Volume 4 ~ Issue 5 May 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Case Report Of Suppurative Pericarditis

Country

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 TANZANIA

Authors

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Henry A Mayala||Levi Kwarisiima||Robert Mvungi|| Peter Kisenge|| Nyangasa|| Nyawawa||Kawajika

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04050103 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04500103  

Background: Suppurative pericarditis is defined as an infection of the pericardial space that produces pus that is found on gross examination of the pericardial sac or on tissue microscopy. Bacterial infections of the pericardium are relatively uncommon but are much more likely to produce purulent effusions and to proceed to cardiac tamponade and pericardial constriction1. Case presentation: In this case report a 57 year old lady with confirmed diagnosis SLE on treatment (prednisolone and methotrexate) was admitted at cardiovascular medicine department of Muhimbili national hospital(MNH) with the chief complains of cough, chest pain and difficulty in breathing, with associated history of weight loss. Clinical and imaging findings are suggestive of suppurative pericarditis and it was confirmed and managed by surgical pericardial drainage of 700mls of pus.

Conclusion: purulent/suppurative pericarditis should be suspected in ill patients with thoracic infections, patients will often be febrile and tachycardic without a doubt optimal care of these complicated infections requires a multidisciplinary approach2

 

KEYWORDS:purulent, suppurative pericarditis, bacteria, CT-scan, pericardial drainage

[1] www.turner-white.com (hospital physician)- Jan 2008, shiber pp.9-17,45
[2] Lange RA, hillis L.D. clinical practice. acute pericarditis in N Engl J Med 2005; 352:1163
[3] Goodman L.J. purulent pericarditis. Curr Treat options cardiovasc Med 2000; 2:343-50
[4] Spodick DH. The pericardium: a comprehensive text book. Newyork: M.bekker, 1997
[5] www.emedicine.medscape.com
[6] www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
[7] Annals of surgery (Ann surg. sep 1936; 104(3): 365-372 by James Harry Heyl
[8] Textbook of Mayo clinic Internnal medicine
[9] Rubin RH, moelling RC, Jr.Clinical microbiological and therapeutic aspects of purulent pericarditis. AM J med. 1975 Jul:59(1):68-78. (Pubmed)


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Determination of cadmium and zinc levels and oxidative status in cadmium treated developing chick embryonic liver

Country

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India

Authors

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Malekar Meena Bai|| SK. Haseena Bhanu|| Prof. K. Thyagaraju

Page No.

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04-13

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-040504013 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045004013 

In the present study Chick embryos of Bobcock strain were treated with different concentrations (0.04, 0.05and 0.06 mg/egg) of CdCl2 on the day 10 (d10), day 11 (d11), day 12(d12) of embryonic development. In this study metals like Cd, Zn were determined with ICP-OES in liver tissue of control and treated groups at different time intervals. The levels of (GSH) and activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver tissue after different time intervals (24 h, 48h and 72 h) of CdCl2 exposure. Significant induction was observed in GST activity in liver tissue after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. However, the GPx, GR, SOD, CAT and GSH levels were decreased in dose and time dependent manner. In this study Cd retention in the liver increased with dose level of Cd and this inturn caused induction in the levels of Zinc in liver tissue

 

Key-words: Antioxidant enzymes, Chick embryonic liver, Cadmium, ICP-OES, Zinc

[1] AL Page, MM. El-Amamy, AC. Chang, Cadmium in the environment and its entry into terrestial food chain crops. In: Cadmium. EC Foulkes (eds), Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986, 33-74.

[2] M. Iscan, T. Coban, BC. Eke, Differential combined effect of cadmium and nickel on hepatic and renal glutathione S-transferase of the guinea pig, Environ Health Perspect, 102, 1994, 69-72.

[3] JM. Peters, JR. Duncan, LM. Wiley, CL. Keen, Influence of antioxidants on cadmium toxicity of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro, Toxicology 99, 1995, 11-18.

[4] R. Zikic, A. Stajn, Z. Saicic, M. Spasic, K. Ziemnicki, V. Petrovic, The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbic acid content in the liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch.) exposed to cadmium, Physiol Res 45, 1996, 479-481.

[5] L. Jamba, B. Nehru, MP. Bansal, Redox modulation of selenium binding proteins by cadmium exposures in mice, Mol Cell Biochem, 177, 1997, 169-175.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Efficiency of conventional extraction technique compared to rapid-solid liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) in the preparation of bitter liquors and elixirs

Country

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Italy

Authors

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Daniele Naviglio|| Lydia Ferrara|| Andrea Formato|| Monica Gallo

Page No.

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14-22

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405014022 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045014022 

Bitter liquors and elixirs are usually produced following traditional recipes, in most cases considered secret, that adopts different extraction processes and/or way of preparation. The ethanol as elective extraction solvent allows to obtain in the liquid phase most of the active compounds from different parts of the plants e.g. roots, bark, flowers, etc and the maceration is commonly used as extraction process. In this paper the traditional maceration procedure was compared to an innovative technology of rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), using the Naviglio Extractor. to obtain alcoholic extract of herbal mixtures.Three different mixtures of various parts of plants were extracted with both methods and results compared. The dry residue was considered as the main parameters to assess the quantity of the active compounds present in the extracts. The obtained data suggested that an high dry residue amount in the extract was correlated to an high concentration of active ingredients. Organoleptic tests performed on bitter liquors obtained from different extracts has been used to determine the optimum extraction time for the two different methods used. The results of this test showed that the bitters produced with RLSDE were more appreciated than bitter prepared by maceration.

 

KEY WORDS: bitter liquors; elixir; maceration; RSLDE; Naviglio Extractor; kinetics.

[1]. Heinrich M., Barnes J., Gibbons S, Williamson E. Fundamentals of pharmacognosy and phytotherapy, Elsevier Ltd, UK, 2012
[2]. Buglass AJ. (Ed) Liqueurs and their Flavorings, in Handbook of Alcoholic Beverages: Technical, Analytical and Nutritional Aspects, Volume I and II, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.,2010
[3]. Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants extracts. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines,, 8(1), 2011, 1-10.
[4]. Huang G, Li J, Yan L. Antibacterial effects of some herbal extracts and mechanism. Shizhen Guoyi Guoyao, 22(2), 2011, 425-426.
[5]. Zeng Jian-guo, Tan Man-liang, Peng X, Luo Qi. Standardization and quality control of herbal extracts and products. Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Methods, 2011, 377-427.
[6]. Jaeger S, Beffert, Markus HK, Nadberezny D, Frank B, Scheffler A. Preparation of herbal tea as infusion or by maceration at room temperature using mistletoe tea as an example. Scientia Pharmaceutica, 79(1), 2011, , 145-155.
[7]. Martins HH, Martins ML, Dias MI, Bernardo F, Evaluation of microbiological quality of medicinal plants used in natural infusions. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 2001, 68, 149-153.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Quality Of Life of Hypertensive Patients on Different Types of Antihypertensive Medications

Country

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United Arab Emirates

Authors

::

Sawsan Shanableh||Abdulmula Abdulkarem|| Mohammed Shamssain|| Fadi Sarhan

Page No.

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23-28

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405023028 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045023028 

More than three quarter of the total death in the UAE is due to cardiovascular diseases. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) is a broad multidimensional concept that usually includes subjective evaluations of both positive and negative aspects of life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life for hypertensive patients using different types of antihypertensive medications. A cross-sectional, randomized study was conducted in Ajman and Sharjah, October 2012 to May 2013, using a self-completed questionnaire and SF-36 HRQL questionnaire by 150 hypertensive patients on different types of medications and 220 control subjects. Around 53.3% of hypertensive patients used a combination therapy of two medicines; 33% used Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) + Diuretics and 20% used the combination of B-blockers + Diuretics. Only 6% of the patients used B-Blockers class for their treatment. Data were analyzed by SPSS. The mean values of Physical Functioning (PF), Role-Physical (RP), Bodily Pain (BP), General Health (GH), Vitality (V), Social Functioning (SF), Role Emotional (RE), Mental Health (MH), Physical Components Summary (PCS), and Mental Components Summary (MCS) scores were 62.5, 62.9, 72.1, 62.1, 64.5, 76.7, 68.8, 66.2, 47.0, and 47.8, respectively. Patients who were using a combination therapy of Angiotensin receptors blockers (ARB) plus Diuretics had the highest score in all SF-36 scales compared to other medications. Patients who were using Calcium channel blockers (CCB) had the lowest self-reported health compared to other medications. There were no significant differences between using single therapy of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or Angiotensin receptors blockers (ARB) and using a combination therapy of B-blockers + Diuretics; they almost had the same scores on most of the scales. Less than half (35.3%) of medication users suffered side effects from their medications and the common side effects they experienced were nausea (1.3%) and cough (34%). Early recognition of participants with this chronic disease is important in clinical disease management and in participation in education and intervention programs aimed at improving their HRQL.

 

KEY WORDS:Health related quality of life (HRQL), Hypertension, Antihypertensive medications, SF-36 questionnaire, control subjects.

[1] World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) fact sheet N˚317, September 2012. Available at this website: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index.html (Updated September, 2009 and accessed on 5/11/2012).

[2] Halpin, H. A., Morales-Suarez-Varela, M. M., & Martin-Moreno, J. M. Chronic disease prevention and the new public health. Public Health Reviews, 32(1), 2010, 120-154.

[3] World Health Organization. The world health report 2002. Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

[4] Centra, L. New information about health-related quality of life. NACCHO News, 1998

[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measuring healthy days: Population assessment of health-related quality of life. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 2000. [6] Selim, A. J., Rogers, W., Fleishman, J. A., Qian, S. X., Fincke, B. G., Rothendler, J. A., & Kazis, L. E. Updated US population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12). Quality of Life Research, 18(1), 2009, 43-52.

[7] Harris, M. I. Health care and health status and outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 23(6), 2000, 754-758.

[8] Reddy, S. S. Health outcomes in type 2 diabetes. International journal of clinical practice. Supplement, (113), 2000, 46-53.

[9] Arredondo, Shelley A., et al. Impact of comorbidity on health-related quality of life in men undergoing radical prostatectomy: Data from CaPSURE. Urology, 67(3), 2006, 559-565.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clostridium Difficile infection and Antibiotic –Associated Colitis

Country

::

Malaysia

Authors

::

Murtaza Mustafa|| Muhammad Iftikhar|| Saima Shafi || Malik J.Shah

Page No.

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29-34

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405029034 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045029034 

Hospitalized patients receiving β lactam antibiotics develop diarrhea and higher rates reported in those receiving clindamycin. Clostridiumdifficile is recognized as a cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea, colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Contributory factors include: advance age, severity of underlying illness.C.difficile has the ability to temporarily colonize newborn humans and calves, suggests that the gastrointestinal tracts of young animals may be a major reservoir.C.difficile is recognized enteric pathogen in animals including companion animals and food animals. Clinical features include: asymptomatic carriage in neonates to a fulminant, relapsing, and occasionally fatal colitis. Initial therapy for pseudomembranous colitis includes discontinuation of offending antibiotic regimen, fluid replacement and electrolyte losses. Mild to moderate infection with metronidazole,severe to recurrent cases with vancomycinTherapy with probiotic such as Sacchromyces boularadii is beneficial. Antibiotic misuse in humans and production animals must be addressed.

 

KEY WORDS:Clostridium difficile, Antibiotic, Colitis, and Diarrhea

[1] McFarland IM,SurawiczCM,GreenbergRN,etal..prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Sacchromycesboulradii compared with placebo .Am JGastroenterology. 1995;90:439-448.
[2] Bartlett JG, Antibiotic–associateddiarrhea.Clin Infect Dis.1992;15:573-81.
[3] DailalRM,HarbrechtBG,BoujoukasAJ,et al. Fulminant Clostridium difficle:an underappreciated and increasing cause of death and complications Am Surg2002;235:363-72.
[4] KelleyCR,Pothoulokis C, LaMont IT .Clostridium difficlecolitis.N.Engl J Med.1994; 350:257-62.
[5] LaskRH,Fekety FR Jr, Silva Jr, et al.Gastrointestinal side effects of clindamycin and ampicillin therapy.J Infect Dis.1977;135(suppl):5111-5119.
[6] Larson HE, Parry JV, Price AB ,et al. Undescribed toxin in pseudomembranous colitis.Br Med J.1977;1:1246-48
[7] KelletCR,LaMont JT. Clostridium difficle-more difficult than everEngl JMed.2008;359:1932-40.
[8] Johnson S,HomannSR,BettinKM,etal.Treatment of asymptomatic Clostridium difficle carriers(fecal excretor) with vancomycin or metronidazole a randomized plcebo-controlled trial.Ann Intern Med.1992;117:297-302.
[9] BarlettJG,OnderdonkAR,CisnerosRI,et al Clindamycin associated colitis due to a toxin- producing species of Clostridium in hamsters.J Infect Dis.1977;136:701-705
[10] Levine I,DykoskiRK,Jrof EN. Candida –associated diarrhea: a syndrome in search of credibility.Clin Infect Dis.1995;21:581-86.
[11] Khanna S,etal.The epidemiology of community –acquired Clostridium difficle infection: a population based study. Am J Gastroenterology.2012;107:89-95


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effect of mixing ratio and oil kind on toxicity activation of Acctamprid against Trogoderma granarium larvae

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Batool Abdullah Karso||Nazar M. Al Mallah

Page No.

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35-40

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405035040 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045035040 

The current study aimed to test the effect of five vegetable oils, sesame, pistachio field, soybean, and almond with Acetamprid pesticide, using three different mixing ratios (pesticide:vegetable oil) 1: 0.5, 1:1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 and four different concentrations 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm for each mixing ratio, and mixture ratio in the proportion of activation, synergy and potentiation on the % mortality of grain beetle larvae Trogoderma granarium. The study results showed that the effect of mixture Soybean oil by mixing 3 oil : 1 pesticide toxicity to the revitalization of the pesticide in the grain beetle larvae of the third instar of poetry at a rate of 2.46, which was the rate of activation synergistically 2.4, The sesame oil gave a mixture with the pesticide Acetamprid by mixing oil 3: 1 ratio less pesticide antagonism reached 0.56.

 

KEY WORDS:Mixing ratio, Vegetable oil, Activation, Synergy, Potentiation, Grain beetle, Acetamprid

[1]. Abbot, W. S. I. (1925). A method for computing the effectiveness on pesticides. Journal of Economic Entomology. 18:265 – 267.
[2]. Al Mallah N. M. and Al-jubury A.Yonis. (2011).A New Method for Calculating the Synergism and Potentiation Percentage of Pesticides Activator Compounds. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture. 39(4)244-249.
[3]. Al Mallah N. M. and Al-jubury A.Yonis. (2012). Chemical Pesticides, Classification, Mode of Action and Metabolism. (2014) Al-Yazori for Scientific Publishing, Amman, Jordan pp. 213-217.
[4]. Daoud, A. S. (1991). Synergistic effect of some vegetable and mineral oil on the Deltamethrin pesticide against adult Callosobruchus maculates (f.) Coleoptera, Bruchidae. Mesopotamia journal of agriculture. Vol (23) 1: 245-250.
[5]. Finney, J.C. (1952). Probit Analysis Cambridge University, Press London, 256 Pp.
[6]. Karso, B. A. (2012). The effect of some vegetable oils and using methods on responding of Khapra larvae to some pesticides, PhD thesis, University of Mosul, Iraq. pp 131.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical Analysis of Pergularia Daemia for Its Bioactive Components through Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Sridevi G ||Prema Sembulingam ||Sekar Suresh ||Sembulingam K

Page No.

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41-46

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405041046 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045041046 

Pergularia daemia is a hispid perennial herb that grows along the roadsides of India and other tropical and subtropical regions. This medicinal plant and is traditionally used to treat various ailments like infantile diarrhea, malarial fever, vatha, convulsion, asthma, poisoning, mental disorder, anemia, leprosy, piles etc. However, the bioactive components of this plant are not yet established fully. In the present study, the ethanol extract of this plant was subjected for phytochemical qualitative analysis through Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) and the bioactive components were identified. The analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid, tannins, alkaloid, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and carbohydrates. Five bioactive constituents were identified namely 2-hydroxy- methyl ester with retention time 6.607, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol with retention time 8.215, Phthalic acid di-(1-hexen-5-yl) ester with retention time 12.279, l-(+)-Ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate with retention time 16.751 and Methyl (Z)-5,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoate with retention time 18.556. The presence of these bioactive constituents in the plant extract may authenticate the scientific evidences forvarious pharmacological activities and therapeutic potentiality of the plant.

 

KEY WORDS:Pergularia Daemia, Herbal Medicine, Holistic treatment, Bioactive components, Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry

[1] WHO, IUCN, WWF. 1993. Guidelines on the conservation of medicinal plants. Switzerland: IUCN Gland
[2] Yoganarasimhan SN. 2000. Medicinal Plants of India.Vol. 1 Bangalore: Interline Publishing Pvt. Ltd, p. 405. ISBN: 81-7296-037-09.
[3] Mittal OP, Tammz C, Reichstein T. 1962. Glycosides and aglycons. CCXXVII. The glycosides of Pergularia extensa. Helv Chim Acta; 45: 907.
[4] Elango V, Ambujavalli L, Amala Basker E, Sulochana N. 1985. Pharmacological and microbiological studies on Pergularia extensa. Fitoterapia; 56 (5): 300-302.
[5] Kakrani HKN, Saluja AK. 1994. Traditional treatment through herbs in Kutch district, Gujarat state, India. Part II. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiarthritic plants. Fitoterapia; 65 (5): 427-430.
[6] De laszlo H, Henshaw PS. 1954. Plant materials used by primitive peoples to affect fertility. Science; 119: 626-631.
[7] Dutta A, Ghosh S. 1947b. Daemia extensa.. Indian J Pharmacy; 9: 58-60.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Dissolution and Bioavailability Enhancement of Efavirenz by Hot Melt Extrusion Technique

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Smita Kolhe|| Dr. P.D.Chaudhari|| Mr. Dhananjay More

Page No.

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47-53

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405047053 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045047053 

The aim of this study is to improve dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water soluble Efavirenz (Efv), a potent and selective non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Its effectiveness can be attributed to its long half-life of 52–76 h after single dose. Formulation of poorly water soluble drug for oral delivery is one of the biggest challenges. Amongst the available approaches, the novel solid dispersion technique known as hot melt extrusion (HME) has often proved to be the most widely used method in improving dissolution and bioavailability of the drugs because of its various advantages. Dissolution enhancement of Efv was done by HME technology where crystalline form of API is converted to amorphous form using hydrophilic polymer like Kollidon VA64. Surfactants like Polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000), polyoxy 35 castor oil (Chremophor EL) and Sorbiton monolaurate (Montane 20) were used as plasticizer for process feasibility. Physical mixtures of drug, polymer and surfactant were prepared in ratio of 1:1:0.1. These physical mixtures were subjected to melt and the resultant formulations were subjected to physical characterization, dissolution, permeability and in vivo testing. Pharmacokinetics of Efv was studied in rats. Drug efflux pumps like P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were recognized to posses' functional role in determining the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein improves intestinal absorption and tissue distribution while reducing the substrate metabolism and its elimination. Drug release showed comparative similar release for all the HME formulations while the permeability studies showed improved permeability of formulations containing Sorbiton Monolaurate and PEG 4000. In comparison to the Non HME (NHME) formulation, the solid dispersions prepared with KollidonVA64 (drug: polymer 1:1) by HME process showed a significant enhancement in permeability with all the three surfactants. Solid dispersion prepared by PEG 4000 resulted in 106.98% enhancement in extent of absorption. In conclusion, solid dispersion prepared using certain polymer could serve as a promising formulation approach to enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of Efv.

 

KEY WORDS:Efavirenz, Hot Melt Extrusion, Invivo, Kollidon VA64, Permeability.

[1] www. Rx list .com
[2] www.drugs.com
[3] Manthena V.S. Varma , Yasvanth Ashokraj ,Chinmoy S. Dey and Ramesh Panchagnula. P-glycoprotein inhibitors and their screening: a perspective from bioavailability enhancement, Pharmacological Research 48, 2003, 347–359.
[4] PMID:10918954 Arzneimittelforschung 2000 Jun
[5] Alazar N. Ghebremeskel , Chandra Vemavarapu and Mayur Lodaya, Use of surfactants as plasticizers in preparing solid dispersions of poorly soluble API: Selection of polymer–surfactant combinations using solubility parameters and testing the processability. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 328, 2007, 119–129.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Formulation and Evaluation of Aluminum Adjuvanted Combination Vaccine with Reduced Freeze Sensitivity

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Sujana Prasad Chittineni|| Satish Chandra Maheshwari|| Lakshmi Narasu mangamoori

Page No.

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54-60

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405054060 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045054060 

Objective of present study is to formulate and evaluate freeze thaw resistant combination vaccine comprises of Diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis, hepatitis B and haemophilus type b conjugate vaccines. Use of surfactants, sugars, polyols and their combinations to protect vaccines from freezing effects was proved. Freeze thaw resistant combination vaccine prepared by adding novel non ionic block copolymer polaxamer. Presence of polaxamer block copolymer exerts resistance from damage caused by freezing and thawing to aluminum adjuvanted vaccine. Polaxamer 407 itself in high concentrations found suitable to reduce freeze sensitivity. Use of high concentrations of polaxamer block copolymer with concentrated formulation helps in making vaccine freeze thaw resistant up to three freeze thaw cycles. Use of high concentration of polaxamer, thermo reversible nature of polaxamer block copolymer and viscosity modification helps in heat stability improvement as well. Concentratedn formulation developed can be easily diluted or re-suspended with suitable diluent to make final vaccine with required concentration for immunization and also reduces polaxamer concentration to suitable level for human parenteral use. Polaxamer block copolymer gives advantage for easy dispersion of vaccine and making uniform suspension post re-suspension.

KEY WORDS:Freeze sensitivity, Combination vaccine, Vaccine Stability, Polaxamer, Adjuvant

[1]. Safe vaccine handling, cold chain and Immunizations, a manual for the Newly Independent States, WHO/EPI/LHIS/98.02.
[2]. The clear and pressing need for a reliable method for detecting and preventing the use of freeze-damaged biopharmaceuticals, Milan Innovation Limited - February 2011.
[3]. Unicef, Vaccine Wastage Assessment, Field assessment and observations from National stores and five selected states of India April 2010.
[4]. Debra Kristensen, Dexiang Chen, Ray Cummings, Vaccine stabilization: Research, commercialization, and potential impact, Vaccine, 2011, 29, 7122– 7124.
[5]. Maa YF, Zhao L, Payne LG, Chen D. Stabilization of alum-adjuvanted vaccine dry powder formulations: mechanism and application. J Pharm Sci 2003, 92, 2, 319–32.
[6]. US PATENT 4578270, 1986.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Cardiotonic activity of Parotoid gland secretion of common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus on isolated heart of Frog

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Raju Neerati || Ankaiah Meesala|| Samatha Talari || Prasad Neerati || Venkaiah Yanamala

Page No.

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61-67

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405061067 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045061067 

The present investigation has been undertaken to study the cardiotonic activity of parotoid gland secretion of common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus on isolated perfused frog heart (Rana tigrina). Cardiotonic activity of parotoid gland secretion of B. melanostictus in normal as well as when induced with paraoxon (an organophosphate) was studied. For the evaluation of cardiotonic activity, Syme's technique is being employed, digoxin and propranolol were used as standard drug and β-blocker respectively to characterize the effects on the receptors. The isolated perfused frog heart and hypodynamic frog heart showed dose dependent positive ionotrophic effects. The parotoid gland secretion exihibited cardiac stimulant activities. The propranolol was not able to block the effects of paraoxon induction on toad secretion. Thus, the present investigation reports that the parotoid gland secretion increased the force of contraction, heart beat and cardiac output in perfused frog's heart, whereas, there was no change on hypodynamic heart, indicating that there may be existence of two components, one with β–receptor stimulating activity and other acting directly on the heart (independent of β1-adrenoreceptors).

 

KEY WORDS:Bufo melanostictus, Rana tigrina, Cardiotonic activity, Parotoid gland secretion, Paraoxon.

[1] Clarke, BT. The natural history of amphibian skin secretions, their normal functioning and potential medical applications. Biol. Review. Cambridge Philoso. Soci, 72(3), 1997,365–379.

[2] Boylan, D.B. Scheuer. Pahutoxin: A fish poison.Science, 155, 1967, 52-56.

[3] Habermehl, G.G. Venomous animals and their toxins-amphibians. Newyork springer- Verlag 1974. (quoted by lyttle et al 1986).

[4] Roseghini, M.G. and Erspmer, A.F. and Severini. C. Biogenic amines and active peptides in the skin of fifty-two African amphibian species other than Bufonids. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 91C, 1988, 281-286.

[5] Erspmer, V. and Melchiorries.Active polypeptides of the amphibian skin and their synthetic Analogues.Pure and Appl.Chem, 35, 1973, 463-494.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Barriers to the implementation of Pharmaceutical Care into the UAE community pharmacies

Country

::

United Arab Emirates

Authors

::

Rana Mohammed Ghazal|| Prof. Nageeb Abdul Galil Hassan|| Dr. Ola Ghaleb Al Ahdab || Ismat Isam Saliem

Page No.

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68-74

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0405068074 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/045068074 

Community pharmacy practice setting provides the opportunity for pharmacists to be "the most accessible health care providers", however still the role of the pharmacists considered as product oriented and mainly concentrate on distribution and prescription filling. In order for advanced pharmacy practice to become an effective reality we must be willing to admit certain challenges embodied by barriers to pharmaceutical care. Thus, this study considered as the first of its kind to be held in UAE community pharmacies aimed to explore the extent of obstacles to the professional services provided through community pharmacies in the UAE and to provide baseline data critical to inform the development of strategies to success implementation of pharmaceutical care. Descriptive Qualitative Survey was conducted, which involved exploring data from randomly selected pharmacists working in different UAE community pharmacies. The respondents asked to indicate the degree of the agreement to (37) barriers to the application of pharmaceutical care, using 5-point Likert-type scale. SPSS software program for windows Version (20) used to perform statistical analysis needed. Frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to describe pharmacists' responses. Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test were used to assess the association between these barriers and demographic characteristics. Overall results showed that; lack of time (64.7%), insufficient staff number (61.9%) and lack of motivation (61.1%) are the main barriers to provide pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists in the UAE. The provision of pharmaceutical care is not regarded as such over the seven emirates. Although same barriers can be identified, their local importance showed some differences. There were significant differences in gender, age and experience in the estimate of barriers. Pharmacists expressed a willingness to implement pharmaceutical care practice but have recognized a number of barriers to successful implementation.

 

KEY WORDS:Advance Pharmacy service, Community Pharmacy, Implementation Barriers Pharmaceutical Car, Practice Change

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