Volume 4 ~ Issue 8 August 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Serum Total Bilirubin levels in Diabetic Retinopathy - A case control study

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Prabhavathi.K || Mrs. Mamatha Kunder || Dr. Shashidhar K.N || Dr. Harish R

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-04080106

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/0480100106  

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), ending with loss of vision is one of the microvascular complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Bilirubin, with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on the vasculature, has been linked to vaso-occlusive disorders.

Objectives To evaluate the Serum Total Bilirubin levels in diabetic patients with retinopathy, diabetic without complications & to compare and correlate the same parameters with age & gender matched clinically healthy controls.

Materials and Methods Study group consisted, total of 75 subjects divided into three groups - Group I (DR), Group II (Type 2 DM without retinopathy) & Group III (clinically proven healthy controls). Estimation of Biochemical parameters were done by standard methods.

Results Comparison of biochemical parameters were made between the three groups. We observed significant increase in FBS, HbA1c & significant decrease in serum Total Bilirubin with p value <0.001 in Group I when compared to Group II & Group III. Negative correlations of Total Bilirubin with FBS & with HbA1c were observed in Group I.

Conclusion Poor Glycemic control, oxidative stress in diabetes can cause profound damage to the vital organs. Negative association of Serum Total Bilirubin with FBS & HbA1c in Group I & Group II when compared to Group III. Therefore estimation of Serum Total Bilirubin is a less expensive parameter, which helps clinicians in effectively controlling and preventing the onset & progression of complications of diabetes such as diabetic retinopathy.

 

Key Words: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, FBS, HbA1c, serum Total Bilirubin

[1]. Correa ZMS, Freitas AM, Marcon IM. Risk factors related to the severity of diabetic retinopathy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2003; 66:739-743.
[2]. Suresh BabuK,AravindKumar.R, Anand Shaker I. Glycated albumin and Microalbuminuria as risk factors in Diabetic retinopathy of type 2 Diabetes mellitus.Journal of Biological & Scientific opinion 2013;1.
[3]. Nikolaos P, Stella S, Despina Perrea, Christos D. Matrixmetalloproteinases and diabetic vascular complications. Angiology march/april 2005; 56: 2173-2189.
[4]. Mossad A, Abd-Allah Youssef. Evaluation of some biochemical changes in diabetic patients. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2004; 346: 161-170.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Vaginitis and Cervicitis in Clinical Practice

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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MurtazaMustafa || Bendaman B Yanggau || HelenLasimbang

Page No.

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07-13

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-040807013

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/04801007013 

Vulvovaginitis results with the loss of Lactobacillus-dominated normal vaginal flora,with the sexual activity pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina. Lactobacillus maintain normal vaginal pH of 3.5,and production of hydrogen peroxide which is bactericidal. Primarily vaginitis include three infections,trichomonaiasis,vulvovaginalcandidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis(BV),desquamative inflammatory vaginitis(DIV), associated with estrogen deficiency. Cervicitis primarilyendocervicitis caused by sexually transmittedpathogens.Vaginal pathogens include:Candidaalbicans, Trichomonasvaginalis,Neisseriagonorrhoeae,C.trichomatis,Gardnerrelavaginalis.Drugs of choice for candidiasis, Fluconazole 150mg orally in a single dose with vaginal preparations,and metronidazole for trichomoniasis.Patienthistory,complete examination,and laboratory tests are essential for diagnosis of vaginitis or cervicitis.

 

Key-words: Vaginitis,Trichomoniasis,Cervicitis,Treatment.

[1] McCormak WM jr,Zinner SH, MacCormakWM.The incidence of genitourinary infections in a cohort of healthy women.SexTransm Dis.1994;21:63-64.
[2] MarrazoJM,MartinDH.Management of women with cervicitis.Clin InfectDis.2007;44(Supp3):5102-5110.
[3] VallorAC,AntoninMA,HawesSE,etal.Factors –associated with acquisition of or persistent colonization by vaginal lactobacilli.Role of hydrogen peroxide production.J Infect Dis.2001;184:1431-36.
[4] KlebanofSI,HillierSi,EschenbachDA,etal.Control of the normal flora of the vagina H0-generating lactobacilli.J Infect Dis.1991;164:94-100.
[5] WiesenfieldHc,HillierSI,KrohnMA,et al. Bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection .Clin InfectDis.2003;36:663-68.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Serum concentrations of CA-125 in normal and Preeclamptic pregnancies

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Aruna Bhattacharya,|| Dr. Rama Saha

Page No.

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14-17

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408014017 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/04801014017

Aim The Present Study Aims To Investigate The Serum Concentrations Of Ca-125 In Normal And Preeclamptic Pregnancies And Investigate Clinical Utility Of This Biochemical Marker In Prediction, Diagnosis And Follow Up Of Preeclampsia.

Methods :The present study reviews a total 48 women with single pregnancy. These participants were categorized into control (n = 40), mild preeclampsia(n = 38) and severe preeclampsia (n = 10). The three study groups were statistically similar in aspects of maternal and gestational age and body mass index.

 

KEY WORDS:CA-125 ,Preeclampsia ,Pregnancy.

[1]. Deruelle P, Girard JM, Coutty N, Subtil D (2010) Prevention of preeclampsia. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 29(3):e31–e35

[2] Gadducci A, Cosio S, Carpi A, Nicolini A, Genazzini AR (2004) Serum tumor markers in management of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 58:24–38

[3] Predanic M (2000) Differentiating tubal abortion from viable ectopic pregnancy with serum CA-125 and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin determinations. Fertil Steril 73:522–525 [4] Schro¨cksnadel H, Daxenbichler G, Artner E, Steckel-Berger G, Dapunt O (1993) Tumor markers in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 35(4):204–208

[5] de Groot CJ, O'Brien TJ, Taylor RN (1996) Biochemical evidence of impaired trophoblastic invasion of decidual stroma in women destined to have preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175(1):24–29


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of Banana fruit peel

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Ehiowemwenguan, G.,||Emoghene, A. O.||Inetianbor, J.E.

Page No.

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18-25

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408018025 

ANED :: DOI :05.3013/04801018025

The in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of banana (Musa sapientum) peels was investigated on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion technique . The ethanolic extract of the peels had MIC values ranging from 16mg/ml to 512.5mg/ml. The least MIC was 16mg/ml against Salmonella typhi while Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest MIC of 512.5 mg/ml. In the aqueous extract the MIC ranged between 512.5mg/ml to >1025mg/ml. Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus were not inhibited by the water extract. Phytochemical result showed ethanol to be a better solvent for the extraction of the bioactive agents in banana peels which include: glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and volatile oil.

 

KEY WORDS:Antibacterial qualities, Phytochemicals, Banana (Musa sapientum).

[1]. Aarti, D. and Anita, C. (2010). Utilization of banana peels and beet waste for alcohol production. Asiatic Journal of Biotechnological Research 1071: 8-13.
[2]. Aden, A., Ruth, M., Ibsen, K., Jechura J. and Neeves, K. (2002). Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis for corn stover. Technical Report 7: 5-8.
[3]. Akinyele, B.J., Olaniyi, O. O. and Arotupin, D. J. (2011). Bioconversion of selected agricultural wastes and associated enzymes by Volvariella volvacea: An edible mushroom. Research Journal of Microbiology 6: 63-70.
[4]. Amarnath, R. and Balakrishnan, V. ( 2007). Evaluation of the banana (Musa paradisiaca) plant by-product's fermentation characteristics to asses their fodder potential. International Journal of Dairy Science 2: 217-225.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Impact of anthelmintic efficacy of Calotropis procera on tegumental enzymes of the trematode, Gastrothylax indicus

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Rama Aggarwal|| Upma Bagai

Page No.

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26-36

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408026036 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801026036

The trematode parasite, Gastrothylax indicus was exposed to ethanolic and aqueous flower extract of Calotropis procera to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of the plant. The parasites were incubated in 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 mg ethanolic and aqueous extracts per ml of PBS at a temp of 37± 1ºC. Mortality was observed at 0.5± 0.05h and 0.75± 0.10h for ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively for the parasite at the highest test concentration of the plant extract. The commercial anthelmintic albendazole was tested for various concentrations ranged from 20-80 μg/ml and mortality was observed instantly (0.08±0.01h) at the concentration of 80 μg/ml. To further investigate the efficacy of plant extract, vital tegumental enzymes of the parasite viz. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acid phosphatase(ACP), Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Glucose- 6- phosphatase (G-6-pase) was found to be suppressed by 43.890, 30.287,18.970 and 22.842% by ethanolic extract and 62.710, 19.780, 57.554 and 10.035% by aqueous extract whereas albendazole inhibited 41.617, 25.650, 64.797 and 26.611% respectively. Enzyme kinetic studies showed inhibition to be non-competitive in case of ACP with both the extracts and albendazole whereas for ALP it was found to be non- competitive with ethanolic and mixed type with aqueous extract. Albendazole showed competitive inhibition in case of ALP

 

KEY WORDS:Anthelmintic, Calotropis procera, Gastrothylax indicus, Tegumental enzymes

[1] M, Brown, Intestinal helminthes, Medicine, 33(8), 2005, 54-57.

[2] B. Panyarachun, P. Sobhon, Y. Yotsawan Tinikul, C. Chotwiwattanakun, V. Anupunpisit, and P Anuracpreeda, Paramphistomum cervi surface topography of the tegument of adult fluke, Experimental Parasitology, 125, 2010,95-99.

[3] S.S. Lal, A text book of practical zoology invertebrate ( Rastogi Publications, Merrut 9th edn.2006).

[4] J.K. Rhee, C.W. Kang, and H.I. Lee, The karyotape of Paramphistomum explanatum ( Cerplin,1849) obtained from Korean cattle, Korean Journal of Parasitology, 24, 1986, 42-48.

[5] P.P. Rolfe, and J.C. Boray, Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in sheep, Australian Veterinary Journal, 65(5), 1988, 148-150.

[6] Z. Iqbal, M. Lateef, A. Jabbar, R. Mohammad, and M.N. Khan, Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait) Ait F. flowers in sheep, Journal of Ethnopharmacology,102 , 2005, 256-261.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Epidemiology of Poisoning and Perception towards Poison Management Guidelines in Pediatricians of a Rural Children's Hospital in India

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Dipak. D. Bharambe || Dr. Mohanraj Rathinavelu|| Dr. Dixon Thomas|| Dr. Y. Padmanabha Reddy

Page No.

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37-42

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408037042 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801037042

The current epidemiological survey study of six months was designed to evaluate the poisoning histories; and to develop standard treatment guidelines for the treatment of poisoning and also to evaluate the epidemiology of poisoning and perception of pediatrician towards poison management guidelines. In our study poison cases observed commonly were scorpion sting (42.31%), kerosene (8.46%), unknown bite (7.69%), snake bite (6.15%), organophosphorus compounds (4.16%), pyrethronoid, head louse, vasmol, food poisoning (3.85%), turpentine oil (2.30%), transfluthrin (1.54%). Childhood poisoning is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. In conclusion, the rural district hospital which caters the healthcare needs of majority of the population in a wide geographical area, the number of reported cases of poisoning was fairly low for a period of 18 months. Higher awareness is required to prevent poisoning and to seek medical care. Poisoning incidences were high in the age group of 1-11 years compared to adults. Perception of pediatrician towards the poison management guidelines was very welcoming. It was found to be applicable, relevant, satisfactory, and complimentary to their real practice.

 

KEY WORDS:Epidemiology, Morbidity, Mortality, Pediatrics, Toxicology

[1]Chandha I A. Poisoning .Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, October 2003; 47 (5): 402-411. [2]. World Health Statistics Annual. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1988.

[3]. Ernest Hodgson, Textbook of Modern Toxicology, 3rd Ed. A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, 2004, 3.

[4]. Doull J, Klaassen C, Amdur M. (Eds) In: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 3rd ed. Macmillan 1990.

[5]. Christopher H Linden, Michael J Burns. Poisoning and Drug Over dosage. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. Braunwald, Fauci, Kasper, Hauser, Longe, Jameson. (Eds) McGraw Hill Publication. Ch 396, 2595-2629.
[6]. Dorland's "poison" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary 28th ed.665.

[7]. Mofenson HC, Greensher J (1970). The nontoxic ingestion. Pediatric Clinics of North America.17 (3): 583 – 90. [8]. Goldfrank, Flomenbaum, Lewin, Weisman, Howland, Hoffman (1998). Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies (6th ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Rapamycin reduces Drosophila longevity under low nutrition

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Eugenia Villa-Cuesta|| Frances Fan|| David M. Rand

Page No.

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43-51

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408043051 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801043051

Rapamycin treatment is considered a pharmacological intervention with the potential to mimic the longevity benefits of dietary manipulations. However, how rapamycin interacts with nutrition is not fully understood. Here we studied the effect of rapamycin on the longevity of Drosophila under a range of dietary conditions. In diets low in nutrients, rapamycin reduced longevity in a dosage-dependent manner. This dosage effect requires some nutrients as rapamycin has no impact on survival under starvation conditions. Under a balanced diet of yeast and sugar, rapamycin had no repeatable beneficial effect on organismal longevity. These results show that the effect of rapamycin on longevity is sensitive to the nutritional environment and it can reduce lifespan when nutrients are limited

 

KEY WORDS:Nutrition, Longevity, Rapamycin

[1] Lamming DW, Ye L, Sabatini DM, Baur JA. Rapalogs and mTOR inhibitors as anti-aging therapeutics. J Clin Invest; 2013; 123:980–9.
[2]. Kaeberlein M. Longevity and aging. F1000Prime Rep . 2013;5:5.
[3]. Bjedov I, Partridge L. A longer and healthier life with TOR down-regulation: genetics and drugs. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:460–5.
[4]. Kaeberlein M. Resveratrol and rapamycin: are they anti-aging drugs? Bioessays. 2010;32:96–9.
[5]. Sierra F. Rapamycin joins the aging fray: maybe Ponce de Leon visited Rapa Nui, not Florida. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65:577–9.ropis procera (Ait) Ait F. flowers in sheep, Journal of Ethnopharmacology,102 , 2005, 256-261.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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WY Dependence - A Case Report from Manipur

Country

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India

Authors

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Khangembam Robindro Singh|| Mhetre Bhushan B || R.K. Lenin Singh

Page No.

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52-54

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408052054 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801052054

WY commonly known among users as "World is yours" are methamphetamine tablets. These contain methamphetamine 25-35mg, very addictive stimulant drug along with caffeine 45-65mg. At comparable doses, the effects of methamphetamine are much more potent, longer lasting and more harmful than amphetamine to the cardiovascular and central nervous system. WY can be ingested, snorted, smoked, or injected. Myanmar is the highest illegal production center of WY by smuggling maximum amount of easily available precursors, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine from India. Manipur, being at the international border (through Moreh Town) to Myanmar is now becoming the targeted smuggling centre for WY and it becomes now an area of great concern.

 

KEY WORDS:Methamphetamine, Pseudoephedrine, Addiction, Manipur

[1]. RN Islam , NE Tabassum , AKM Shfiuzzaman , BU Umar , M Khanam .Methamphetamine (YABA) Abuse: A Case Study in Young Male. Faridpur Med. Coll. J. 2012;7(2):102-104
[2]. LG Shaun, K Fergus and B George B. Review article: Amphetamines and related drugs of abuse. Emergency Medicine Australasia (2008) 20, 391–402
[3]. W Charles , Meredith, C Jaffe, K Ang-Lee, J Andrew . Saxon. Implications of Chronic Methamphetamine Use:A Literature Review
[4]. Churchill A, Topp L. Methamphetamine forms. Drug Trends Bulletin. http://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/ndarc.nsf/website/IDRS.bulletins.[Accessed 19July 2003]
[5]. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2004 World drug report, vol 2:Statistics. Vienna; 2004.
[6]. Caulkins J. Methamphetamine epidemics: an empirical overview. Law Enforcement Executive Forum 2003; 3:17–42.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Alopecia Universalis: an extremely rare but probableadverse effect of Adalimumab

Country

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Australia

Authors

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Pooja Kadam|| Prashant Kaushik

Page No.

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55-57

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408055057 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801055057

Objective: Toreport alopecia universalis(AU) as anadverse effect of adalimumab that has not yet been documented in literature.

Case Summary: A 50-year-old male was diagnosed with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and was commenced on adalimumabsubcutaneous injections biweekly. The psoriatic skin lesions and arthritis showed improvement. However, one year later he lost all his body hair including pubic hair. Trichoscopy confirmed AU.Adalimumab was believed to have caused this adverse drug reaction (ADR). He was switched to etanercept with a good response (psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis). However he had no evidence of hair regrowth six months after change of therapy.

Discussion: The exact pathogenesis ofadalimumab causing hair loss is poorly understood. The patient's history of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritisconferred anautoimmune diathesis. Adalimumab with its immunomodulatory properties might have been the potential triggerfor the development of AU with a sustained or even a permanent injury to the hair-follicle as evidenced by absence of hair-regrowth at 6 month follow-up.Our patient scored a7 on the Naranjo scale, whichsignifies that an ADR is the probable cause of AU.

Conclusion:This case highlights that AU is a probable ADR of adalimumab. Further studies are needed to assess the duration and reversibility of hair loss.Patients should be promptly educated regarding its occurrence prior to commencement of therapy in order to minimize any associated psychological impact.

 

KEY WORDS:Alopecia universalis, Adalimumab, TNF-inhibitors(TNF-i),adverse drug reaction (ADR)

[1]. Hordinsky MK. Overview of Alopecia Areata. J InvestigDermatolSympProc2013;16, S13–S15.
[2]. Strober B. Biologic therapy for psoriasis: early response implies future success. The Br J Dermatol 2013; 169(6):1178-9.

[3]. Zschoche C, Bidier M, Hadaschik E. Alopecia areata during treatment with adalimumab: therapy with an alternative TNF-alpha inhibitor is possible.J DtschDermatolGes. 2013;11(5):450-3
[4]. Lazzarini R, Capareli GC, Buense R, Lellis RF. Alopecia universalis during treatment with leflunomide and adalimumab – case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(2):320-2.
[5]. Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin. Pharmacol Ther 1981;30 (2): 239–45.
[6]. Garnacho-Saucedo GM, Salido-Vallejo R, Alvarez-Lopez MA, Casas de la Asuncion E, Ruano-Ruiz J, Garcia-Nieto AV et al. Renbök phenomenon in a patient with alopecia areatauniversalis. Arch Dermatol2012;148(8):964-5.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Risk factors and Pathogenesis in the Development of Prosthetic ValveEndocarditis

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa.M.Phanindranath|| Rajesh K Muniandy|| M.Yusof Ibrahim||
Raihana Musawwir

Page No.

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58-64

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/3013-0408058064 

ANED :: DOI : 05.3013/04801058064

Mortality and morbidity in prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is high despite improvements in diagnosis, therapeutic and design. Incidence of PVE is high in the initial 6 to 12 months after valve replacement and at low rate thereafter. Health care- associated infections are on the increase due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus,(MRSA),and coagulase negative staphylococci (C0NS).Community acquired PVE is caused by enterococci, Streptococcus viridans group, and fastidious organisms, including the HACEK group. Microorganisms with surface components that react with adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs),mediate colonization and infection. Frequent risk factors for infection includes intravascular devices and hemodialysis. Antimicrobial therapy of PVE do not differ from native valve endocarditis (NVE), except larger vegetations than in NVE, must be considered.

 

KEY WORDS:Prosthetic valve endocarditis(PVE),Pathogenesis, Diagnosis ,and Treatment.

[1].Nataloni M,Pergolini M,Rescigno G,et al.Perosthetic valveendocarditis.J.CarvascMed.2010;11(12):869-83.
[2]. Karchmer AW.Infections of prosthetic heart valve,In:Bisno AL,Waldvogel FA, eds.Infections associated with indewelling medical devices,3rd Ed. Washington, DC:American Society for Microbiolofy,2000;145-172.
[3]. Akowuah EF,Davies W,Oliver S,et al.Prosthetic valve endocarditis early and late outcome following medical or surgical treatment.Heart.2003;89:269-72.
[4]. Hoen B,Alla F,Selton Suty C;Association pour I'Etrude et la Prevention de I;Endocardite Infectience(AEPE)Study Group.Changing profile of infective endocarditis results of a 1-year survey in France.JAMA.2002;288(1):75-81.
[5]. Wang A,Athan E,Pappas PA,et al.International Collaboration on endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study Investigations. Contemporary clinical profile and outcome of prosthetic valve endocarditis.JAMA.2007;297:1353-61.
[6]. Hyde JAJ,Daroulche R0,Costeron JW.Strategies to prophylaxis against prosthetic valve endocarditis.J.Heart Valve Dis.1998;7:316-26.