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The study aims to detect the insulin-like protein and determine the active compounds in Bauhinia variegata L. leaves ethanolic extracts that help in reducing the blood glucose levels for white albino mice. The chemical detection of leaves ethanolic extract revealed the presence of tannins, terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids as active compounds. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method, using C18 column resulted in presence of insulin-like protein in the leaves extracts. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels after 3 days of the treatment, and high reduction obtained after 6, 9, 12 days as compared with the human swine insulin used as a control. It was concluded that the crude ethanolic extracts and the partial purified insulin of B. variegata was used to examine the existence of insulin-like protein in this plant. This study is an attempt to report plant insulin that may be useful to the student in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop alternative medicine to cure diabetes in human.
KEYWORDS:Bauhinia, Active compounds, HPLC analysis
[1.] Pereira, R. C.; Oliveira, M. TR. and Lemos, G. CS. (2004). Plantas utilizadas como medicinais no municipio de Campos de Goylacazes – RJ. Rev. Brsa. Farmacogn., 14(1); 37-40.
[2.] Thiruvenka, R. and Jayakar, B. (2010). Anti-Hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidaemic activities of Bauhinia. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2(5): 330-334.
[3.] Rajani, G. P.,and Purnima, A. (2009). In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Indian J. Pharmacol.,;41(5)227-32.
[4.] Ghaisas, M. M.; Shaikh, S. A.,and Deshpande, A. D. (2009). Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Int. J. Green Pharm., 3:70-4.
[5.] Chu, W. L. (2005). SemBioSys Reports Positive Preclinical Results of Plant Produced Insulin. In the Plant Biotechnology Journal.
[6.] Silva, K. L. and Cechine-Filho, V. (2002). Plantas do genero Bauhinia: Composicao quimica epotencial farmacologico. Quim. Nova. 25: 121-125.
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is among the most widely used alkylating anti-cancer agents in chemotherapy. Myelotoxicity is one of its dose-limiting adverse effects. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the possible protective potential of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) aqueous leaf extract in CP-induced myelotoxicity through evaluation of haematological parameters, glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase(CAT)) as well as histopathological examination of the kidney and liver sections of rats. Outcome was compared with that expressed by MESNA. Administration of CP in a single dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (P<0.01) decreased RBCs, WBCs and platelets counts. In addition, CP produced a significant (P<0.01) reduction of all biochemical parameters assayed as well as observable disruption of liver and kidney tissue architectures. Pretreatment of animals with VA (250 mg/kg, per os) daily for 10 consecutive days significantly (P<0.01) ameliorated the changes in haematological and biochemical parameters as well as histopathological changes induced by CP when compared to the CP-treated group. Conclusively, Vernonia amygdalina (VA) aqueous leaf extract could have protective potential against CP-induced myelotoxicity.
Key-words: Cyclophosphamide; MESNA; Myelotoxicity, Vernonia amygdalina.
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BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a common and demanding health related problem that has a wide effect on every day‟s life of the patients. It can have a profound effect on quality of life in terms of social and psychological well-being as well as physical ill-health. It is one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic diseases; with psychosocial factors pertinent to nearly every aspect of the disease and its treatment.
OBJECTIVE: To Assess the perceived Health-related quality of life of diabetic patients not on insulin therapy using the WHOQoL-Bref (World Health Organization Quality of Life – Brief).
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study.
STUDY SITE: The study was conducted on patients attending the Diabetic clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that diabetes affected HRQoL of our study participants. There is a need for interventions programs to improve glycemic control and inclusion of HRQoL assessment as part of patients on follow up. Age and duration of disease are not modifiable but complications can be reduced by better health care initiaves. Income-related factors can be modifiable through poverty alleviation and pooled health care financing.
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 American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice Recommendations. (2002) Diabetes care. 25 (suppl.1)
 Qari F.A. (2005). Glycemic and Good Target Control among Diabetics at a university and Erfan private hospital. Turkish journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. (2), 49-54.
 K. Inoue, M. Masatoshi Matsumoto, Y. kobayashi, (2007). The combination of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin predicts type 2 diabetes in Japanese workers. Diab. Res. Clin.Pract. 1-8.
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 Sobngwi E,, Maurvais-Jarvis, F, Mbanya, J.C. (2007) Diabetes in Africa: epidemiology and clinical specifities.
 Kenya Diabetes Study Group 2011.
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The present study aims to investigatethe antioxidant activity of flavonoids purified and methanolic extract from propolis on male mice compared to that caused by carbon tetrachloride as a hepatotoxic model by measuring the determination of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase change in liver damage. The results showed that the enzymes antioxidants (Glutothinone peroxidase (GPx) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) had increased significantly (P (0.0l5) after it has been feeding male mice carbon tetrachloride, and that each of the flavonoids purified at a concentration (500 and 1000 mg / kg) and ethanolic extract at a concentration (500 mg / kg) has led to decreased Glutothinone peroxidase enzyme (GPx) activity significantly (P (0.05) compared to the control treatment after feeding them for 14 days. The ethanolic extract for propolis concentration of 1000 mg / kg and vitamin C concentration of 180 mg / kg has led to increased significantly (P (0.05) when compared with the treatment of control but a level significantly lower (P (0.05) compared with the treatment tetrachloride carbon.Either Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has led flavonoids pure and ethanolic extract for propolis (500 and 1000 mg / kg) to increase significantly the level (P (0.05) compared to treatment tetrachloride carbon, and vitamin C which led to a decline in the level of the enzyme significantly (P < 0.05) when feeding them for 14 days. Either enzyme catalase (CAT) has led flavonoids pure and ethanol extract of propolis (500 and 1000 mg / kg) to decrease significantly (P (0.05) compared to treatment tetrachloride carbon and control group as well as when feeding with vitamin C and ethanol extract alone at a concentration (1000 mg / kg) led to a significant decrease of the level (P (0.05). The study concluded that flavonoids pure and ethanolic extract of Iraqi propolis has led to a reduction of the inhibitory effect as well as for damage to the work of the liver and there by protect members from free radicals and inhibit the liberation of these ROS.
Key Words: enzymes antioxidant (Glutothinone peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase, catalase), Iraqi Propolis, flavonoids purified, methanolic extract.
 Benkovic ,V. H.; Knezevic, A. H.; Brozovic, G.; Knezevic, F.; Dikic, D.;Bevanda, M.; Basic, I. and Orsolic, N.(2007). Enhanced antitumor activity of irinotecan combined with propolis and its polyphenolic compounds on Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice. Biomed.Pharmacother., 61: 292-297.
 Kumar, N.; Mueen, A. K. K.; Dang, R.; Shivananda, T. N. and Das, K. (2009). GC-MS analysis of propolis of Indian origin.Pharmacognosy, 1: 46-48.
Castaldo, S.andCapasso, F. (2002). Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine. Fitoterapia, 73: S1-S6.
 Naik, D. G.; Vaidya, H. S. and Behera, B. C. (2009). Antioxidant properties of Indian propolis. J. Api. Pro.Api Med. Sci., 1: 110-120.
 Syamsudin, Dewi, R. M. and Kusmardi, (2009). Immunomodulatory and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of propolis extracts. Am. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 4: 75-79.
 Ercin CN, Bagci S, Yesilova Z, Aydin A, Sayal A, Erdem G (2008). Oxidative stress in extrahepatic cholestasis. Anatol J Clin Investig.;2:150–4.
 Al-Bahrani, M.H.A. (2008). The role of extracellular oxygen radicals of Enterococcus faecalis in causing colonic cancer. M.Sc. thesis .IGEB , Baghdad University. Iraq.
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Reporting of infectious diseases in Albania is based on monthly reporting of cases through 14/Sh form. The data flow is carried out from local level (districts) to central level (IPH). In 1998, the surveillance system were carried out changes which are needed to improve the information available to health care providers.Objective: Assessment of the surveillance system to identify strengths and its limitations and to make appropriate recommendations on improvements.Methods: The study were descriptive one. In the study were included reported data by monthly form during the period 1998-2009 and notified individual form during the period 2007-2009, it to see the authenticity of the reported data and to know the situation regarding the level of health risks.The study was conducted in 12 major districs.Results:Obtained results showed the discordance between the individual information generated by the hospitals and laboratories and monthly information generated by reporting units. This surveillance system is represented by the low quality data which is expressed through incomplete, inaccurate and slow data. Conclusion: Need for standardization of the system with the standard required by ECDC.
KEY WORDS: surveillance system, infection diseases, diarrhea diseases, data reporting
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 ECDC, Surveillance of Communicable Diseases in the European Union. A long term strategy: 2008-2013.
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 Baqui AH et al. (1991) Methodological issues in diarrhoeal diseases epidemiology: definition of diarrhoeal episodes. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20:1057–1063.
 Kakariqi. E, Evaluation of health information system in Albania, Tirana 2008.
 World Health Organization (1982) Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme: an overview of the problem in the Americas. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 57:353–355.
 EUVAC.NET. Measles surveillance annual report 2007. Available from http://www.euvac.net/graphics/euvac/pdf/annual_2009.pdf
 Kakariqi. E, Infectious Diseases Epidemiology in Albania, Tirana 2002.
 Chen KC et al. (1991)The epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases in southeastern China. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 9:94–99.