Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (Version 2)December 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Potency of Nanopropolis Stinglessbee Trigona spp Indonesia as Antibacterial Agent

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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A. E. Z. Hasan|| L. Ambarsari|| W.K. Widjaja|| R. Prasetyo

Page No.

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01-09

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/041220109  

Propolis is one of the natural produced by honey bee which have many benefits, due to its properties as antibacterial, antivirus, and anticancer. The aim of this study is to determine potency of nanopropolis honey bee from Pandeglang Banten Indonesia as antibacterial agent. Encapsulated nanopropolis was prepared by high speed homogenization technique followed by encapsulation using maltodekstrin with solvent evaporation technique. The size of nanopropolis was measured with SEM. The result of SEM show that size of nanopropolis is 175 nm. The antibacterial activity test was performed by agar well diffusion. Nanopropolis have activtiy as antibacterial agent for Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The nanopropolis showed higher bacterial activity than extract propolis were 205.86% for B. subtilis, 211.83% for S. aureus, 227.01% for E. coli, and 230.29% for Salmonella sp. While compared to amphicillin 10 mg/ml equel to 43.87%, 49.12%, 42.35%, and 37.58%. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of nanoproplis were 0.313%, 0.15%, 0.313%, and 0.625% for B. subtilis, S. aureus, E.coli, dan Salmonella sp respectively.

 

Key Words: propolis, nanopropolis, antibacterial, Trigona spp, Indonesia

[1]. Afrouzan H, C Amirinia, S.A. Mirhadi, A. Ebadollahi, N. Vaseji, G. Tahmasbi. 2012. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of propolis and nanopropolis against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Afr J Microbiol Res. 6(2):421-425.
[2]. Aitken RJ, Creely KS, Tran CL. 2004. Nanoparticle: An occupational hygiene review. Norwegia: St Clements House.
[3]. Al-Jumaily E, R.S. Al-Obaidiand, J. M. Abdulla. Hepatoprotective activity of flavvonoids purified and ethanolic extract from Iraqi propolis against carbon tetrachloride induced livar damage in male mica. IOSR J Pharm. 4(3):22-27.
[4]. Angraini AD. 2006. Potensi propolis lebah madu Trigona spp sebagai bahan antibakteri [skripsi]. Bogor: Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
[5]. Anwar E, Joshita D, Yanuar A, Bahtiar A. 2004. Utilization of maltodextrin wheat starch as an excipient in tablet dosage formula and niosom. J Pharm. 5: 34-46.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Sensitivity Of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) Scintigraphy Imaging To Detect Infection Lesions Induced By Staphylococcus Aureus Susceptible Or Resistant To Ciprofloxacin Antibiotic In Foot's Rat

Country

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Iran

Authors

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A. Doroudi || M. Erfani|| M. Rahmatian||S.M. Saadati || F. Ahmadi ||A.Kiasat||M.J. Khodayar||H. Meghdadi|| S. Rezaee

Page No.

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10-15

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0412201015  

The main propose of this approach is to evaluate the efficiency of 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) imaging to detect infection sites induced in foot's rat by staphylococcus aureus susceptible to ciprofloxacin in comparison with S aureus resistant to drug. S aureus bacteria have been isolated from the patients admitted in Imam Khomeini hospital Ahvaz Khuzestan Iran. According to the table of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) the sensitivity or resistant of bacteria to ciprofloxacin was determined. Susceptible or resistant bacteria to ciprofloxacin selected and separated. A total number of forty six adult, Male NMRI rats were chosen. The animals were divided into two groups. Infection lesion in foot's rat was induced by S aureus susceptible or resistant to ciprofloxacin respectively. The 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99mTc-Infecton administrated intravenously to each animal. Qualitative and quantitative studies have been performed. Infection sites induced by S aureus susceptible to quinolone could be observed and visualized by 99mTc-Infecton scintigraphy imaging. Qualitative and quantitative assessment indicated that radiotracer has not accumulated at the infection foci induced by S aureus resistant to ciprofloxacin antibiotic agent. Outcome of our assessment indicated that 99mTc-Ciproflixacin scintigraphy imaging study does not have any value to detect infection, if the bacteria involve in pathogenesis of induced infection lesions are resistant to ciprofloxacin. This study could demonstrate successfully that 99mTc-Ciproflixacin scintigraphy imaging study can be suggested as an alternative method for investigation of sensitivity or resistant S aureus to ciprofloxacin antibiotic in clinical practice.

 

Key Words: Ciprofloxacin, Infecton, Staphylococcus aureus, Scintigraphy imaging, 99mTc-Ciprofloxacin

[1] C.J. Palestro . The current rule of gallium imaging in infection. Sem Nucl Med 14, 994,128-141 [2] S. Crerand , M. Dolan , P. Laing , M. Bird , L.M. Smith , L. Klenerman . Diagnosis of osteomyelitis in neuropathic foot ulcers. J Bone and Joint Surg 78, 1996, 51-55

[3] R.E. Weiner , M.L. Thakur . Radiolabeled peptides in diagnosis and therapy . Semin Nucl Med 16, 2001,296-311

[4] W.J.G Oyen , R.A.M.J. Claessens , J.R. VanHorn , J.W.M. Vander Meer , F.H.M. Corstens . Scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infection with indium-111 labeled nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G. J Nucl Med 31,1990,403-412

[5] S.F. Mirshojaei , M. Gandomkar , R. Najafi , S.E. Sadat Ebrahimi , M.H. Babaei , A. Shafiei . Radio labeling ,quality control and biodistribution of 99mTc-cefotaxime as an infection imaging agent . J Radianal Nucl Chem 287, 2011,21-25


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A high frequency microcloning protocol for subsequent cryopreservation in Kaempferia galanga L.: An endangered, over exploited medicinal plant in pharmaceutics

Country

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India

Authors

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T.S. Preetha|| A.S. Hemanthakumar|| P. Padmesh, P.N. Krishnan

Page No.

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16-23

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0412201623  

An efficient in vitro propagation protocol was standardized in K. galanga, wherein shoot cultures were raised from rhizome with axillary bud explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormonal regimes. Maximum 10.6±0.83 multiple shoots per explants were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 4.0 mgl-1 6-benzyl adenine (BA) along with 1.0 mgl-1 each of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and kinetin. Subsequent 2-3 subculture passages enhanced the shoot multiplication rate to 3-4 times. The multiple shoots thus produced were having individual root system and elongated substantially when kept in the same medium for 4-6 weeks. There was no need of elongation and root induction phase and this two-step multiplication procedure reduced the period of plantlet production compared to the earlier protocols. The regenerated plants after a short hardening phase got established in the field at 80-90% efficiency and their genetic uniformity was confirmed through ISSR analysis. The protocol thus standardized is an efficient method for rapid propagation of this high value medicinal species by which at least 30 shoots per explants can be produced within 12 weeks duration. It offers the possibility of raising physiologically uniform plants for easy dissection of shoot tip meristems which can be efficiently utilized for subsequent long-term conservation through cryopreservation.

 

Key Words: endangered medicinal plant, in vitro clonal propagation, Kaempferia galanga

[1] A.M. Kareem, Plants in Ayurveda, (Foundation for Revitalization of Local Health Tradition (FRLHT), Bangalore, India, p 82, 240, 1997).
[2] D. Kanjanapothi, A. Panthong, N. Lertprasersuke, T. Taesotikul, C. Rujjanawate, D. Kaewpinit, Toxicity of crude rhizome extract of Kaempferia galanga L. (Proh Hom). J Ethnopharmacol, 90(2-3), 2004, 359–365.

[3] E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim, S.K. Wong, K.K. Lim, S.P. Tan, F.S. Lianto, M.Y. Yong, Effects of drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species. Food Chemistry, 113, 2009, 166-172.

[4] K.A. Vincent, M. Bejoy, M. Hariharan, K.M. Mathew, Plantlet regeneration from callus cultures of Kaempferia galanga Linn. – a medicinal plant. Indian J Plant Physiol, 34, 1991, 396-400.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Outcome of pregnancy among Pre-existing Type-2 Diabetic Women

Country

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Bangladesh

Authors

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Rahman M|| Islam MR|| Alam UK|| Yesmin K

Page No.

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24-33

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0412202433  

Background: Diabetes mellitus is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. As diabetes is a chronic and debilitating disease, it may have adverse effect on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Aim & Objective: To assess the outcomes of pregnancy among pre-existing type 2 diabetic women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 121 pre-existing type-2 diabetic women of post partum period, attended in postnatal ward and outdoor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, BIRDEM-2 hospital, Shegunbaghicha, Dhaka during the period from January 2012 to June 2012. Results: The study results revealed that 43% of the respondents were within the age group of 31-35 yrs and 7.4% was within the lower age group of >40 yrs. The mean age of the respondents was 33.37. Only 15.7% respondents had history of GDM in previous pregnancy. Mean difference between blood sugar level before current pregnancy and after delivery were significant (p<0.05). Gestational time of present baby, 68.6% were born before date and only 1.7% was post dated. Majority of the respondents delivered baby by caesarian section that was around 82.6%. Relationship of blood sugar level after delivery with mode of delivery was significant (p <0.05). Maternal outcome of the respondents 20.7% was premature labour and 1.7% was spontaneous abortion which is less common. Neonatal outcome 42.1% was live birth with no complication, 20.6% was hyperbillirubinaemia, 16.5% was respiratory disorder and 9.1% small for gestational age was common. Death after live birth was 1.7%. Low birth weight was 26.4%, 65.3% was normal and 8.3% was macrosomia. Conclusion: Pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus is a public health problem, so it is considered that the findings of the study will not only help as guideline for preventive programme, but also serve as useful basis for future research and planning.

 

Keywords- T2DM, Pregnancy, Pregnancy outcome, Bangladesh

 

[1]. National Center for Health Statistics: Advance report of maternal infant health data from the birth certificate, 1991. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. 1994; Vol. 42, no. 11, Suppl.
[2]. Piper JM, Mitchel EF, Snowden M, Hall C, Adams M, Taylor P: Validation of 1989 Tennessee birth certificates using maternal and newborn hospital records. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137:758-68.
[3]. National Center for Health Statistics: Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1991. Vital and Health Statistics. 1992Series 10, no. 184.
[4]. National Center for Health Statistics: Current estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 1992. Vital and Health Statistics. 1994Series 10, no. 189.
[5]. National Center for Health Statistics: Advance report of final natality statistics, 1992. Monthly Vital Statistics Report. 1994;Vol. 43, no. 5, Suppl.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development and Evaluation of Enteric Coated Herbal Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Asthma

Country

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India

Authors

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Md Sarfaraz|| V.G. Joshi

Page No.

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34-46

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0412203446  

Adhatoda Vasica is a plant believed to have several therapeutic effects including anti-asthmatic properties. The purpose of study was to develop its tablet formulation by direct compression technology for prevention of episodic attack of asthma in early morning. To achieve the objective, formulations containing core immediate release Adhatoda Vasica tablets were prepared by direct compression method using different concentrations (2.5 – 7.5%w/w) of superdisintegrant cross caramellose sodium. Each formulation was characterized in terms of hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro disintegration time. On the basis of disintegration profile, the selected best formulation was coated with ethyl cellulose as inner layer and Eudragit S100 as outer enteric-coating layer which retards the drug release in stomach but releases the drug immediately in the intestinal pH. The optimized enteric-coated formulation CF6 containing 2.5% w/w of Eudragit S 100 and 25% w/w of ethyl cellulose as coating system inhibited the release of the drug in 0.1 N HCl, and whereas 91.46% of drug was released in the intestinal medium at the end of 10 hrs. Thus, dissolution profiles indicated that CF6 tablet may be better alternative in the treatment of nocturnal asthma which overcomes the problems of conventional forms. The results obtained revealed that developed vasaka formulation exhibited a promising role in release of drug after a lag time which is essential for chronotherapeutic delivery.

 

Keywords- Adhatoda Vasica, asthma, chronotherapy, direct compression, enteric coating

 

[1]. M.J.Neal, Medical pharmacology at a glance (UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001).
[2]. S.Govindan, S.Viswanathan, V.Vijayasekaran and R.Alagappan, A pilot study on the clinical efficacy of Solanum Xanthocarpum and Solanum trilobatum in bronchial asthma. J Ethnopharmacol, 66, 1999, 205-10.
[3]. H.William Kelly, A.Christine Sorkness, Asthma, in R.L. Talbert (Ed), Pharmacotherapy: A patholophysiologic approach; 7 (New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2008) 463-514.
[4]. U. Dethlefsen and R. Repgas, Ein neues Therapieprinzip bei Nachtlichen Asthma, Klin Med, 80, 1985, 44-7.
[5]. M. R.Hetzel and T. J. Clark, Comparison of normal and asthmatic circadian rhythms in peak expiratory flow rate, Thorax, 35, 1980, 732—738.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Health care-associated pneumonia: Pathogenesis Diagnosis and Preventions

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa|| IM.Yusof||MDS.Rahman||MM.Sein|| TS.Tan

Page No.

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47-52

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04122047052  

ABASTRACT:Pneumonia has been ancientdisease, pneumonia referred as captain of the men of death and the old man's friend. Health care–associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator -associated pneumonia (VAP) has high morbidity and mortality. Wide spectrum of bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens are frequent cause of HAP and VAP. Over the years tremendous progress has been made in reducing health care-associated infections and antibiotic management and implementation of prevention strategies. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilator support without need for intubation and is an effective alternative for patients with chronic pulmonary disease.Limiting the use of continuous sedation, paralyticagents, use of Silver-coated Endotracheal Tube, oralantiseptic, modulation of oropharyngeal colonization by oral antibiotics, and use of quantitativemicrobiologiccultures to assess lower airway colonizationand infection. Prevention is cost effective and the key to reduced mortality and morbidity. Old proverb, "prevention is better than cure"

 

Keywords- Health care-associated pneumonia,Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Preventions

 

[1]. Feigin Ralph.Text Book of Pediatric Infectious Diseases,(5thed) .Philadelphia :W.B. Saunders.2004;229.
[2]. Hippocrates 0n Acute Diseases wikisource link.
[3]. Maimonides,Fusul Musa("Pirkei Moshe").
[4]. Klebs E."Beitrage zur Kenntniss der pathogenen Schistomyceten.VII Die Monadinen"[Signs for Recognition of Pathogen Schistomyceten].Arch Exptl Pathol Phamakol.1875-12-10;4(5/6):40-88.
[5]. Friedlander C."Uber die Schismyceten beri der acuten fibrosen pneumonie"Virchow's Arch pathol Anat U Physiol.1882-02-04;87(2):319-324.doi:10.1007/BF01880516.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Cefepime and Tazobactam Injection using RP-UPLC Method

Country

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India

Authors

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Panchal Vipul J|| Desai Hemant T|| Patel Nirav B|| Panchal Kalpesh B

Page No.

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53-60

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/04122053060  

This research manuscript describes simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and repeatable RP- UPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Cefepime (CEFE) and Tazobactam (TAZ) Injection in combine dosage form. The sample was analyzed by reverse phase C18 column (Acquity UPLC BEH 100 × 2.1 mm ID, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase. In mobile phase, Solution A containing Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 6.5±0.2 with Orthophosphoric acid), Citric acid buffer (pH adjusted to 5.0±0.2 with NaoH solution) and Acetonitrile and Solution B containing Tetradecyl ammonium bromide, Tetraheptyl ammonium bromide and Acetonitrile in the flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Quantification was achieved 230 nm with PDA detector. The retention time for Cefepime and Tazobactam was found to be 0.68 and 1.69 minute respectively. The linearity for Cefepime and Tazobactam was obtained in the concentration range of 40-280 μg/ml and 5-35 μg/ml respectively. Cefepime and Tazobactam API and market formulation were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolytic forced degradation. The peak purity of drug substance and drug product peak also confirmed the specificity of the methods with respect to the degradation products. In the forced degradation study Cefepime and Tazobactam showed maximum degradation in base hydrolysis stress study followed by less degradation in thermal degradation. The developed method was simple, specific, sensitive, rapid, and economic and can be used for estimation of Cefepime and Tazobactam in bulk and their combined dosage form for routine analysis and stability studies.

 

Keywords- Cefepime, Tazobactam, Method validation, RP-UPLC, Forced degradation

 

[1]. Indian Pharmacopeia, (The Indian pharmacopeia commission, Indian pharmacopeia laboratory government of India, Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Sector 23, Raj nagar, Ghaziabad-201002, 2014) 1302-1305.
[2]. British Pharmacopeia, (British Pharmacopeia Commission, expert Advisory groups, panels of experts and working parties, 2014) 438-440.
[3]. United State Pharmacopeia, (United State Pharmacopeia Convention, Rockville, 2013) 2855-2858.
[4]. Navin K. Khare, Rabindra K. Nanda, Raymond M. Lawrence and Dipak A. Navathar, Development and validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous estimation of Cefepime and Tazobactam in combined dosage form by area under curve and Q-Analysis, International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 2(2), 2012, 1-8.
[5]. N. Sunitha, L. Sindhura, B. Thangabalan and S. Manohar Babu, Development and Validation of RP–HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Cefepime and Tazobactam in Injection Formulation, Asian J. Pharm Ana, 3(4), 2013, 131-137.
[6]. K. Neelima, Y. Rajendra Prasad, N. Appalraju, S. Selina and R. Nikhila, Analytical Method Development and Validation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Tazobactam Sodium in Bulk and Sterile Dry Powder for Injection by Gradient RP-HPLC, Indo American Journal of Pharmaceuticals Science, 3(10), 2013, 8400-8407.