Volume 4 ~ Issue 4 April 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytomedicines in Dentistry

Country

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India

Authors

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Shailja Chatterjee

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-040401-03 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/044001003

In this era of emergence of superbugs, one is in dire need of treatment modalities that treat a patient without hampering the microflora and immunity status. Traditional medicines like herbal by-products are currently being researched over and reintroduced in the commercial market as old wine in new bottles. This paper highlights the use of such plant products in dentistry, short-termed as "Phytomedicines

 

KEYWORDS:Phytomedicine, superbugs, dentistry

[1]. TT Shafi, Ashok A and K Suresh. A study on the antibacterial effects of selected Western ghats against dental caries bacteria. Int J of Phytomed 2011;3:416-21.
[2]. Groppo FC, Bergamaschi CC, Cogo K et al. Use of phytotherapy in dentistry. Phytother Res 2008;22:993-8.
[3]. Almeida LSB, Murata RM, Yatsuda R et al. Antimicrobial activity of Rheedi brasiliensis and 7-epiclusianone against Streptococcus mutans. Phytomed 2008;15:886-91.
[4]. Sabzghabace AM, Shirclare Z, Ebadian B et al. Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of Pelargonium graveolns for the treatment of denture stomatitis. Dent Res J 2011;8(5):S105-8.
[5]. Redding S, Bhatt B, Rawls HR et al. Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation on denture material. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:669-72.
[6]. Kandaswamy D, Venkatesh Babu N, Gogulnath D et al. Dentinal tubule disinfection with 2% chlorhexidine gel, proplis, Morinda citrifolia juice, 2% povidone iodine and calcium hydroxide.Int Endod J 2010;43:419-23.
[7]. Murray PE, Farber RM, Namerow KN et al. Evaluation of Morinda citrifolia as an endodontic irrigant. J Endod 2008;34:66-70.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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OSA: An awaking disorder!

Country

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India

Authors

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Srihari R.||Mathangi D.C.|| Shyamala R.

Page No.

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04-07

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-040404-07 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044004007

OSA is characterized by repeated narrowing or collapse of the upper airway during sleep. It is the most common sleep disordered breathing seen among general population and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Recent lifestyle modifications have made Indian population more prone to this chronic disorder. Epidemiological studies show an increase in OSA prevalence among Indian population. OSA is associated with various co-morbid conditions which can be easily prevented by early diagnosis for which awareness should be brought among practicing Indian physicians and general population.

 

Key-words: CPAP, co-morbidities, obstructive sleep apnea, polysomnography (PSG), risk factors

[1] JA. Dempsey, SC. Veasey, BJ. Morgan, and CP.O'Donell, Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea, Physiol Rev, 90, 2012, 47-112.
[2] C. Iber, S. Ancoli-Israel, A.Chesson, and S.Quan, AASM Manual for the scoring of sleep Associated Events:Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications. 1st ed. Westchester, illiois: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007
[3] American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults:recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force , Sleep,22, 1999, 667-689.
[4] SK. Sharma, S.Kumpawat, Banga A, and Goel A, Prevalence and risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a population of Delhi, India, Chest,130(1), 2006, 149-156
[5] PC Deegan, WT. McNicholas, Predictive values of clinical features for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, Eur Respir J, 9, 1996, 117-124.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Impact of Prehypertension on Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Bidhan Ch. Mandal, Md|| Dr Subhra Prakash Pramanik, Md|| Dr Arijit Bag, Md|| Prof. Niladri Sarkar

Page No.

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08-10

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0404.08-10 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044008010

Background: Recent evidence supports that the prehypertension is associated with target organ damage, though there is lack of information regarding common carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT) in prehypertensive individuals. We aimed to study the role of prehypertension in target organ damage in the form of CIMT. Methods: Carotid CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography by an experienced hand blinded to all clinical data in fifty prehypertensive subjects and compared with fifty normotensive persons and another fifty hypertensive patients. Result: In this age and sex matched study the mean CIMT of prehypertensivesubjects weresignificantlyhigher compared to normotensive persons (0.694 ± 0.048 mm vs. 0.607 ± 0.004 mm, p value <0.001). It was highest among hypertensives (0.736 ± 0.540mm) and lowest in normotensive (0.607±0.004 mm) persons. Conclusion: it is clearly seen that there is increased target organ damage in the form of increased CIMT in prehypertensive group and hypertensive group compare to normotensive group justifying separate entity of prehypertension and early treatment of prehypertensive patients.

 

KEY WORDS: carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT), prehypertension.

[1]. The seventh report of the JointNational Committee on prevention,detection, evaluation and treatment ofhigh blood pressure: The JNC 7 report.JAMA.2003;289:2560–72.
[2]. Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, Rosamond W, Szklo M, SharrettAR, Clegg LX. Association of coronary heart disease incidence withcarotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the AtherosclerosisRisk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987–1993. Am J Epidemiol.1997;146:483– 494.
[3]. Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, Rosamond W, Szklo M, SharrettAR, Clegg LX. Association of coronary heart disease incidence withcarotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the AtherosclerosisRisk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987–1993. Am J Epidemiol.1997;146:483– 494.
[4]. Greenlund KJ, Croft JB, Mensah GA. Prevalence of heart disease andstroke risk factors in persons with prehypertension in the United States,1999–2000. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2113–2118.
[5]. Papamichael, Savas Toumanidis, Elefterios Stamboulis, Konstantinos Vemmos and NikolaosEfstathios Manios, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Eleni Koroboki, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Christos Zakopoulos. Impact of Prehypertension on Common Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Left Ventricular Mass. Stroke. 2009;40:1515-1518.
[6]. Julius S, Nesbitt SD, Egan BM, et al; the Trial of Preventing Hypertension (TROPHY) Study Investigators. Feasibility of treating prehypertension with an angiotensin-receptor blocker. N Engl J Med. 2006;354
[7]. Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Skoumas J, Stefanadis C.Association between prehypertension status and inflammatory markersrelated to atherosclerotic disease. The ATTICA Study.Am J Hypertens.2004;17:568 –573.
[8]. Papadopoulos D, Makris T, Krespi P, Poulakou M, Stavroulakis G,Hatzizacharias A, Perrea D, Votteas V. Adiponectin and resistin plasmalevels in healthy individuals with prehypertension. J ClinHypertens.2005;7:729 –733.
[9]. 9.Pauletto P, Palatini P, Da Ros S, Pagliara V, Santipolo N, Baccillieri S,Casiglia E, Mormino P, Pessina AC. Factors underlying the increase incarotid intima-media thickness in borderline hypertensives. ArteriosclerThrombVasc Biol. 1999;19:1231–1237.
[10]. Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Chambless LE, Nieto FJ. Risk factors forcardiovascular event recurrence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.Am Heart J. 2005;149:606–612.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Eye banking and corneal transplantation in Tertiary care hospital located in rural area

Country

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India

Authors

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Sonu Lohiya|| Ruchita Attal|| Pradeep Bokariya

Page No.

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11-16

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040411-16 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044011016

Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor material, more marked in rural area this study about eye banking and corneal transplantation was conducted in tertiary care hospital located in rural area. This study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kasturba Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from January 2008 to December 2012.It is a hospital based prospective study.

 

KEY WORDS: Eye Banking, Corneal Transplant

[1]. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009. World Health Assembly Document A62/7: Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. 2009 – 2013; pp. 7–17.

[2]. Dandona R, Dandona L. Corneal blindness in a southern Indian population: Need for health promotion strategies. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:133–41. [PMCID: PMC1771511] [PubMed: 12543736]

[3]. Witcher J, Srinivasan M, Upadhyay MP. Corneal blindness: A global perspective. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:214–21. [PMCID: PMC2566379] [PubMed: 11285665]
[4]. Patel et al. The New Zealand National Eye Bank Study 1991-2003: A Review of the Source and Management of Corneal Tissue.
[5]. Cornea. 24(5):576-582, July 2005.Everts, et al. Corneoscleral Rim Cultures: Lack of Utility and Implications for Clinical Decision-making and Infection Prevention in the Care of Patients Undergoing Corneal Transplantation. Cornea. 20(6):586-589, August 2001.
[6]. Dandona et al. Indications for penetrating keratoplasty in India. Indian J Ophthalmol 45:163-168,1997.
[7]. Lindquist et al (1981) Indications for penetrating keratoplasty: Cornea 10:210-16, 1991
[8]. Vanathi et al. Indications and outcome of repeat penetrating keratoplasty in India, BMC, Ophthalmology, 5:26, 2005.
[9]. Valery et al. The Profile of Repeated Corneal Transplantation, Ophthalmology 108:461-469,2001.
[10]. Mayer et al. Assessment Of Success And Complications Of Triple Procedure Surgery, American J Ophthalmology 104:233-240, September 1987.
[11]. Machado et al. The Relationship between First Postoperative Day Epithelial Status and Eventual Health of the Ocular Surface in Penetrating Keratoplasty. Cornea. 21(6):574-577, August 2002.
[12]. Berville et al. The Effect Of Donor Cornea Epithelium Removal On The Incidence Of Allograft Rejection Reactions, Ophthalmology 90:1351-1356, 1983.
[13]. Soong et al. Small, Overlapping Tectonic Keratoplasty Involving Graft-Host Junction of Penetraing Keratoplasty, American J Ophthalmol 129:465-467, 2000.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Reporting Adverse Drug Reactions: Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Community Pharmacists in UAE

Country

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United Arab Emirates

Authors

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Sundos Qassim|| Zakia Metwaly|| Mohammed Shamsain|| Yassin Al Hariri

Page No.

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17-23

Paper Index

::

DOI :10.9790/3013-040417-23 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044017023

In United Arab Emirates (UAE), the pharmacovigilance (PV) program is in the stage of initiation therefore the success of such a program depends upon the participation of the health care professionals. No study has been found regarding the role of the community pharmacist as a health care provider in monitoring drug safety after marketing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) toward adverse drug reactions (ADRs ) reporting among community pharmacists (CPs) in Ajman and Sharjah, UAE. Evaluating the baseline KAP of the CPs regarding ADRs reporting can be useful in providing information for the progress of a PV program in UAE. An interview questionnaire was delivered to 300 CPs in Ajman and Sharjah cities. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used for data analysis. Only 4.9% of respondents had good ADRs reporting knowledge, while the majority of pharmacists 93.7% had a positive attitude towards ADRs reporting. Forty four percent of the pharmacists were not alert about ADRs reporting program in UAE. Only 3.6 % of the enrolled pharmacists submitted ADRs report and only 11.2% had good practice score. The results of our study clearly point out that in spite of the community pharmacists positive attitude there was a lack of appropriate knowledge and practice to implement ADRs reporting successfully. The results emphasized the critical need for interventions to support ADRs reporting activity and to maintain CPs positive attitude.

 

KEY WORDS: Adverse Drug Reaction (ADRs), Attitude, Community Pharmacists, Knowledge, Pharmacovigilance, Practice, Reporting

[1] Gallagher RM, Kirkham JJ, Mason JR, Bird KA, Williamson PR, Nunn AJ, Pirmohamed M, Development and inter-rater reliability of the Liverpool adverse drug reaction causality assessment tool, PloS One,6(12),2011,e28096. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028096.
[2] Elkalmi RM, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MIM, Widodo RT, Efan QM, Hadi MA. Pharmacy students' knowledge and perceptions about pharmacovigilance in Malaysian public universities, Am J Pharm Educ,75(5), 2011, Article 96.
[3] Kharkar M, Bowalekar S. Knowledge, attitude and perception/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners in India towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting, Perspect Clin Res, 3(3), 2012, 90-94.
[4] Morimoto T, Gandhi TK, Seger AC, Hsieh TC, Bates DW. Adverse drug events and medication errors :detection and classification methods, Qual Saf Health Care, 13(4), 2004, 306-314.
[5] Nebeker JR, Barach P, Samore MH. Clarifying adverse drug events: a clinician's guide to terminology, documentation, and reporting, Ann Intern Med, 140(10), 2004, 795-801.
[6] Hodgkinson MR, Dirnbauer NJ, Larmour I. Identification of Adverse Drug Reactions Using the ICD-10 Australian Modification Clinical Coding Surveillance, Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 39(1), 2009, 19-24.
[7] Patel KJ, Kedia MS, Bajpai D, Mehta SS, Kshirsagar NA, Gogtay NJ. Evaluation of the prevalence and economic burden of adverse drug reactions presenting to the medical emergency department of a tertiary referral centre: a prospective study, BMC Clinical Pharmacology, 7(1), 2007, 7-8.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Pattern of some Liver Enzymes and Cardiovascular Changes during a Trademill Exercise

Country

::

India

Authors

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Ikemefuna FO||Meludu SC||Dioka CE||Onah CE||Okwara JE||Nwankwo MJ||Nwokolo HI.

Page No.

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24-27

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040424-27 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044024027

Background: Enzymes have been widely utilized as diagnostic tool. Their use in the assessment of stress induced by exercise need to be further evaluated. This study examined the pattern of some liver enzyme changes as well as cardiovascular changes during exercise in some students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. Methods: Sixty apparently healthy student (30 males and 30 females aged 18- 30 years) participated in the study. The anthropometric indices were taken and their body mass index calculated from their measured height and weight. Their blood pressure and pulse rate were also taken before and after exercise on the treadmill and their physical fitness level were estimated using the Bruce protocol. Their blood samples were collected before and immediately after the exercise for laboratory analysis. Results: There was significant increase in the post-exercise values of systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to the pre-exercise values in both male and female subjects. However, there was significant decrease in the post exercise values of the diastolic blood pressure in both male and female subjects compared to their pre- exercise values. Conclusion: This study showed that physical exercise increases liver enzymes. This finding could reflect the physiological changes in the normal life of the students in the stressed condition. However, this effect may be beneficial health-wise, but care need to be taken not to overdrive the changes to deleterious levels. Moreover, exercise should be taken into consideration when interpreting liver enzymes' results.

 

KEY WORDS: Exercise, liver enzymes, stress, treadmill.

[1]. Nevell ME, Boobies LH, Brook S, Williams C. Effects of training on muscle metabolism drug treadmill sprinting. J Appl Physiol. 1989;67:2376-2382.
[2]. Stampfer M.J.Hu F.B, Manson J.E, Rimm E.B, Willet W.C. Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women through Diet and Life Style . New Engl J Med. 2000;3439(1):16
[3]. Medhat Kasem AbdEL Razek. Effect of Practice Exercise on Health of Femininity Hormonnes and Fertility in Girls. 2010;3(4):257-260.
[4]. Slentz CA. Effect of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition and measures of central obesity: strude- randomized controlled study. Arch. intern. Med. 2004;164(1):31-39
[5]. Mena P. Mayner M.Campillo J.E. Changes in the plasma enzymes activities in professional racing cyclists. Bri J sports Med 1996;30 (2):122-124
[6]. Tiidus PM and Lanuzzo CD. Effects of intensity and duration of muscular exercise on delayed soreness and serum enzyme activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(6):461-5.
[7]. Rudberg A, Magnusson P, Larsson L, Joborn H. serum isoforms of bone alkaline phosphatase increase during physical exercise in women. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000;66:342-7.
[8]. King EJ and Armstrong AR. A convenient method for determing serum and bile phosphatase activities. Can Med Assoc J. 1934;31:376-81.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Synthesis, Characterization, Structural Interpretation, Biological
Activity and DNA Cleavage Studies of 3-acyl 2-(2'hydroxy-5-X
phenyl) Benzothiazoline Cu (II) Complexes

Country

::

India

Authors

::

B.Aparna1, K.Sudeepa || Dr. Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy Thirumalai||

P. Mamtha|| Sujitha Pallemoni || Ch. Sarala Devi

Page No.

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28-42

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040428-42 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044028042

Benzothiazolines and other compounds containing –NC6H4S- are reported to have biological
activity. The ligand 3-acyl 2-(2'hydroxy-5-X phenyl)benzothiazoline (X=H, Cl, NO2, OCH3) forms complexes [Cu(L-H)] which have been characterised by various spectro-analytival techniques such as elemental analyses, magnetic moments, molar conductance, electronic, mass, ESR, TGA and IR spectral measurements. Room temperature ESR spectra of Cu(II) complexes inferred 'g' values characteristic of square planar geometry and square pyramidal geometry. The QSAR and molecular properties of title compounds were computed by employing HyperChem 7.5 tools. The title compounds and their corresponding Cu(II) complexes were assayed by the agar disk diffusion method for antibacterial and antifungal action against E. coli, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. Subtilis and C. Albicans respectively. The DNA cleavage studies on PBR322 DNA indicated the hydrolytic cleavage by Cu (II)-AHNPBT, wherein super coiled DNA (form I) is converted into relaxed and linear DNA (form II & form III).

 

Keywords: Benzothiazoline, Cu (II) complexes, DNA Cleavage studies, ESR studies

[1] Gupta RR., (1988) Editor Bioactive Molecules (Vol.4) (Elsevier Press, Amsterdam)

[2] H.P.Lankelma and P.Sharnoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 54, 379(1932).

[3] M.T.Bogert and B. Naiman, J.Am. Chem. Soc., 57, 1529 (1935).

[4] F.J.Kreysa, V.F.Maturi, J.J.Finn, J.J.Mc.Clarnon and F.Lombardo, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 73, 1155(1951).

[5] R.Cefalu, B. Bosco, F. Bonati, F. Maggio and R. Barbiery, Zeit. Anorg. Allg. Chem., B376, 180 (1970).

[6] B.S.Sarswat, G. Srivastava and R.C.Mehrotra, J. Organomet. Chem., 137, 301(1977).

[7] S.G.Teoh, Acta Cryst, C47, 1347(1991).

[8] Kojikawamoto, Masanobu Fujita Tabashi, Yoichi Kawashima, et al, J. Med. Chem, 1988, 31, 919-930.

[9] Teotia M.P., Rastogi D.K., Malik W.U., Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1973, 7, pp.339.

[10] Nakamoto K., Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic and Coordination compounds 3rd edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Formulation and Evaluation of Swelling Restricted Matrix Tablet Containing Metformin Hcl

Country

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India

Authors

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Deepu S|| Dr. (Sr.) Molly Mathew|| Shamna M S

Page No.

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43-52

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040443-52 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044043052

Conventional drug delivery system and is known to provide an immediate release of drug, an alternative to administration of another dose is to use a dosage form that will provide sustained drug release. Metformin Hcl was formulated as restricted swelling matrix tablet by using HPMC K100 and CMC in ratio of 50:50 in order to obtain a sustained release formulation. Matrix tablets containing 500mg of metformin were prepare by direct compression method. From the formulations MFH 12 was selected and given partial coating with cellulose acetate 5% solution in acetone ( MFH 13 & MHF14) to restrict the swelling and hence to retard its release. The drug polymer ration influenced the release of drug from the formulations. An increase in polymer decreased the drug release. F13 partially coated swelling matrix tablet further retarded the release of drug. Formulation F13 with drug polymer (HPMC K100M and CMC) ratio (500:125:125) has shown promising results as per USP test I requirements.

 

KEY WORDS: Cellulose acetate, swelling restricted, CMC, HPMC K100M, Metformin Hcl.

[1]. Brahmankar HA, Jaiswal SB, "Bio pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics A Treatise",(Vallabh Prakashan, 2009 Reprint Edition), 348-357 and 337.
[2]. Robinson JR, Lee HL (Ed), Controlled Drug Delivery: Fundamentals & Applications, 2nd Edition, (Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 1987), 373
[3]. Kumar Kiran S., Rao Rama T, Jayaveera K.N, "Matrix Tablets as Controlled drug delivery systems", Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(4),2011, 343-350.
[4]. Loyd V. Allen. Jr, Nicholas G. Popvich, Howard C. Ansel, "Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery system", 8th edition, 260-263.
[5]. Sweetman SC, Martindale, The Complete Drug Reference,33rd Ed,(Pharmaceutical Press 2002),962.
[6]. Patel Harnish, Panchal Dhrupesh R., Patel Upendra, Brahmbhatt Tushar,, Suthar Mayur, "Matrix Type Drug Delivery System: A Review", Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Bioscientific Research"; 1( 3), Nov-Dec 2011,143-151.
[7]. Shargel L, Yu Andrew B.C., Wu-Pong Susanna, "Modified release drug products", Applied Bio pharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 5th Edition,( McGraw Hill, 1999), 170-173.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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An Ecological Journey to Pandam through Mulgaon Areas of Darjeeling Himalaya with Special Reference to Monitoring Of Vegetation in West Bengal, India

Country

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India

Authors

::

Debabrata Das

Page No.

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53-79

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-040453-79

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044053079

The paper reflects the ecological dynamics of vegetation with special reference to burning problems that are increasing day by day in villages of Darjeeling Himalaya of West Bengal, India. It includes floras (Roadside, shrubberies, jungles, forests, agricultural land, ridges and furrows of barren hill slopes, near waste water falls, near fresh water falls, grass lands, gardens of private kind, pasture land, vest land etc.), some faunas, agriculture, forestry etc. of the villages. The article also reflects some ecological problems of Eastern Himalaya particularly in Darjeeling area where water problem is severe one including different occupational problems. Sexual problem is also another problem in hills which is related with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The drinking water of the hill is not good, because they use locally available water coming from source of top hills by normal leaching process. Therefore, in ecological journey author broadcasts transportation problems of water as well as for life-style of people have been discussed thoroughly. Education and research problems is also highlighted in this article, so as a whole the paper is a nominal one facing scenario of Ecological Problems and prospects of the same. Here, author highlights dynamics of vegetation through which people can mitigate the ecological problems and easily can restore ecosystem pristine in hill villages of Darjeeling Himalaya. This would be helpful for different researchers and students of PG and UG courses to take research problems during project dissertation and post PG students for research and extension programme in the said area. Not only that, I think in near future NGOs and Government should take care to develop different projects at the premises of the Hill villages so that they would take the opportunity for all round development of the society. As a whole, the eco-restoration of the habitat would be better through the research and extension programme in such areas via a model example in all rural areas of hills. Institutions and departments will generate opportunity to work there if become interested through this article with some examples thereby.

 

KEYWORDS: Mulgaon vegetation dynamics and trends of Succession, Agriculture-Water related problems, Food-Fodder, Economy to Ecology, Eco-restoration.

[1] Sharma, B. C. Ethnobotanical Plants used against skin diseases by indigenous population of Darjeeling Himalayas, India, Indian Jour. Of Fundamental and Appl. Life Sc., 3(3), 2013, 299-303. [2] Saha, J; Sarkar, P K and Chattopadhyay, S. A survey of Ethnobotanical pants of Darjeeling Hills for their Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, Indian Natural Products and Radiance, 2(4), 2011, 479-492.

[3] Rai, S. K. and Bhujel, R.B. Note on some less known ethnomedicinal plants from the Darjeeling Himalayas, J. Hill Research, 12, 1999, 160-163.

[4] Rai, S. Improved Management of Ginger Diseases, Project report, Published by S. Rai, Principal Investigator, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Kalimpong, 2001

[5] Rai. A; Rai, S and Yonzone, R. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Darjeeling Hills in the Eastern Himalaya of India, Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 2(1), 2013, 122-134.

[6] Saha, S K; Bag, T ; De, A K ; Basak, S; Biswas, S C and Ghosh Roy, S C. Adolescent girls' health profile in sub-Himalayan region of west Bengal, J Obstecol India , 56(4), 2006, 329-332.

[7] Rao, D; Murty, P P and Venkaish, M. Phytosociological observation on the tree species diversity of Tropical forests of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Indian Jour. Of Plant Sciences (Online), 2(4), 2013, 89-108.

[8 ] Tamang, D. K; Gurung, S; Sharma, N. P. and Shrestha, D. G. Bamboo diversity, distribution pattern and its Uses in Sikkim (India) Himalaya, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(2)2013, 1-6


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Cross-Sectional Study of Knowledge Assessment of Diabetes In Diabetic Patients In Princess Esra Hospital

Country

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India

Authors

::

Mohammed Altaf||Syed Sadath Kabir||Qadri Mohammed Rizwan Masood||
Mohammed Nomaan Ilyas|| Taj Zia Ahmed|| Arshad Hussain Mohd|| Anas Rasheed

Page No.

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80-89

Paper Index

::

DOI :10.9790/3013-040480-93

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/044080093

Background: Epidemiological data shows that Diabetes Mellitus in India is increasing. Knowledge of Diabetes is an integral component for attaining optimal disease control, and prevent the impending chronic co-morbidities of diabetes mellitus, which impact significantly on the quality of life of the diabetic patient. Pharmacist being one of the indispensable members of the health care team, have an immense responsibility for counseling of the patients to attain better understanding of their illness and the role of medication in its treatment which would motivate the patients to adopt healthy life style and avoid future complications. The purpose of this study was to establish the level of knowledge about DM in Diabetic patients.

Objective: To Analyse the Knowledge of Diabetes in Diabetic Patients and Patient Counselling in Princess Esra Hospital.

Methods: A Cross sectional survey study was carried out over a period of 6 months with 305 Diabetic patients in Medicine department of Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A questionnaire was provided, out of them 45% was male and 55% was female aged between 20 to 80 years. The questionnaire consisted Demographic details and 21 questions relating to the patients' knowledge of the disease, its complications and its management. The results were expressed as Mean, Standard deviation and in number (%). MS Excel spread sheet have been used to generate graphs, Tables etc.

Results: We studied a total of 305 patients of which 44.9% were male and 55.1% were female with a mean age of 55.52±6.9 years. About 59.3% of patient has positive family history, majority of participants (65.9%) does not know what diabetes is? About 75.1% of people believed that more and more people are effected by diabetes now a days. 63.5% of people thought mental stress to be the causative factor for diabetes. 54.87% of patients knew that diabetes can be prevented by both diet and exercise. About 62.95% of patient believed that medication is more important than diet. 81.3% of subjects did not received patient counseling from any health care professionals.

Conclusion: This study concludes that the Diabetic patients showed knowledge deficits pertaining to causes, prevention and Medications used in the management of Diabetes and very less number of patients received Patient counselling. Patient counselling regarding Disease, Medication and Life style modification for Diabetic patients, can be effectively implemented and that important health indicators significantly improve.

Key words: Diabetes, Patient counselling, Quality of life, Questionnaire.

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