Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (Version 1)December 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Improved Wetting For Improved Solubility and Dissolution of Candesartan Cilexetil, Comparative Study Of Surfactant And Modified Surfactant In Varying Ratios

Country

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Mumbai

Authors

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S.P.BHILEGAONKAR || R.S. GAUD

Page No.

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01-09

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040120109

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/040120109  

Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with solubility limited bioavailability (15%). To initiate process of solubilization , it is very much necessary to displace the air at the surface and wet the drug surface with a non volatile solvent / surfactant ,with which drug is compatible . Solvents used here are surfactant (Tween 20) and modified surfactant (Transcutol) in different drug:solvent (1:1-1:9) ratio's for preparation of adsorbates. Adsorbates were then converted into free flowing powders as liquisolid compacts and compressed to form tablets. Liquisolid compacts were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. All systems exhibited a promising advantage in terms of solubility and dissolution without affecting the drug structure as confirmed by IR and XRD. No considerable advantage in terms of solubility and dissolution was seen by increasing solvent ratio with drug.

 

Key Words: Candesartan, dissolution enhancement.,improved wetting, liquisolid compacts, solubility enhancement

[1]. V.B. Yadav and A.V. Yadav , Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of BCS class II pharmaceuticals by nonaqueous
granulation technique, International Journal of Pharma Research and Development-online,12,Feb 2008, 1-12.
[2]. Y.Javadzadeh, L.Mussalrezaei, and A.Nokhodchi , Liquisolid technique as a new approach to sustain propranolol hydrochloride
release from tablet matrices, International Journal of Pharmaceutics,362,2008, 102-108.
[3]. V.B.Yadav and A.V.Yadav , Improvement of solubility and dissolution of Indomethacin by liquisolid and compaction
granulation, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research,1(2),2009, 44-51.
[4]. I.Darwish and A.H.El-Kamel, Dissolution rate enhancement of gibenclamide using liquisolid tablet technology, Acta
Pharmaceutica,52,2002, 171-179.
[5]. G.Vijayranga Vittal,R.Deveswaran,S.Bharath, B.V.Basavraj and V.Madhavan, formulation and evaluation of ketoprofen
liquisolid compacts by Box-Behnken design, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation,2(3),2012,150-156.
[6]. S.Spireas, S.Sadu and R.Grover, In vitro release evaluation of hydrocortisone liquisolid tablets, Journal of Pharmaceutical
Sciences,87,1998, 867-872.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Attitude of Pharmacists to the Pharmaceutical care concept in rivers and bayelsa states of Southern Nigeria

Country

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African

Authors

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Biobarakuma A. Joseph|| Joshua F . Eniojukan

Page No.

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10-16

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0401201016

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012010016  

Pharmaceutical care education was introduced into the country about a decade ago. There is a need to assess the impact of the education and information on the attitude of practicing pharmacists from time to time. Hence, an original research work was undertaken to evaluate the current attitudes towards Pharmaceutical Care (PC) concept and it's implementation that are prevalent amongst practicing pharmacists and also to examine the impact of demographic factors. A descriptive study was carried out with a questionnaire between the months of January and March, 2013 among 205 out of estimated 400 pharmacists practicing in Rivers and Bayelsa States of Nigeria. Data collected was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using SPSS version 15. Over 82% strongly agreed that pharmaceutical care was relevant to their practice while 62% are willing to incorporate Pharmaceutical care in their current practice. Most young pharmacists as well as pharmacists in hospital and community practice strongly agreed on the relevance of Pharmaceutical care and indicated willingness to implement the practice.The attitude of Pharmacist in these two states towards the Pharmaceutical Care concept and it's implementation is good. However, there are challenges that need to be overcome to facilitate proper implementation of the concept.

 

Key Words: Current Attitude, Pharmaceutical Care Concept, Willing to Incorporate

[1]. Hepler C D and Strand L M. Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care; Am J. Pharm Educ,(1989) 53, 7s-15s.
[2]. Hepler C. D., Strand L. M. Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm ;(1990) 47 (3); 539-5
[3]. Wiedenmeyer K, Summers R. S., Mackie C A, Gous A G S, Everard M, Tromp D,(2006) in Developing Pharmacy Practice, A focus on Patient Care; Handbook -2006 edition, Published by WHO (Department of Medicines Policy and Standards, Geneva,Switzerland. In collaboration with International Pharmaceutical Federation, The Hague, Netherlands.
[4]. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 885-Thirty-fifth Report; Annex 7.Good Pharmacy Practice in Community and Hospital settings (1998)-http:// apps.who.int./medicinedocs/en/d/jhl792e/22 assessed at www.google.com on 3rd August,2013.
[5]. Mill J.W. Foppe Van, Schulz M. A review of Pharmaceutical Care in Europe;Havard Health Policy Review,(2006),7(1);155-168.
[6]. Owusu-Daaku, F. T., Marfo A. F. A., Boateng E. A . The contribution of Ghanian pharmacists to mental healthcare: current practice and barriers. International Journal of Mental Health Systems;(2010), 4:14.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Quinoxaline as a potent heterocyclic moiety

Country

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NEPAL

Authors

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Sujiti Srivastava|| Janmajoy Banerjee|| Nomi Srestha

Page No.

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17-27

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040120101617027

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012017027  

Various novel, mild, eco-friendly and efficient methods has been developed for the preparation
of quinoxaline derivatives in high yields via condensation of aromatic diamine and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds or alphahydroxyketones in the presence of different catalyst such as CuSO4/KMno4 , iodine, phenol similarly by using different solvents such as water, ethanol. As part of current studies, we here in report efficient practical techniques like- sonication (sonochemistry sythesis), heating, grinding and simple mortal-pastel methods (mechanochemistry). However, all results suggest a mild and heterogeneous nature of these mechanisms, shorter time of reaction and higher yield or similar to reported older methods, the review here is to highlight some convenient methods of synthesis with keeping an eye to their various biological importances.

 

Key Words: alphahydroxyketones, sonochemistry, antioxidantactivity.

[1]. Noorulla Smd, Sreenivasulu N, Khan A And Sayeed A Antibacterial Activity Of Novel Substituted Quinoxaline Heterocycles ISSN 0976 -3090 (Print), 2231- 0541 (Online) Pharmanest Pharmanest - An International Journal of Advances In Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.2 (2 - 3) March – June -2011 www.pharmanest.net
[2]. KarkiS. S. , Hazare R, Vivek K. S. Bhadauria S , Balzarini J,Clercq D, Synthesis, anticancer and cytostatic activity of some 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoxalinesActa Pharm. 59 (2009) 431–440 Original research paper 10.2478/v10007-009-0040-9)
[3]. Singh, D. P ; Hashim, Syed R and Singhal, R G, Anti Inflammatory Activity Of Some New Thio-Ether Derivatives Of Quinoxaline International Journal of Drug Development & Research Oct-Dec 2010 | Vol. 2 | Issue 4 | ISSN 0975-9344
[4]. Antonio C, Giuseppe P, Mohammad E. R, Nikookar a,Paolo S , Leonardo S, Stefania Z, Novel substituted quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides with in vitro antimycobacterial and anticandida activity ( Eur. J. Med. Chem. 37 (2002) 355–366Original article
[5]. . Rong S, Yu X, Qinjie W, Qing X, Qiaojun H, Bo Y, Yongzhou H, Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of 3-phenyl-2-thio-quinoxaline1,4-dioxide derivatives in hypoxia and in normoxia Original Article http://www.ddtjournal.com Drug Discov Ther 2007;1(2):119-123. Original Article


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A review on chemistry and biological significance of benzimidaole
nucleu
s

Country

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NEPAL

Authors

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Nomi Srestha|| Janmajoy Banerjee||Sujiti Srivastava

Page No.

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28-41

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0401201028041

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012028041  

Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is an important pharmacophore
and privileged structure in medicinal chemistry. It plays a very important role with plenty of useful therapeutic activities such as: antiulcers, antihypertensives, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-virals, antifungals, anticancers, and antihistaminics. The review of the literature shows that the benzimidazole derivatives are outstandingly effective compound and number of reviews available for biochemical and pharmacological studies conformed that their molecules are useful against a wide variety of micro-organisms. Because of their importance, the methods for their synthesis have become a focus of Synthetic Organic Chemists. Therefore in the present review we tried to compile the chemistry of different derivative of substituted benzimidazole as well as various pharmacological activities and some of the important methodologies used for the synthesis.

 

Keywords- pharmacophore,Benzimidazole, anti-hypertensive,anti-histaminic,

 

[1]. Babita Goswami et al., Pharmacological activities of benzimidazole derivatives- Overview, IJSID, 2012, 2 (1), 121-136
[2]. Manna K, Aggarwal Y. Microwave assisted synthesis of new indophenazine 1, 3, 5-trisubstituted pyrrazoline derivatives of
benzofuran and their antimicrobial activity. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009; 19: 2688-2692.
[3]. Ramanpreet et al. Benzimidazole derivatives-An overview, IJRPC 2011, 1(3).
[4]. Shukla, Synthesis and Biological Screening of benzimidazole derivatives ,IJPSR, 2012; Vol. 3(3): 922-927
[5]. Tupe AP*, Pawar PY, Mane BY, and Magar SD, Synthesis Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some 2-Substituted 3-
Acetic Acid Benzimidazole Derivatives, RJPBCS, April – June 2013, Vol. 4 , Issue 2 ,Page No. 928
[6]. Sanahanbi N.* and T. Sivakumar, Synthesis of Some Schiff's Bases of 2-Methyl Benzimidazole Derivatives and Screening of
Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities, CODEN(USA) : AJBPAD, Issue 2 (Vol. 4) 2013
[7]. Marriappan G et al, Synthesis and evaluation of Mannich bases of benzimidazole derivatives, Indian Journal of Chemistry,
vol.50B, September 2011, pp.1216-1219.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Uveitis: Pathogenesis, Clinical presentations and Treatment

Country

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NEPAL

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa|| P.Muthusamy||SS. Hussain|| SC.Shimmi4,MM.Sein

Page No.

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42-47

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0401201042047

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012042047  

Uveitis a vision threatening inflammation of uvea is prevalent worldwide. In the United States uveitis has prevalence of 2.3 million people and causes 10% of all cases of blindness. Uveitis is classified by the ocular structures involved e.g., anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis.0cular TB(Eales' disease) is common in patients from Indian sub-continent. Frequent uveitis etiologies includes, Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis and fungi. Diagnosis of uveitis is always presumptive and cannot be proved by pathology or by culture. PCR has proven most useful in diagnosis of uveitis. Treatment is mostly by acyclovir, intravenous antiviral agents, anti TB drugs for ocular tuberculosis, intravenous penicillin for ocular syphilis and sulfadiazine for Toxoplasmosis, with corticosteroids added to prevent intraocular or sight threatening inflammation. Early diagnosis and treatment of uveitis can prevent vision loss

 

KEYWORS:Uveitis, Acute retinal necrosis, Progressive outer retinal necrosis, Herpetic anterior uveitis, and Treatment.

 

[1]. Durand ML. Infectious Causes of Uveitis. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases,7th Ed.Mandell GI.,Bennett JE,Dolin R(editors).Churchill Livingstone Elsevier,2010.
[2]. Subler ER,Ljoyd MJ,Choi D,et al.Incidence and prevalence of uveitis in veterans Affairs Medical Centers of Pacific North West. Am J 0phthalmol.2008;146:890-96.
[3]. Gritz Dc,Wong JG.Indidence and prevalence of uveitis in Northern California: The Northern California Epidemiology of Uveitis Study.0phthalmology.2004;111:491-500
[4]. Ronday MJH,Stilma JS,Barbe RF,et al.Blindness from uveitis in a hospital population in Sierra Leone.Br J 0phthalmol.1994;78:690-95.
[5]. Helm CJ,Holland GN,0cular tuberculosis. Surv Ophthalmol.1993;38:229-56.
[6]. Jacob F, Reuland MS, Mackensen F,et al. Uveitis subtypes in a German interdisciplinary uveitis center-analysis of 1916 patients Rheumatol .Dec .15 .2008; epub ahead of print.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of phytochemistry and uterotonic activity of root aqueous extract of Uvariodendron anisatum verdec. used in childbirth in Eastern/Central Kenya.

Country

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Kenya

Authors

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Misonge J.O.|| Ogeto J.O.|| Sengera G.O.|| Mwalukumbi J.M.|| Mwaura, A. M. || Juma S.D.

Page No.

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48-53

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0401201048053

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012048053  

Over 56 % of pregnant women in Kenya deliver at home with the assistance of mainly traditional birth attendants who use herbal remedies to complete the processes of child bearing in both urban and rural communities. The medicines and indigenous knowledge used by traditional birth attendants deserve to be properly validated through scientific scrutiny under conditions mimicking the indigenous methods of use. This work seek to evaluate the phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) which is used in the management of a variety of conditions including root decoction to ease labor or if the after birth is late or retained. This study is to investigate the phytochemical group of compounds and effects of of Uvariodendron anisatum aqueous root extract on the uterus of Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the accepted standard procedures and the extract was prepared by maceration. In-vitro pharmacological assay was done using doses of 50 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg and 800 mg. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenols, anthraquinones, steroids, carotenoids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and volatile oils. The extract also demonstrated weak uterine motility which corresponded to the dosage and displayed similar motility as oxytocin at high dose (800 mg).

 

Key Words: : Annonaceaea, Oxytocic activity, Maceration, Phytochemical screening

[1]. Bafor, E.E., Omogbai, E.K., Ozolua, R.I. (2009). Evaluation of the Uterotonic Activity of Ficus exasperata Vahl (Moraceae). Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 3, 34-40.
[2]. Beentje H.J. Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, 1994 p.53.
[3]. Catherine Kaluwa Kaingu, Jemimah Achieng Oduma and Titus Kanui (2012). Preliminary investigation of contractile activity of Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum extracts on isolated rabbit uterine strips. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 142:496-502)
[4]. Falodun A., Nworgu C.A.M. and Ikponmwonsa M.O. (2006). Phytochemical components of Hunteria umbellate (K. Schum) and its effects on isolated non-pregnant rat uterus in oesterus.Pakstan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 19(13):256-258.
[5]. Gachathi Murugu Norman Francis (2007). Kikuyu botanical dictionary. Revised edition. A guide to plant names, uses and cultural values. Tropical botany Nairobi, Kenya.
[6]. Government of Kenya (2014). The Kenya Health Bill
[7]. Harbone J.B.(1976). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plants analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London.
[8]. Houghton P.J. and Raman Amala (1998). Laboratory handbook for the fractionation of natural extracts. Chapman Hall. Lomdon
[9]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/uvariodendron_anusatum. May 25, 2012.
[10]. Kareru P.G.. Kenji G.M., Gachanja A.N., Keriko J.M. and Mungai G. (2007). Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere people of Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4 (1): 75-86.
[11]. Kenya National bureau of statistics (2011). Kenya County fact sheets.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Assessment of psychosocial aspects of divorcees employed in some institutes and colleges of the foundation of technical education in Baghdad city

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Abdullah E. Mecheser||Abdulkhaleq A. Al – Naqeeb ||Asmaa A. Obaid

Page No.

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54-64

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0401201054064

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04012054064  

Descriptive analytic study to asses' psychosocial aspects of divorcees employers in some of institutes and colleges of the foundation of technical education .From September 2011-December 2012 to determine and to assess the psychology and social aspects and whichever aremore effective on the divorce states for employers in the foundation's institutes and colleges .The study sampling was convenient consist of (thirty) divorces consisted of (ten) who did not respond to questions because the period of their divorce was close and reserved on the response ,because they think back to the case of the former matrimonial .Twenty who are the rest divorces consisted of (four) male and (sixteen) female who work in different functional professions .The researchers concluded that most of the divorced were affected by psychological and social factors. The assessment of the Psychological and social domains were reported as bad assessment with (100%). Descriptive and inferential statistical methods (Frequency, Percentage, Mean of Score, Standard deviation, and Relative Sufficiency and chi square) were used. The researchers recommended establishing the guidance of education and psychology to follow up all divorces and to present management for any problems which cause the separation or divorce.

 

Key Words: Divorce, Concept of divorce, Causes of divorce's, Divorce's individuals, Divorce's response

[1]. Amato, Paul R: (The consequences of divorce for adults and children). Journal of Marriage and Family, 2000,62;12691288.
[2]. Michael Mc Guire : (The adverse effects of divorce and how they have changed the family structure). 2000,P:1-2..
[3]. Kathleen O: (Psychological and emotional aspects of divorce), 1997-2012,P:1
[4]. Wendy M.: (Hand book of separation and divorce). \first edition. New York and Canada. 1996,P:3,82.
[5]. Stone, et al: (The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq). Rochester, NY: The boy dell Press,2008.24-40.