Volume 4 ~ Issue 7 July 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of Goat Fat as Potential Co-Lubricant in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Dr. S. O. Majekodunmi|| E.B. Matthew

Page No.

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01-09

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04070109 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/04701009  

In this study, goat fat co-processed with a combination of magnesium stearate and talc (GMT) was evaluated as a lubricant and compared with magnesium stearate plus talc (MT) and without lubricant using flow of granules, mechanical properties of tablets of crushing strength, the disintegrant properties of tablet disintegration time (DT) and crushing strength friability/disintegration time ratio (CSFR/DT) as assessment parameters. Granules were lubricated with different concentrations of 0.5% w/w, 1.5% w/w, 2.0% w/w and 2.5% w/w of the co-processed lubricant of goat fat, magnesium stearate and talc (GMT) and combination of magnesium stearate and talc (MT) and without lubricant in a paracetamol tablet formulation. The flow of the granules quantified as Hausner ratio, Carr's index, and angle of repose showed that granules lubricated with the co-processed lubricant of goat fat (GMT) improved the flow properties of paracetamol granules compared to granules lubricated with magnesium stearate and talc alone. The tablet properties of paracetamol prepared from granules lubricated with GMT were comparable with tablets prepared from granules lubricated with MT and without lubricant. The tablets produced by GMT possessed acceptable crushing strength, friability and disintegration time and thus CSFR/DT. The study shows that the lubricant type and concentration influenced the crushing strength and disintegration time of the tablets and the co-processed lubricant could also be useful in situations where a low crushing strength friability/ disintegration (CSFR/DT) value is required, such as sustained release tablet.

 

KEYWORDS:Goat fat, Magnesium stearate, Talc, Crushing strength, Disintegration time, Tablet

[1] Rawlings,E.A, Bentley's Textbook of Pharmaceutics (8th Edition.Baillere Tyndal),Uk, 2004, pp 269-289.

[2] W. A. Strickland, T. Higuchi, L. W. Busse, The physics of tablet compression, .J. A.M Pharm. Ass, 49 1960, 35-40.

[3] K. R. Komarek. Selecting binders and lubricants for agglomeration processes, J. Chemical Engineering, 74, 1967, 154-155.

[4] H. I. Silversher, Materials for lubrication, Applications.spec publ.sp- 3051, 1969, 199-239.

[5] F. Speradeo and G. De machi,.The role and mode of action of lubricants in tablet manufacture Boll.Chim Farm.115, 1976, 801-809.

[6] W. A. Strickland, A new look at tablet lubricants, Drug and cosmetic.Ind. 85, 1959:318.

[7] A. N'Diaye, V. Jannin, V. Berad, C. Andres, Y. Pourcelot, Comparative study of the lubricant performance of Compritol HDS ATO and Compritol 888 ATO: effect of polyethylene glycol behenate on lubricant capacity, Int. J. Pharm., 254, 2003, 263-269.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Biodegradation of phenol by aspergillus Niger

Country

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India

Authors

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Mrs.Ch.supriya|| Deva neehar

Page No.

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10-15

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0407011017 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047011017 

:Phenolic compounds are hazardous pollutants that are toxic to the natural ecosystem at very low concentration Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down into smaller compounds by the catalytic activity of living microbial organisms. The use of microbes as catalysts in the biodegradation of phenolic compounds has advanced significant in the recent decades. Biodegradation of phenol involves the complete mineralization of phenolic compounds to simple compounds like CO2,H2O,NO3 .we studied the biodegradation performance of phenol by using free cells of Aspergillus niger under different temperature, pH, concentration,and at different incubation periods under the aerobic conditions .

 

Key-words: Aspergillus niger, Biodegradation, mineralization, phenol, Toxicity

[1] Atlas RM, Bartha R (1998). In Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and applications. 4th Edition.Benjamin Cummings Science Publishing California.

[2] Wackett LP, Hershberger DC (2001). In Biocatalysis and Biodegradation, Microbial transformations of organic compounds. ASM press, Am. Soc.Microbiol. Washington DC.

[3] Paula M, Van schei, Young LY (1998). Isolation and Characterization of phenol degrading denitrifying bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 64(7):2432-2438.

[4] Ghadhi SC, Sangodkar UMX (1995). Potentials of Pseudomonas cepacia PAA in bioremediation of aquatic wastes containing phenol. Proceedings of National symposium frontiers in applied and environmental microbiology, 11-13, Dec. Cochin.

[5] Nuhoglu A, Yakin B (2005). Modelling of phenol removal in a batch reactor. Proc. Biochem. 40: 233-239.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Healthcare associated vancomycin- resistant enterococci

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa|| Muhammad Iftikhar|| M Yusof Ibrahim||Rajesh K Muniandy

Page No.

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16-22

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407018024 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047018024

Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) were first detected in the 1980s,since then VRE infections are reported worldwide. VRE can be isolated from healthy people, hospital environment and from farmed chicken.VRE infections are more severe, increased mortality and economic burden. Healthcare associated infections are mainly due to antibiotic therapy, patient characteristics, colonization pressure and exposure to contaminated environment.VRE are resistant to most commonly used antibiotics, with the ability to acquire resistance to other available antimicrobials and to transfer antibiotic resistance to other gut flora. CDC Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommendations are useful to minimize transmission of VRE with multidisciplinary approach, and restricted cephalosporin usage has been associated with decreased VRE transmission in hospitals.

 

KEY WORDS:Vancomycin, Enterococcus facecium.Resistancemechanisms, VRE control

[1]. Utley AH,Collins CH,Naidoo J,etal.Vancomycin-resistant enterococci.Lancet1.1988;(8575-6):57-8.PMID2891921
[2]. LeclercqR,DerlotE,DuvalJ,CourvalinP.Plasmid- mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faceium.NEng J Med.1988;319(3):157-61.
[3]. HidronAI.EdwardsJR,PatelJ,etal."NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare –associated infections:annual summary of data reported to National Healthcare Safety Network at the the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,2006-2007".Infection Control HospEpidemiol .2008;29(11):996-1011.doi:10.1086/591861.
[4]. Harwood VJ,BrownellM,PerusekW,et al".Vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus spp.isolated from wastewater and chicken feces in the United States"Appl EnvironMicrobiol.2001;67(10):4930-3.doi:10.1128/AEM.10.4930-4933.
[5]. Cox IA,Jr,PopkenDA."Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chikens"Risk Analysis.2004;24(1):271-88.
[6]. OrsiGB,CiorbaV.Vancomycin resistant enterococci healthcare associated infections.Ann Ig.2013;25:485-92.
[7]. Lederberg R,et al.Plasmid-mediated resistance tovancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faceium.NEng J Med.1988;329:157 161.doi: 10.1056/NEJM 198807213190307


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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In-vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Medicinal Plants grown in Western Ghats of India

Country

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India

Authors

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N. Vijaya Sree|| P.Udaya Sri|| Y.V.V. Aswani Kumar|| N. RamaRao

Page No.

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23-30

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04070125033

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047025033

The aim of the study was to evaluate medicinal potential of five mostly used plants from Western Ghats of India. Methanolic, aqueous and ethylaceate extracts of the plant species were screened for its total phenolic, flavonoid contents, in-vitro antioxidant and, antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial and fungal species. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined by disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of Narvelia zeylanica and Adathoda zeylancia were found to be the strongest, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 3.12 μg/ml to 15.3 μg/ml. The tested plant extracts presented a remarkable capacity total antioxidant capacity equivalent to vitamin C being, The same extracts were shown to have the highest phenolic and flavonoid values. The total phenol and flavonoid levels varied from 9±0.32 to 24±0.03 mg CE/g dw and 5.32 ± 0.65 to 18.2 ± 0.21 mg GAE/g dw, respectively. Many of the extracts showed activity against pathogenic/toxigenic bacteria and fungal strains. The present study reveals that the selected plants would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity, and could be harnessed as drug formulation.

 

KEY WORDS:Anti-oxidant activity, Anti bacterial activity, Anti fungal activity, DPPH, Phenolics

[1]. E. Middleton, C. Kandaswami, and T. C. Theoharides, The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: Implications for inflammation, heart disease and cancer, Pharmacological Reviews, 52(4), 2001, 673-751.
[2]. D. Amic, D. Davidovic-Amic, D. Beslo, and N. Trinajstic, Structure-radical scavenging activity relationship of flavonoids, Croatica Chemica Acta, 76(1), 2003, 55-61.
[3]. K. Alpinar, M. Ozyurek, U. Kolak, K. Guclu, C. Aras, M. Altun, S. E. Celik, K. I. Berker, B. Bektasoglu, and R. Apak, Antioxidant Capacities of Some Food Plants Wildly Grown in Ayvalik of Turkey, Food Science and Technology Research, 15(1), 2009, 59-64.
[4]. I. S. Young, and J. V. Woodside, Antioxidants in health and disease, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 54(3), 2001, 176-186.
[5]. B. Halliwell, Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet. 344(8924), 1994, 721-724.
[6]. P. D. Duh, Y. Y. Tu, and G. C. Yen, Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Harnjyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat), Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie. 32, 1999, 269-277.
[7]. R. Sudararajan, N. A. Haja, K.Venkatesan, K. Mukherjee, B. P. Saha, A. Bandyopadhyay, and P. K. Mukherjee, Cytisus scoparius Link- A natural antioxidant, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6, 2006, 1-7.
[8]. O. I. Aruoma, Free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants in human health and disease, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 75(2), 1998, 199–212.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparitive study of nimodipine versus Nifedipine in the treatment of hyperstion in pregnancy

Country

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Bangalore

Authors

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Dr.Veena B.T.|| Dr.Suvarna R

Page No.

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31-34

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407034037 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047034037

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicates about 7-10% pregnancy. Various anti-hypertensives have been tried to control the pressure without much affecting the maternal and fetal health. The present study, compare the effect Nimodipine and Nifedipine in controlling blood pressure during pregnancy.

Aims & Objectives: To control the efficacy of Nimodipine and Nifedipine in control of blood pressure during pregnancy and to assess the effects of drug on maternal and fetal outcome. Methodology: Eligible women are randomly assigned and treated with tablet Nimodipine 30mg 8th hourly (Group A) and Nifedipine 10mg 8th hourly (Group B). Each group has 50 patients and further sub-divided as diastolic BP between 100-109mm of Hg and 110mm Hg and above. Relevant statistical analysis was applied and results were interpreted. RESULTS: Both groups are comparable in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure control. Group A had minimal side effects like headache, flushing and hypotension for about 2%. Perinatal outcomes were comparable between the two groups with 96% carry home baby rate in Group A and 88% in group B, which are also comparable. Conclusion: Nimodipine is comparable with Nifedipine and can be used as an alternative drug in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy as it is safe, effective and with minimal side effects. As it is more expensive than Nifedipine in country like India, Nifedipine continues to be the first line drug.

 

KEY WORDS:Diastolic blood pressure; Nifedipine; Nimodipine;

[1]. Sibai BM. Pre-clampsia-Eclampsia. Current problems in obstetrics Gynaecology and Fertility 1990, 13, 1-45.
[2]. Goodman & Gilman's. The pharmacological basis of Therapeutics. 10th edition. Page 853-860.
[3]. Tripathi KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, 4th edition, updated Reprint 2001, Chapter 35. Antianginaland other anti-ischaemic drugs. Pg. 528-533.
[4]. Fernando Arias. Practical guide to high-risk pregnancy and delivery. Second edition, 2001. In: pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, 183-210.
[5]. Ferrazzani S, Caruso A, De Carolis S, Martino IV, Mancuso S, Proteinuria and outcome of 444 pregnancies complicated by hypertension. Am J ObstetGynecol 1990; 162; Pg. 366.
[6]. Gita Banerjee (Basu), DebdulalChatterjee, AlokenduChatterjee, Partha Mukherjee, Chandana Das. A randomized controlled Trial on use of Nimodipine in mild PIH. J ObstetGynecol India. 52(4): 2002 July/August; Pg. 44-46.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review on Metallic Silver Nanoparticles

Country

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India

Authors

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Bekkeri swathy

Page No.

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35-41

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407038044 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047038044

ABSTRACT:Nanotechnology refers to the branch of science and engineering dedicated to materials, having dimensions in the order of 100th of nm or less. The term being new, but has been widely used for the development of more efficient technology. In recent years, nanotechnology has been embraced by industrial sectors due to its applications in the field of electronic storage systems, biotechnology, magnetic separation and pre concentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery and vehicles for gene and drug delivery. Consequently, with wide range of applications available, these particles have potential to make a significant impact to the society. In general, nanoparticles used in the field of biotechnology range in particle size between 10 and 500 nm, seldom exceeding 700 nm. The nanosize of these particles allows various communications with biomolecules on the cell surfaces and within the cells in way that can be decoded and designated to various biochemical and physiochemical properties of these cells. Similarly, its potential application in drug delivery system and noninvasive imaging offered various advantages over conventional pharmaceutical agents. More specific targeting systems are designed to recognize the targeted cells such as cancer cells. This can be achieved by conjugating the nanoparticle with an appropriate ligand, which has a specific binding activity with respect to the target cells. In addition, nanoparticles provide a platform to attach multiple copies of therapeutic substance on it and hence increase the concentration of therapeutic and diagnostic substances at the pathological site. Also, the concentration and dynamics of the active molecule can be varied by controlling the particle size of nanoparticles (>3–5 nm).

 

KEY WORDS:nanotechnology, methods of synthesis, characterization, applications, future aspects

[1]. Mandal, D., Bolander, M. E., Mukhopadhyay, D., Sarkar,G., Mukherjee, P., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 69 (2006)
485.
[2]. Sharma, V. K., Yngard, R. A., Lin, Y., Adv. Colloid Interfac.145 (2009) 83.
[3]. Sarkar, S., Jana, A. D., Samanta, S. K., Mostafa, G., Polyhedron 26 (2007) 4419.
[4]. Gardea-Torresdey, J. L., Gomez, E., Peralta-Videa, J. R., Parsons, G. J., Troiani, H., Jose-Yacama, M., Langmuir 19
(2003) 1357.
[5]. Bhainsa, K. C., D'Souza, S. F., Colloid Surface B 47 (2006) 160.
[6]. Charinpanitkul, T., Faungnawakij, K., Tanthapanichakoon, W., Adv. Powder Technol. 19 (2008) 443.
[7]. Tavakoli, A., Sohrabi, M., Kargari, A., Chem. Pap. 61 (2007) 151.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacist Knowledge & Ability to Use Inhaled Medication Delivery Systems in UAE

Country

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United Arab Emirates .

Authors

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Doaa Al Khalidi|| Amina Mahdy|| Nehal El kilany|| Farah Al Chikhoni||Fatima thabit|| Saeed Khan

Page No.

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42-46

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407045049 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047045049

Objective: This study was designed to compare knowledge & ability to use different inhaling devices among both educated & non-educated pharmacists.
Method: A questionnaire was constructed & piloted to be used as a tool for this study. The sample was divided into two groups educated pharmacists & non-educated pharmacists. Education was in term of receiving the brochures of demonstrating how to use the different inhaled devices before assessing the pharmacists. The pharmacists were asked to demonstrate usage of placebo devices & assessment was done based on checklist designed following companies instructions.
Results: Statistics have shown significant (P<0.05) higher scores; have been achieved by educated pharmacists when compared with non-educated pharmacists in term of ability to use the inhalers correctly, pharmacists' knowledge of cleaning MDI, inhalers induced mouth irritation side effect and their place of storage.
Conclusion: Pharmacists in UAE are not sufficiently aware of the steps to demonstrate correct use of different inhalers. The instructions supplied by the pharmaceutical companies are not sufficient. Appropriate and continuous educational programs concerning pharmacists' ability and knowledge of using different inhaled devices is recommended.

 

 

[1]. Palen et al. Evaluation of long term effectiveness of three instruction modes for inhaling medicines. Patient Education and Counseling 32 (1997) S87-S95.
[2]. E. Mehuys, L. Van Bortel, L. De Bolle, I. Van Tongelen, L. Annemans, J.P. Remon and G. Brusselle. Effectiveness of pharmacist intervention for asthma control improvement. Eur Respir J 2008; 31: 790–799
[3]. Steven Kesten, M.D., F.C.C.P; Kevin Zive; and Kenneth R. Chapman, M.D., F.C.C.R. Pharmacist Knowledge and Ability to Use Inhaled Medication Delivery Systems. Chest 1993;104;1737-1742
[4]. V. Giraud, N. Roche. Misuse of corticosteroid metered-dose inhaler is associated with decreased asthma stability. Eur Respir J 2002; 19: 246–251
[5]. Roche N, Chinet T, Huchon G. Ambulatory inhalation therapy in obstructive lung diseases. Respiration 1997; 64: 121–130.
[6]. Chinet T, Huchon G. Misuse of pressurized metered dose aerosols in the treatment of bronchial diseases. Incidence and clinical consequences. Ann Med Interne 1994; 145: 119–124.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evalution of Anti Microbial Activity and Phytochemical analysis of different organic solvent of Calotropis gigantea

Country

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India

Authors

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Pramila kori|| Prerana alawa

Page No.

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47-52

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407050055 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047050055

The leaf and fruits extract of Calotropis gigantea were screened for its anti microbial and phytochemical activities. The solvent used for the leaves and fruits extraction were n-haxane, benzene, acetonic, ethanolic and aqueous. The extract was tested against infectious diseases causing bacterial pathogens such as S. aureus, E. Coli and P. Aeruginosa using the well diffusion method. The aqueous, ethanolic and acetone extract of leaf of calotropis gigantea inhibition against all the test microbe ranging from 8 mm to 14 mm diameter inhibitory zone. The aqueous, ethanolic and acetone extract of fruits of calotropis gigantea inhibition against all the test microbe ranging from 7 mm to 16 mm diameter inhibitory zone. In present study, bacterial extract showed a varying zone of inhibition of growth of tested organism than n-hexane, benzene, ethanol, and aqueous. Phytochmical properties of leaf and fruits of calotropis gigantea obtain from n-hexane, benzene, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extract were investigated. The results confirmed that presence of antibacterial activity and phytochemical in shade dried extract of calotropis gigantea against the human pathogenic bacteria

 

KEYWORD: Antimicrobial and Phytochemical activity, Calotropis gigantea,S. aureus, P.areogenosa, E. Coli.

 

 

[1]. Remington JP., Remington:-The science and practice of pharmacy, 21st edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 773-774.
[2]. Duraipandiyan, V., Ayyanar, M., Ig Anonymous ; In The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. 1998,Vol. 2, CSIR: 116-118. New Delhi, India.
[3]. Subramanian V., and Saratha, SP; Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Calotropis gigantea Latex Extract: An in Vitro Study. Int.; Journol Pharmecy Science Res.2010, Vol. 1 (9):.88-96
[4]. Hemalatha, M., Arirudran, B., Thenmozhi, A. and Mahadeva Rao; U.S. Antimicrobial Effect of Separate Extract of Acetone, Ethyl Acetate, Methanol and Aqueous from Leaf of Milkweed (Calotropis gigantea L.) Asian J. Pharm. Res.;2011, Vol. 1: Issue 4, 102-107.
[5]. Elakkiya, P., and Prasanna, G; A Study on Phytochemical Screening and invitro Antioxidant Activity of Calotropis gigantea (L.). , International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2012, Vol.4, No.4, 1428-1431.
[6]. Gauravkumar., Karthik L., Bhskara Rao K V; In vitro anti-Canadida activity of Calotropis gigantean against clinical isolates of Candida, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2010, 3, 539-542.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The effect of methanolic extract of Dissotis rotundifolia on cadmium induced testicular damage in whistar rats.

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Makanjuola Victor Olufemi|| Godam Elvis Tams|| Ipinniwa Dolapo A

Page No.

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53-62

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407056065 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047056065

Cadmium is one of the most important toxic heavy metals, reported to have damage the testis of many mammals and Dissotis rotundifolia (Melastomaceae) Triana is known to have many uses in ethno-medicine. This present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Dissotis rotundifolia on the histology, sperm parameters, tissue antioxidant parameters on cadmium damaged testis and also to investigate its possible pro-fertility effect. Thirty (30) adult male Wistar albino rats divided into seven (7) groups were used in this research study. Group A received distilled water only, Group B received 2mg/kg b/w of cadmium only. Group C received 2mg/kg bw of cadmium and 50mg/kg bw of extract, Group D received 2mg/kg bw of cadimium and 300mg/kg bw of extract, Group E received 50mg/kg bw of exract only, Group F received 300mg/kg bw of extract only, Group G received 2mg/kg bw of cadmium and 300kg/mg bw of Vitamin E. Administration was done at 0800 hour daily foor 21days. Adminstration of Dissotis rotundifolia on cadmium induced testicular damage on Wistar rats showed signs of amelorative effect on the histology of testis, sperm parameters while on the normal testis it showed signs of pro-fertility effect, improving the histology of testis, enzyme antioxidant levels and sperm parameters at 50mg/kg per bw.

 

KEYWORDS: Cadmium, Dissotis rotundifolia, testis, pro-fertility

 

 

[1]. O. Akinloye, A.O Arowojolu, and O.B, Shittu. Cadmium toxicity: a possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria. Reproductive Biology Anctor J.I, 2006. 6(4): 17-30.
[2]. J. Parizek, and Z. Zahor. Effect of cadmium salts on testicular tissue: London. Nature, 1996 177: 1036-1037.
[3]. I.D Sharlip, J.P Jarow, A.M. Belker, A.M. Best practice policies for male infertility. Fertil Steril, 2002. 77: 873-882.
[4]. M. Ebesunun, B.A Solademi, O.B Shittu, J.I Anetor, J.A. Onuegbu, J.M Olisekodiaka. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis. West Afr J Med, 2004. 23(4): 290-293.
[5]. J. Yiin , L. Chern , Y. Sheu and H. Lin. Cadmium induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes and protection by selenium. Biometerials, 1999. 12: 353-359.
[6]. R. Gupta, J. Kim, C. Gomes, S. Oh, J. Park, B. Im, Y. Seong, Ahn, S., B. Kwon, J. Soh, (2004a). Effect of ssascorbic acid supplementation on testicular steroidogenesis and germ cell death in cadmiumtreated male rats. Molecular Cellular Endocrinology, 2004a. 221: 57–66.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Optimization of Nutrient Components for Tacrolimus Production by Streptomyces tsukubaensis using Plackett-Burman followed by Response Surface Methodology

Country

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India

Authors

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Archana R.Tripathi|| Nishtha K.Singh|| Umesh luhtra

Page No.

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63-72

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0407066075 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/047066075

Tacrolimus belongs to macrolide lactone groups isolated from Streptomyces tsukubaensis, is used to prevent organ transplantation rejection. The aim of this study was to enhance the production of Tacrolimus by optimizing the nutrient components in fermentation media. Nutrient components play a significant role in the production of secondary metabolites. Many optimization techniques are available for this study and each optimization techniques has its own advantages. Plackett-Burman multifactorial design was employed to evaluate the significant nutrient factor in the medium using high and low levels of the factors where Dextrine white, Cotton seed meal (CSM) and Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400 were found most important components among eight variables. These screened components were further optimized by central composite design with response surface methodology. A central composite design was based on second order polynomial used to determine the optimal levels of screened variables. The optimal level of each variable obtained from polynomial model was 173.94 g/l dextrine white, 19.83 g/l Cotton seed meal (CSM) and 24.72 g/l Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400 respectively. Tacrolimus yield i.e., 1.08 mg/g was achieved with the combination of these optimal values. Validation experiments were performed to verify the adequacy and accuracy of the model.

 

KEYWORDS: Plackett-Burman design, Response surface methodology, Streptomyces tsukubaensis, submerged fermentation, Tacrolimus.

 

 

[1] Suga, K.I., Shiba, Y., Sorai, T., Shioya, S. and Ishimura, F. (1990): Reaction kinetics and mechanism of immobilized penicillin acylase from Bacillus megaterium Ann NY Acad Sci 613, 808–815.
[2] Sun, L., Hamel, E., Lin, C.M., Hastie, S.B., Pyluck, A. and Lee, K.H. (1993) Antitumor agents. 141. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thiocolchicine analogs: N-acyl-, N-aroyl-, and N-(substituted benzyl) deacetylthiocolchicines as potent cytotoxic and antimitotic compounds. J Med Chem 36, 1474–1479.
[3] Hopwood, D.A. and Sherman, D.H. (1990) Molecular genetics of polyketides and its comparison to fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu Rev Genet 24, 37–66.
[4] The antibiotic macrolide compound tacrolimus was reported in 1984 by Kino et al. J. Antibiotics 40, 1249-1255, 1984.