procedure for the delivery of drugs
Key Words: Progesterone, Microparticles, Matrix Diffusion, Biodegradable polymers of PLA, Controlled release

[1] Drobnik, J., Spacek, P. and Wichterles O. (1974); J. Biomed. Mateer. Res., 8 45.
[2] Juni, K., Nomoto, K., Nakano, M., and Arita, T., (1979), J. Menbr. Sci., 5, 295.
[3] Lotz, W., Syllwasschy, B., and Hoffman, F., (1979), J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31,649.
[4] Toivonen. J.. (1980) Int. J. Fertil. 25, 106.
[5] Creque, G. M., Langer. R., and Folkman, J., (1980) Diabetes, 29, 37.
[6] International Committee for Contraception Research of the Population council (1978), Contraception 18; 315.
[7] Nakano, M., (1971) J. Pharm. sci. 60, 571.
[8] Folkman. J. P Long. D. M., and Rosenbaum, R., (1966). Science, 154, 148.
[9] Bass, P.. Purdon, R. , and Wiley, J. , (1965), Nature, 208, 591.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume Using Stz Induced Diabetes in Sd Rats

Country

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India

Authors

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J. Kondal Reddy||B. Sushmitha Rao||T. Shravani Reddy||B. Priyanka

Page No.

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29-40

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31302940  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313029040

Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume is an Indian traditional plant used in treating diabetes. Chaulmoogra Oil is obtained from the seeds and has been used in treating leprosy from last twenty years. Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume posses strong antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. And the ethanolic extract of the seed hull also have the chemical constituents like luteolin, hydnocarpin which are responsible for having free radical scavenging nature. The Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of seed hull of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume showed the positive results for Flavonoids, Glycosides, Carbohydrates and Amino Acids. From The Phytochemical study we found that the extract has the antioxidant properties. By this Result we extended our work by administering in diabetes induced SD Rats to check whether it has any antidiabetic activity or not. So, after treating the diabetic rats for 28days with our extract we found that the blood glucose levels got decreased when we compared it with the first day of glucose levels. Hence, we confirmed that the ethanolic extract of the seed hull of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume has the antidiabetic activity.
Key Words: Hydnocarpus Wightiana Blume; Antidiabetic; GOD POD; OGTT; STZ induced diabetes.

[1] Rang HP,Dale MM,Ritter J M,Flower RJ,Rang and Dale's Pharmacology sixth edition, Philadelphia,Elsevier Churchill livingstone,2007,405-409.
[2] Tripathi KD. Essentials of medical pharmacology. sixth edition Hyderabad, jaypee Brothers, 2008.
[3] Ayurveda Cure of Diabetes -(Prameha) from http://ayurveda-foryou.com/treat/diabetes.html
[4] Ayur herbs from http://ayurherbs.wordpress.com/tuvaraka
[5] Ayurvedic treatment of diabetes from http:// holisticonline.com/remedies/diabetes/ diabetes_ayurveda.html.
[6] Raj kumar T, Udhaya Kumar T, Sekar M, Senthil Kumar M K. anti diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Hibiscus cannabinus in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. International journal of pharma and bioscience; 2011 (1) : 125-130.
[7] Shah K H, Patel J B, Shrma V J, Shrma R M, Patel R P, Chaunhan U M. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Prunus amylgdalus batsh in Streptozotocin induced diabetes mice. Research journal of pharmaceutical, biological and chemical science; 2011 (2) : 429-434.
[8] Simone RamosDeconte, RenatoJose da SilvaOliveira, LucianaKarenCala bria, Vanessa NevesdeOliveira, NeireMouradeGouveia, Albertoda Silva Moraes, Foued SalmenEspindola. Alterations of antioxidant biomarkers and type I collagen deposition in the parotid gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 2011.
[9] Sourabh S. Baghel, Sonal Dangi, Prashant Soni, Priya Singh, Yogesh Shivhare. Acute Toxicity Study of Aqueous Extract of Coccinia indica (Roots): Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2011; Vol. 1: Issue 1: 23-25.
[10] Thirumalai T, Viviyan Therasa S, Elumalai E K, David E. Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease; 2011: 63-66.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Association of Nutritional Status with Drug Sensitive and Drug Resistant Outcomes Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

Country

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India

Authors

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Harshita Gupt||Surya Kant|| Amita Jain||S.M. Natu||Savita Ahluwalia

Page No.

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41-46

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31304146  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313041046

The study established the association of nutritional status with drug sensitive and drug resistant outcomes among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. A hospital based prospective follow-up cohort study design. Two urban Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) centers in Lucknow District of Uttar Pradesh, India. The newly diagnosed Acid-fast Bacilli (AFB) positive cases between the age group of 12 to 65 years were enrolled. The drug-susceptibility outcomes were assessed by mycobacterial culture and drug-susceptibility test. The assessment of nutritional status was performed by Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), 24-hour dietary recall method and measurement of serum concentration of retinol-binding protein (RBP) and zinc. A total of 185 newly diagnosed patients were recruited. Out of these, 14 patients were lost to follow up after treatment. The mean (±SD) age of the remaining 171 patients was 29 (±12) years. In the culture of 171 patients, 156 (91.2%) isolates were culture positive and subjected to drug-susceptibility test. Of these, 129 (82.6%) isolates were sensitive to all the drugs and 27 (17.3%) isolates were resistant to any drug. A significant difference was observed in serum RBP (p<0.0001) and zinc (p=0.005) at six month in drug sensitive and resistant patients. Among all the nutritional status parameters serum zinc (p=0.01) was significantly associated with drug resistant patients. Inadequate level of serum zinc was probably associated with drug resistance among new pulmonary TB patients.


Key Words: Tuberculosis, drug-susceptibility testing, nutritional status
[1] World Health Organization, 2012. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis/en/
[2] ATS/CDC, 2000. Targeted Tuberculin Testing and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 161(4):S221-S247. http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/161/4/S1/S221
[3] Hanekom WA, Hussey GD, Hughes EJ et al. Plasma-soluble CD30 in childhood tuberculosis: Effects of disease severity, nutritional status, and vitamin A therapy. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol.1999;6:204–8.
[4] Cegielski JP, Mc. Murray DN. The relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis: evidence from studies in humans and experimental animals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004;8(3), 218-26.
[5] S S L Parashar. Social, Behavioral and Communication Sciences, 2012. Available at: http://www.whoindia.org/LinkFiles/Human_Resources_Section4Textbook_on_Public_Health_and_Community_Medicine.pdf
[6] American Thoracic Society and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic standards and classification of tuberculosis in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:1376–1395.
[7] Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme. Training Module for Medical Practitioners, 2006. Available at: www.tbcindia.nic.in/pdfs/Financial%20Training%20Module.pdf.
[8] Revised National TB Control Programme Training Manual for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Culture & Drug susceptibility testing, 2009. Available at: http://www.tbcindia.nic.in/pdfs/Training%20manual%20M%20tuberculosis%20C%20DST.pdf
[9] Revised National TB Control Programme. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), 2009. Available at: http://www.tbcindia.nic.in/pdfs/standard%20operating%20procedures%20for%20C&DST%20labs.pdf
[10] National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2001, 2010. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/measuring_guides_dri/measuringguides02.htm

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Ovarian Biometrics and Oocyte Grading Percentage of Yield in Local Goats of Andhra Pradesh

Country

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India

Authors

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L. Ramsingh||K.Sadasivarao||K.Muralimohan

Page No.

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47-49

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31304749  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313047049

The present study was undertaken to assess the relative efficiency of three different collection techniques of ovarian biometrics and oocytes grading percent of oocytes in local goats of Andhra Pradesh The mean oocyte recovery from right and left ovary was 1.9 ± 0.28 and 0.8 ± 0.18 in aspiration technique, 2.15 ± 0.31 and 2.9 ± 0.46 in dissection technique and 6.55 ± 0.57 and 4.51 ± 0.46 in slicing technique. The mean oocyte recovery rate was 1.5 ± 0.22 and 1.0 ± 0.33 under aspiration technique, 2.58 ± 0.47 and 2.43 ± 0.36 under dissection technique and 5.26 ± 0.46 and 6.3 ± 0.71 .The correlation of oocyte recovery in aspiration with length, width, thickness and weight was 0.16, 0.10, 0.19 and 0.11, respectively. Slicing techniques showed a correlation with length (0.25), width (0.43), thickness (0.26), and weight (0.09). The values of correlation coefficient of oocyte recovery in dissection techniques with ovarian biometrics were length (0.01), width (-0.04) thickness (-0.03), weight (-0.003). The mean numbers of oocytes of different grades recovered were 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.62 ± 0.07 and 1.37 ± 0.09 in aspiration, dissection and slicing techniques, respectively. Among the different grades of oocytes, significantly higher per cent of 'A' (27.78) and 'B' (38.89) grade oocytes were retrieved by aspiration and dissection technique when compared to slicing technique. With respect to 'C' and 'D' grade oocytes, significantly higher numbers of oocytes were retrieved by slicing technique than the aspiration and dissection techniques. Out of 437 oocytes retrieved in the present study, significantly higher per cent (50.57) yield was by slicing technique, followed by dissection technique (37.07) and aspiration (12.53).

Key Words: Oocyte grading, Aspiration, Dissection, Slicing, Ovarian biometrics, Goat

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[3] Bonde SW, Naqvi SMK and Mittal JP 2000 Comparison of oocyte recovery from surface follicles of sheep and goat ovaries.International Journal of Animal Sciences 15: 1-4.
[4] Das GK, Manjumdar AC, and Gupta S.K 1996 Study of collection techniques on oocyte recovery and quality in goat. International Journal Animal Science 11: 143-144.
[5] Gogoi A K, Borgohain B N, Deka B C and Chakravarthy P, 2001 Comparative efficacy of aspiration and dissection techniques on the recovery of oocytes from goat ovaries. Indian Journal of Animal Reproduction 22: 19-22.
[6] Hanada A 1985 Invitro fertilization in goats.Japan Journal of Animal Reproduction 31: 21-26.
[7] Ijapure K.P, Singh B.K, and Chouhan R.A.S 1999 Biometrical studies of Reproductive organs of she goats (Capra hircus). Indian Veterinary Journal 76: 353-354.
[8] Lorenzo PL, Calduch T, Illera MJ, Illera JC, Picazo RA and Illera M, 1999 Study of the ultra-structural morphology of sheep oocytes collected for in vitro maturation and fertilization. Medicinaveterinaria 16: 196-201.
[9] Pawshe CH, Totely SM, and Jain SK, 1994 A comparison of three methods of recovery of goat oocytes for invitro maturation and fertilization.Theriogenology42 111 – 125.
[10] Shirazi A, Shams-Esfandabadi N and Hosseini SM 2005 A comparison of two recovery methods of ovine oocytes for in vitro maturation. Small Ruminant Research 58: 283-286.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antioxidant and Inhibitory Properties of Essential Oil of Ocimum Gratissimum Against Extracellular Protease of Escherichia Coli

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Adeola S. Adesegun||Folorunso O. Samuel|Ojekale B. Anthony ||Osho.A.Nurudeen

Page No.

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50-55

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31305055  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313050055

The oil of Ocimum gratissimum extracted by hydrodistillation was tested against the partally purified extracellular protease of E.coli The kinetics of the extracellular protease showed that the inhibition was competitive and that the extracellular protease has a km of 0.056 mg/ml in the presence of the inhibitor (oil of Ocimum gratissimum) and 0.08 mg/ml in its absence and with a Vmax of 1.66 vol-1(μmol/min)-1×10-4. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.53% and 0.72% respectively. The volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum showed good antioxidant activity when used in scavenging DPPH radicals as compared to the BHT control. The oil has a mean activity value of 66.983 compared with 53.290 of BHT. The minimum percentage scavenging activity against DPPH is 50% for Ocimum gratissimum volatile oil as compared to 30% for BPH. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 6.5 and optimum temperature of 40oC. Fe2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+are metal activators of the extracellular protease of E.coli.

[1] Adebolu,T T, Oladimeji Salau Abiola (2005). Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on selected diarrhoea causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 682-684
[2] Amar K.F (2000) Mechanism of hemostatic action of ocimum gratissimum. J. Crude Drug Res, 28(4) 253 – 256.
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[4] Chavan SR, Nikam ST.(1982).Mosquito larvicidal activity of Ocimum basilicum Linn. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1982 Feb; 75(): 220-2..
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[6] Danuta B (2009) Determination of protease activity in proteolytic enzymes- a practical approach. Xavier publishers, New York.
[7] Harrison G.O (1998) Purification of microorganism: Ignacimuthu BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006; 6: 39.
[8] Hill N, Toyonaga B, Yoshikai Y and Mark. T .W (2001) Eur J Immunol.17, 375-383.
[9] Hoshman N.A (2009) Advanced aromatherapy: Effect of some metals on some pathogenic bacteria, Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2: 71-72.
[10] Hudault,S., Guignot,J, Servin,A.L (2001) Escherichia coli strains colonising the gastrointestinal tract protect germfree mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection. Gut 2001;49:47-55

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in HIV Patients Attending Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, South-Eastern Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Nwele, David E

Page No.

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56-58

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31305658  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313056058

A survey on this study, was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV patients attending Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. A total of 60 patients were examined and the result showed that 40 patients (66.7%), were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Individuals within the active age group (21-30) recorded the highest occurrence of infection. The prevalence among sexes revealed that females had the highest prevalence (40%) compared to their male counterparts (26.7%). Marital status of the infected patients was also observed to play a role in the prevalence of the infection, with single unmarried individuals at the highest risk of infection. Testing individuals who contract STDs or HIV will help reduce the risk of transmission since infection with one could pose a risk for the other


Key Words: Prevalence, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, HIV Patients, Abakaliki, Nigeria..

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[2] Cheesbrough, M. District laboratory practical for tropical countries. (Part II, 4th edition, 2006).
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[4] Ene, A.C., Ajayi, B.B., and Nwankwo, E.A. Prevalence of HIV Neonatal infection among babies born to HIV positive patients in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Int J. Virol, 3(1), 2007, 41-44.
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Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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To Compare the Pleiotropic Effects of Telmisartan and Olmesartan in Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Based On ATP III Criteria

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. P. R. Anand Vijaya kumar , Priya K , Piyush Srivastava , Dinsy Paul

Page No.

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59-67

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31305966

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0313059066

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease is rapidly evolving.To treat hypertension, drug-classes with different glucometabolic effects are used but they have the potential for adverse metabolic effects. An open-label prospective crossover study was conducted to compare the PPAR- γ( peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ) modulating activity of olmesartan (10 mg/day) and telmisartan (20 mg/day) on stage 1 hypertension, metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk using Framingham risk score based on lipid profile. Twenty patients were recruited for two months according to ATP III (adult treatment plan), specific criteria used for the diagnosis of MetS. Analyzed the blood pressure lowering effects of each drug on an interval of 2 weeks. Simultaneously measured metabolic parameters on first visit & on last follow up. Telmisartan and olmesartan showed the pleiotropic effect by lowering metabolic parameters. Telmisartan shows more significant reduction in metabolic parameters and a significant increase in HDL (high density lipoprotein) values. Both the drugs show an increase in cardiovascular risk percentage. Our results recommend a future research in the use of telmisartan and olmesartan in cardiovascular risk patients with MetS.
Key Words: Adult treatment plan III, Metabolic syndrome, Peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma, Stage 1 hypertension, cardiovascular risk..

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[10] Nobuaki Ozaki, Yoshio Nomura, Hiroshi Sobajima, Kunikazu Kondo, and Yutaka Oiso Comparison of the effect of three angiotensin II receptor type I blockers on metabolic parameters with type II diabetes mellitus. European journal of internal medicine 21(2010)236-239.