Volume 3 ~ Issue 1 (Version 4)

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Exploration of Flesh Dammar (Shorea Leprosula Miq) and Cat Eye Dammar (Shorea Javanica K.Et.V.) As Antibacterial Agent

Country

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Indonasia

Authors

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Noryawati Mulyono||Bibiana Widiyati Lay||Mukti Wahyuningjati

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-314013  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/03140103

TDammar resins are nontimber tropical forest products from Dipterocarpaceae plants. The resins are produced as secondary metabolites induced by malnutrition and drought. The objective of this research was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of flesh dammar and cat eye dammar. The resins were separately extracted using three solvents, i.e. hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol for 24 h at 50 g L-1. Antibacterial activity assay was performed against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chromobacter violaceum, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus. The result showed that flesh dammar had antibacterial activity but cat eye dammar did not have. According to the antibacterial activity and the yield, the best solvent for extracting flesh dammar was ethyl acetate. The obtained extract could inhibit C. violaceum, Streptococcus sp., S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and B. cereus. Their MICs were 32 ppm for C. violaceum and 256 ppm for other bacteria tested. None of cat eye dammar extracts had antibacterial activity.
Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Cat Eye Dammar, C. Violaceum, Flesh Dammar, Gram-Positive.

[1]. R.K. Sari, Isolasi dan identifikasi komponen bioaktif dari damar mata kucing (Shorea javanica K.et.V). doctoral diss., Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, 2002.
[2]. S. Notermans, H. Hofstra, and G. Wirtanen, Newly food-borne emerging pathogens, including risk assessment and risk management. Proc. FOSARE Seminar Series 1, Brussels, 2003.
[3]. [CLSI] Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard, 8th ed, 2009. http://www.clsi.org/source/orders/free/m07-a8.pdf, Accessed on 05-06-11.
[4]. R.V. Goering, H. Dockrell, M. Zuckerman, D. Wakelin, I. Roitt, C. Mims, and P. Chiodini, Medical microbiology (London: Mosby Ltd, 2007).
[5]. A. Nostro, M.P. Germano, V.D. Angelo, A. Marino, and M.A. Cannatelli, Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30, 2000, 379-384.
[6]. T.E. Rucinky and E.H. Cota-Robles, Mesosome Structure in Chromobacterium violaceum. Journal of Bacteriology, 118(2), 1974, 717-724.
[7]. N. Mulyono, Chemical constituents in flesh dammar extracts and their potencies as antibacterial agent. Proc. 3rd ICMNS, Bandung, Indonesia, 2010, 552-557.
[8]. M.M. Cunico, A.L. Lopes, L.C. Cocco, C.I. Yamamoto, R.C.B. Plocharski, M.D. Miguel, A.G. Junior, C.G. Auer, and O.G. Miguel, Phytochemical and antibacterial evaluation of essential oils from Ottonia Martiana Miq. (Piperaceae). Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 18(1), 2007, 184-188.
[9]. N. Vukovic, T. Milosevic, S. Sukdolak, and S. Solujic, Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Teucrium montanum. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 4(1), 2007, 17-20.
[10]. N. Mulyono, C.H. Wijaya, D. Fardiaz, and W.S. Rahayu, Identifikasi komponen kimia damar mata kucing (Shorea javanica) dengan metode pirolisis-GC/MS. Jurnal Natur Indonesia, 14(1), 2010, 155-159.
[11]. R. Sahelian, Health benefit of brassicasterol. Free Supplement Res Update Newsletter. 2009. http://www.raysahelian.com Accessed on 05-02-09.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Cardiotonic Activity of Alcoholic Bark Extract of Xylocarpus Granatum with Emphasis on Its Mechanism of Action

Country

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India

Authors

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Y. Trilochana,||P. Sowjanya||G.P.V. Sangeetha||P. Rajeswara Rao||Prof. P. Rajeswara Rao

Page No.

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04-09

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-314049  

ANED :: DOI :05.05.3013/03140409

The aim of the present study was to scan and evaluate cardiotonic activity of alcoholic bark extract of Xylocarpus granatum and to establish its mechanism of action. The alcoholic extract of the bark of Xylocarpus granatum was prepared by the process of continuous extraction (soxhlation). The cardiotonic activity of the extract was evaluated on isolated normal and hypodynamic frog heart using Syme's technique. Potassium loss was estimated in the effluents collected from the isolated perfused hypodynamic heart (control and inhibitory activity of the extract was estimated using the same frog heart muscle. The extract showed dose dependent positive ionotropic effect on normal and hypodynamic frog heart, loss of potassium ions and the percentage inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase activity. The percentage inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase activity with digoxin at a dose of 300 μg was found to be 93.80 ± 1.98%. Similarly, the extract also showed dose dependent (2, 20, 200 mg) percentage inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase activity and was found to be 35.20 ± 4.96%, 40.10 ± 1.27%, 56.74 ± 3.01% respectively. Results clearly indicated that the bark extract of Xylocarpus granatum possesses significant cardiotonic activity and follows the similar mechanism of digoxin (inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase enzyme activity).
Keywords: Cardiotonic activity, Frog heart, Na+, K+ ATPase, Xylocarpus granatum.

[1] SM Rates, Plants as source of drugs, Toxicon, 39, 2001, 603-613.
[2] JG Patil, ML Ahire, KM Nitnaware, S Panda, VP Bhatt, and PB Kishor, et al. In vitro propagation and production of cardiotonic glycosides in shoot cultures of Digitalis purpurea L. by elicitation and precursor feeding, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012. [printing]
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[5] F Cheng, Y Zhou, K Zou, and J Wu, Studies on the chemical constituents of the fruit of Xylocarpus granatum, Zhong Yao Cai, 32(8), 2009, 1220-1223.
[6] A Ghani, Medicinal Plant of Bangladesh with Chemical Constituents and Uses (Asiat Soc Bangladesh, 1998).
[7] K.R. Kirtikar, and B.D. Basu. Indian Medicinal Plants. (International Book Distributors: India, 1996).
[8] P Rajeshwara Rao, Y Trilochana, and KK Chaitanya, Anti-diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of bark and leaf extracts of Xylocarpus granatum Koenig, J Nat Rem, 3(2), 2003, 155-160.
[9] MA Alam, M Sarder, MA Awal, MMH Sikder, and KA Daulla. Antibacterial activity of the crude ethanolic extract of Xylocarpus granatum stem barks, Bangl J Vet Med, 4(1), 2006, 69-72.
[10] R Rouf, SJ Uddin, JA Shilpi, and M Alamgir. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model, J Ethnopharmacol, 109(3), 2007, 539-542.
[11] SJ Uddin, L Nahar, JA Shilpi, M Shoeb, T Borkowski, S Gibbons, M Middleton, M Byres, and SD Sarker. Gedunin, a limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum, inhibits the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell line in vitro, Phytother Res, 21(8), 2007, 757-761.
[12] S Du, M Wang, W Zhu, and Z Qin, A new fungicidal lactone from Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), Nat Prod Res, 23(14), 2009, 1316-1321.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation Of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and In Vivohepatoprotective Effect of Moringaoleifera Seeds Extract against Ethanolinduced Liver Damage In Wistar Rats

Country

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India

Authors

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Eswar Kumar K||Harsha K N|Shabanashaik ||NeelakantaRaoN ||Giribabu N ||Dr. K. Eswar Kumar, Ph.D

Page No.

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10-15

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31401015  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0314010015

The in vitro antioxidant and in vivohepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic extracts of Moringaolifera (M. olifera) seeds were evaluated in male Wistar rats against ethanolinduced liverdamage in preventive and curative models.The antioxidant activity of M. oliferawas assayed by DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidant, ascorbic acid.In two different set of experiments, the M. oliferaextracts (50,100 and 300 mg/kg body weight (bw), orally) and silymarin (100mg/kg body weight, orally) were administered orallyin both the studies.Liver injury was induced by 40% ethanol administration(3.76gm/kg bw, orally)for 25 days.In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil(DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity,the IC50 values of ethanolic extract was 196.45 ± 0.25, 175.57 ± 0.39 and 213.15 ± 0.27 μg/ml respectively.The level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin were determined to assay hepatotoxicity.Ethanol administration caused severe hepatic damage in rats as evidenced by elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin levels. The M. olifera and silymarin administration prevented the toxic effect of ethanol on the above serum parameters in both preventive and curative models.The present study concludes that ethanolic extract of M. olifera seeds has significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity againstethanol induced hepatotoxicity, which may be associated with its high bioactive compounds including glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, thiocarbamates, and flavonoids and antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Ethanol, Hepatoprotective, Moringaolifera, Rat

[1] Amacher, DE. A toxicologist's guide to biomarkers of hepatic response.Hum ExpToxicol, 21(5), 2002; 253-262.
[2] Salhab, M and Canelo, R. An overview of evidence-based management of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Ther, 7(4), 2011; 463-475.
[3] McDonough, KH. Antioxidant nutrients and alcohol. Toxicology, 189, 2003; 89-97.
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[12] L.J. Fuglie, The Miracle Tree. Moringaoleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics, Church World Service, Dakar, Senegal,1999, 63.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Verotoxin -producing Escherichia Coli Old Bug New Infections

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa||M. Yusof ||MN. Malehah

Page No.

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16-20

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31401620  

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/0314016020

EnteropathogenicEscherichia coli first discovered in the last century from the fecal flora of neonates.E.coli resides in human and animal intestine as normal flora.ETEC,EPEC and,EHEC strains cause severe potentially fatal disease . ETEC strains are important cause of childhood diarrhea in developing countries .EPEC infections are acquired by person to person and in the hospitals .EHECs Shiga producing strains that induce bloody diarrhea lead to HUS include renal failure microangiopathichaemolyticanaemia and thrombocytopenia.Vero toxin (Shiga like toxin) can directly damage renal and endothelial cells. The reservoir of EHEC strains is the gastrointestinal tract of young cattle and herbivorous mammals. Low infectious dose of EHEC strains facilitates the transmission of infection. Treatment of EHEC with antimicrobials have not shown clinical benefit rather cause increased production of toxins. Prevention of TD consists to avoid dietary indiscretions, hand washing before eating and eating only cooked food in endemic countries.
Keywords:ETEC,EPEC,EHEC, Vero toxin, Pathogenic E.coli.

[1] Shulman ST,FriedmanHC,SimsRH,TheodoreEscherich:the first pediatric infectious diseases physician ?. ClinInfec Dis.2007;45:1025-1029.
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Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Ethnobotanical Survey of Underutilized Crops and Spices of Some Local Communities in Nigeria: Potentials for Improved Nutrition, Food Security and Poverty Reduction

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Oselebe, H.O|| Nnamani, C.V.|| Okporie, E.O

Page No.

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21-28

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31402128  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0314021028

Traditional leafy vegetables (TLVs) represent inexpensive but high quality nutritional sources, for the poor segment of the population especially where malnutrition is wide spread. The objectives of this research were i. to identify and document the traditional leafy vegetables and spices of Ebonyi State, and ii. to assess their nutritional values with a view of enhancing their selection as components of cooked food. Market and field surveys were carried out for traditional leafy vegetables and spices in three major clans in Ebonyi North senatorial zone, Ebonyi State: Izzi, Izhia and Ngbo clans. Informal interviews were also conducted where, when and how they obtained for sale. Finally, proximate and physiochemical analysis on some of these TLVs were done. Result recorded twenty-seven TLVs and five spices from 23 plant families. Out of this 46.7 % of the plant collections were seen and collected from the wild, while 40 % were cultivated, 33.3 % of the TLVs were tree species, 30 % were herbaceous plants, and 23 % were climbers, while 13.3 % were shrubs. 60 % of the species were propagated by seed, while 36.7 % were propagated by vegetative means. The parts consumed were mainly the leaves (76.7 %), the stem, flower and the seeds. 40 % of the materials collected were major income earners for the rural populace, 36.7 % earned some income, although small, while 23.3 % had the potential of being transformed into large scale income earner. Results also indicated that three of the TLVs were good sources of micro-nutrients. Their calcium content ranged between 54.06 - 90.10 mg/100 g. The ash content ranged from 8.10 - 6.30 %, while protein ranged from 5 – 10 % of fresh weight or 13 - 30% for dry weight. Their fibre (roughage) content was high and will promote digestion and prevent constipation when consumed.
Keywords: Diversity, Traditional leafy vegetable, food security, poverty reduction, South-eastern Nigeria.

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[5] Chweya, J.A, Eyzaguilre, P .B 1999.The Biodiversity of Traditional Leafy vegetables. IPGRT Publication. p. 540.
[6] Eyzaguire, P.B. 2002. Home Gardens and in Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources in Farming Systems. Proceedings. 2nd International Home Gardens Workshop. 17-19 July 2001, Witzenhausen, Federal Republic of Germany, pp. 3-9.
[7] FAO, 1986. Compositional Analysis Method. In: Manuals of food quality control. Food 7: 203-232. George, P.M. 2003. Encyclopedia of foods. Volume 1. Humane Press; Washington. p. 526.
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[10] Igbal, A, Khalil I.A, Ateeq N., Khan, M.S. 2006. Nutritional Qualities of Important Food Legumes. Food Chemistry. 97(2): 331-335.
[11] Nnamani, C. V., Oselebe, H. O. and Agbatutu, A. 2009. Ethnobotany of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables of Izzi Clan, in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In: Proceeding of 20th Annual National Conference of Biotechnology Society of Nigeria. Abakaliki, November 14th -17th, p. 111-114.
[12] Noonan, S. C. and Savage, G. P. 1999. Oxalate content of foods and its effect on humans. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67: 64-74.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Association Between Serum Paraoxonase And Ceruloplasmin Oxidase In Iraqi Pregnants Women With And Without Complications

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Israa Ghassan ||Zaizafoon Nabeel

Page No.

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29-34

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31402934  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0314029034

The aim of this study is to assess the comparison of serum paraoxonase (PON), ceruloplasmin oxidase (CP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities , creatinine, calcium Ca , inorganic phosphate (P), zinc Zn , copper Cu and iron Fe levels. The study was performed on 88 pregnants women divided in the following groups: missed abortion (MA) (n= 25), ectopic (EP) (n= 17) , molar (MP) (n=21) and normal pregnant women (n=25) as control. PON & CP activities decreased in all studied groups (p≤ 0.05) ,while ALP activity was decreased only in EP and MP groups (p≤ 0.05).Creatinine level was increased in MA and MP groups (p≤ 0.05). Non-significant differences in Ca & Zn levels in all patients groups. The P level was increased (p≤ 0.05) in MA group , while decreased (p≤ 0.05) in MP group. Cu levels were elevated (p≤ 0.05) in EP and MP groups. Fe concentrations were reduced (p≤ 0.05) in EP and MP groups . Paraoxonase activity negatively correlated with CP &Cu in MP and EP and positively correlated with CP,Cu and Creatinine in EP,MA and MP groups respectively. The study conclusions that PON and CP as antioxidants may play role in monitoring the pregnancy complications.
Keywords: paraoxonase , ceruloplasmin oxidase; ectopic; mole and miscarriage ..

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Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Response of Lipolytic Activity in Adipose Tissue to Saturated Fat

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Rasha Eldeeb ||Nisha Shantakumari || M.H. Gamal-Eldin || Effat A. Khowailed ||Mona M. Fathy

Page No.

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35-40

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-31403540  

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/0314035040

Obesity has become a major problem in the modern world; it is affected genetically and by lifestyle and dietary habits as consuming fast food meals enriched with high saturated fat (SF). Since obesity is associated with multi co-morbidities like dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, this work studied the effect of diet rich in saturated fat on body weight, blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemic state and lipolytic activity of adipose tissue in male rats.
Keywords: adipose tissue, hypertension, lipolytic activity, obesity, saturated fat.

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