Volume 5 ~ Issue 10, October- 2015

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Cross Sectional Study of Ethnic Differences in Occurrence and Severity of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) Due to NSAIDs in Sikkim

Country

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India

Authors

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Namgay Bhutia || Chandrakala Sharma || Ena Pradhan || Ghanashyam Luitel || Tapas Kumar Bhattacharyya

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/05100106 

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most widely used "over the counter" medication all over the world despite their complications in different major organs. Present studies envisaged for knowing the occurrence and severity of adverse drug reactions from NSAIDs in different ethnic communities of Sikkim. A cross sectional study was undertaken in the medicine outpatients department of a secondary and tertiary care hospital. The patients belonging to Nepalese, Bhutias, Lepchas ethnic communities and others community (settlers from other parts of India) were included to analyzed the data based on the age and gender, ethnicity and ADRs, drugs and ADRs. Severity assessment was done using Hartwing and Siegel scale and causality assessment by Naranjo scale. Total 109 cases of ADRs, predominating in female were detected. Nepalese were the most affected and Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) being the most affected organ in them. Diclofenac showed maximum number of ADRs in all the communities. Maximum number of cases occurred on single day use (40.36%) of drugs. All the cases were belonging to the "possible category" and the maximum being the mild (72.48%) in nature. It is advisable to consider the ethnic/racial differences equally with other factors, to improve the safety and efficacy of a drug.
KEYWORDS:Adverse drug reactions, Bhutia, Ethnic, Lepchas, Nepalese.

[1] Sriram S, Ghasemi A, Ramaswamy R, Devi M, Balasuramanian R, Ravi TK, Steiner TJ, Clifford RF., Towards a model stroke trial. The single-centre naftidrofuryl study, Neuroepidemiology, 5, 1986, 121–147.
[2] Padmaja U, Adhikari P, Pereira P., A prospective analysis of adverse drug reaction in a south Indian hospital, Online J Health Allied Scs,8(3), 2009,1-6.

[3] Rabbur RSM, Emmerton L., An introduction to adverse drug reporting systems in different countries, Int J of Pharm Practice, 13(1), 2005 March,91-100.

[4] Yasuda SU, Zhang L, SM Huang., The role of ethnicity in variability in response to drugs: Focus on clinical pharmacology studies, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 84(3), 2008 Sep, 417. [5] Sarah EMcD, Jamie JC, Ferner RE., Systematic review and meta-analysis of ethnic differences in risks of adverse reactions to drugs used in cardiovascular medicine, BMJ, 332(7551), 2006,1177-1178.

[6] Garg KC, Singhal KC., ―Monitoring the adverse profile of atenolol—a collaborative study,‖ Ind J Physiol Pharmacol, 37(3), 1993, 213-216.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review on Step-by-Step Analytical Method Validation

Country

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India

Authors

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Panchumarthy Ravisankar || Ch. Naga Navya || D. Pravallika || D. Navya Sri

Page No.

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07-19

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/051007019  

When analytical method is utilized to generate results about the characteristics of drug related samples it is essential that the results are trustworthy. They may be utilized as the basis for decisions relating to administering the drug to patients. Analytical method validation required during drug development and manufacturing and these analytical methods are fit for their intended purpose. To comply with the requirements of GMP pharmaceutical industries should have an overall validation policy which documents how validation will be performed. The purpose of this validation is to show that processes involved in the development and manufacture of drug, production and analytical testing can be performed in an effective and reproducible manner. This review article provides guidance on how to perform validation characteristics for the analytical method which are utilized in pharmaceutical analysis.
KEYWORDS:Analytical method validation, Pharmaceutical analysis, Specificity, Precision, Accuracy.

[1] G. David Watson, Pharmaceutical Analysis (3rd Ed., Churchill Livingstone, London: Harcourt Publishers Limited, Essex CM 20
2JE, 2012).
[2] A.H. Beckett, and J.B. Stenlake, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry (4th Ed., Vol. I & II. CBS Publishers and Distributors, New
Delhi: 2007).
[3] T. Higuchi, and Brochman-Hansen, Pharmaceutical Analysis, (3rd edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors pvt. Ltd., New
Delhi:1997).
[4] G. Oliver, R. Gerrit, and VZ. Maxmilian, Leading Pharmaceutical Innovation, "Trends and drivers for Growth in the
pharmaceutical industry, (2nd Ed., Springer, 2008)12-15.
[5] Br. Jay, J. Kelvin, and B. Pierre, Understanding and Implementing Efficient Analytical Methods Development and Validation,
2003.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Total Phenol and Antioxidant from Seed and Peel of Ripe and Unripe of Indonesian Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.)Extracted with Various Solvents

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Deva Krisna Kadarani || Setyadjit || Djarot Sasongko Hami Seno || Ermi Sukasih

Page No.

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20-25

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510020025  

Study on total phenol and antioxidantactivity ofsugar apple fruits of various solvent, part of fruits, and level of ripening. Solvent extraction used were 80% (v/v) methanol, 50% (v/v) acetone, boiling water, and 50% (v/v) ethanol. Part of fruits thatbeen used for samples were seed and peel which are normally by products of sugar apple processing, level of ripening were unripe, and ripe sugar apple fruits. Total phenol was determined by Folin-ciocalteau method. Total antioxidant was quantified by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) method.Therewas a difference in type of solvent, part of fruits, and level of ripeningon total phenol and antioxidant concentration of sugar apple fruits. Seeds have higher total phenol concentration than peels of this fruits. Unripe sugar apple fruits have higher total phenol and antioxidant than ripe fruit. The best solvent for phenol extraction was ethanol 50%butthe best solvent for antioxidant extraction was acetone 50%.

Keywords –antioxidant, sugar apple, ripening, solvent, total phenol

[1] Alali FQ, Liu X, McLaughin JL. Annonaceous acetogenins: recent progress, J Nat Prod. 62, 1999, 504-540.
[2] Yathish KV, Omkaresh BR, Suresh R. Biodiesel roduction from custard apple seed Annona squamosa oil and its characteristics study, I J Res Eng Tech. 2(5), 2013, 31-36.
[3] Das NG, Goswami D, Rabha B. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts, J Vect Borne Dis. 44, 2007, 145-148.
[4] Richard BH. The biosynthesis of plant alkaloids and nitrogenous microbial metabolites, Nat Prod Rep. 20, 2003, 494-508.
[5] Priscila et al. Free amino acid composition of Annona (Annonaceae) fruit species of economic interest, Ind Crops Prod. 45, 2013, 373-376.
[6] Pandey N, Barve D. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa Linn. bark, I J Res Phar Biomed Sci. 2(4), 2011, 1691-1697.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Epidemiology of Tuberculosis (TB) in Albania 1998-2009

Country

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Albania

Authors

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Elida Mataj || Agim Shehi || Genci Dervishi || Samira Mataj

Page No.

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26-32

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510026032  

In Albania, many people erroneously think that tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of the past-an illness that no longer constitutes a public health threat. Surveillance is an integral part of tuberculosis (TB) control. Albania has a highTB notification rate and there are doubts about underreporting. The evolution of the incidence of tuberculosis is presented, together with more detailed figures over the period 1998-2009. These figures were obtained by the monthly forms (called 14/Sh) compared with the individual notification data. Objective: To examine the distribution and sources of increased tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and reporting system deficiencies in the Albania from 1998 through 2009. Metodology: The study is descriptive one conductet during the period 1998-2009. The statistical analysis is based on data reported from regional level (regional epidemiological departments) to the central level (Public Health Institute). Results: The main findings were: discordance between the collected data (individual form) and reported data (monthly form); tuberculosis incidence rate shows little oscillations which ranges from 6.67 to 9.2 cases/100.000 population; 50% of the regions show a lack of information on the confirmation of diagnosis and laboratory examination type used for confirmation. Conclusion: TB disease in high-risk populations where it is difficult to detect, diagnose, and treat; limitations of current control measures and the need for new tests and treatments, including an effective vaccine; improving information system, regulation of individual form and personnel training.

Keywords –Tuberculosis, information system, examination tests

[1] World Health Organisation (2010) Global tuberculosis control: WHO report 2010. Geneva: WHO. Available: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/2010/en/index.html. Accessed 2011 Jun 8.
[2] Castro KG (2007) Tuberculosis surveillance: data for decision-making. Clin Infect Dis 44(10): 1268–1270. doi: 10.1086/514351.
[3] D'Ambrosio L, Centis R, Spanevello A, Migliori GB (2010) Improving tuberculosis surveillance in Europe is key to controlling the disease. Euro Surveill 15(11): pii = 19513. Available: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19513. Accessed 2012 Oct 20.
[4] World Health Organization (1994) WHO Tuberculosis Programme: framework for effective tuberculosis control. Geneva: WHO. Available: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1994/WHO_TB_94.179.pdf. Accessed 2012 Mar 22.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Methotrexate in Egyptian Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Impact of Interpatient Variations

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Abdel-Hameed I.M. Ebid ||Sameera Ezzat || Mohamed A.M. Ibrahim

Page No.

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33-42

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510033042  

Aim:Since several factors have been shown to influence the clearance of methotrexate, the purpose of this study was to identify potential relationships between patient covariates and the methotrexate clearance estimates and deduce a pharmacokinetic model for the estimation of methotrexate clearance in Egyptian pediatric ALL patients that may help dosage adjustment and achieve target steady-state plasma concentrations in a similar sittings. Patients and methods: A total of 94 pediatric patients with B-cell ALL, of whom 70 were the studied population and 24 were the test population, were treated with four courses of HDMTX doses 2.5 gm/m2 (low-risk arm) or 5 gm/m2 (standard-/high-risk arm) given every other week by intermittent intravenous infusions over 24 hours as a part of their treatment protocol. Patients were monitored for the 24 hour MTX concentration and the systemic methotrexate clearance was calculated for each methotrexate dose. Results:The studied patients had average age of 7.1 ± 4.44 years; total body weight of 30.3 ± 21.04 kg, average height of 117.63 ± 28.09 cm, body surface area of 0.97 ± 0.45 m2 and body mass index of 19.25 ± 4.49. The average creatinine clearance calculated using Schwartz formula was 167.83 ± 48.44 ml/min. The mean methotrexate clearance was 7.83 ± 4.52 L/hr. Estimated creatinine clearance and body mass index were identified as the most important factors influencing methotrexate clearance in the studied patients. Conclusion:A Pharmacokinetic model was proposed to estimate the individual methotrexate clearance for Egyptian pediatric ALL patients. The derived final regression model reasonably predicted clearance values with best fitness and precessions.

Keywords – –Pharmacokinetics, High-Dose Methotrexate, Childhood ALL, Steady state

[1] Eksborg, S., C. Palm, and O. Bjork, A comparative pharmacokinetic study of doxorubicin and 4'-epi-doxorubicin in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia using a limited sampling procedure,Anticancer Drugs, 11(2), 2000, 129-36.
[2] Pauley, J.L., et al., Between-course targeting of methotrexate exposure using pharmacokinetically guided dosage adjustments,CancerChemotherPharmacol, 72(2), 2013, 369-78.
[3] Lauer, S.J., et al., A comparison of early intensive methotrexate/mercaptopurine with early intensive alternating combination chemotherapy for high-risk B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group phase III randomized trial,Leukemia, 15(7), 2001, 1038-45.
[4] Kouno, T., et al., Standardization of the body surface area (BSA) formula to calculate the dose of anticancer agents in Japan,Jpn J ClinOncol, 33(6),2003, 309-13.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Nanoemulsion and Nanoemulgel as a Topical Formulation

Country

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Libya

Authors

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Padmadevi Chellapa ||Aref T. Mohamed || Eseldin I. Keleb || Assad Elmahgoubi || Ahmad M. Eid ||Yosef S. Issa || Nagib A. Elmarzugi

Page No.

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43-47

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510043047  

Nanoemulsion is referred type of emulsion with uniform and extremely small droplet size in the range of 20-200 nm. Nanoemulsion provides numerous advantages over other carrier such as polymeric nanoparticle and liposomes, including low cost preparation procedure, high hydrophilic and lipophilic drug loading system to enhance the longer shelf live upon preserving the therapeutic agents. Incorporating the preparation of nanoemulsion with hydrogel matrix to produce nanoemulgel exhibited by the two separate systems that forming it. Nanoemulgel possesses the properties of thixotropic, non-greasy, effortlessly spreadable, easily be removed, emollient, not staining, soluble in water, longer shelf life, bio-friendly, translucent and agreeable appearance.

Keywords – –Nanoemulsion, Nanoemulgel, Emulsifying method, Liposomes, Thixotropic, Hydrogel

[1] Lieberman, H.A., M.M. Rieger, and G.S. Banker, Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Disperse Systems Emulsion and Microemulsions, 2, 2014,p. 335-369.
[2] Shaji, K.P., S. Umesha, and B.P. Salimath, A Novel Liquid Oral Formulation For 1- Octacosanol An Anticancer Drug and Its Stability Study.Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, 3(3), 2012, p. 186.
[3] Mestres, G.M. and F. Nielloud, Emulsions of Health Care Applications An Overview.Journal of Dispersions Science and Technology,23(1-3), 2002, p. 419-439.
[4] Sigh, R.P., et al., Emulgel: A Recent Approach For Topical Drug Delivery System,Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 2(2), 2014, p. 13-15.
[5] Sutradhar, K.B. and L. Amin, Nanoemulsion: increasing possibilities drug delivery,European Journal of Nanomedicine,5(2), 2013, p. 97-110.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Complete NMR Assignment of MogrosidesII A2, II E andIII A1Isolated from Luo Han Guo

Country

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USA

Authors

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Indra Prakash || SangphyoHong || Cynthia Bunders || Gil Ma || Krishna P. Devkota || Romila D.Charan || Jim Callahan || Tara M. Snyder || Catherine Ramirez

Page No.

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48-53

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510048053  

NMR analysis allowed complete assignments of three known mogrol glycosides, Mogroside IIA2 (1), II E (2)and IIIA1 (3), isolated from the extracts of Luo Han Guo. Herein, complete 1H and 13C NMR assignmentsof all threemogrosidesare described based on NMR experiments (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, NOESY and 1DTOCSY) and mass spectral data.

Keywords – –Mogroside, Structure elucidation, NMR, Luo Han Guo.

[1] Brandle, J.E.; Starrratt, A.N.; Gijen, M. Stevia rebaudiana: Its agricultural, biological andchemical properties. Can. J. Plant Sci.1998, 78, 527–536.

[2] Chaturvedula, V.S.P.; Rhea, J.; Milanowski, D.; Mocek, U.; Prakash, I. Two minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.Nat. Prod. Commun.2011, 6, 175–178.

[3] Takemoto, T.; Arihara, S.; Nakajima, T.;Okuhira, M. Studies on the constituents of Fructusmomordicae. I. YakugakuZasshi, 1983,103, 1151-1154.

[4] Takemoto, T.; Arihara, S.; Nakajima, T.; Okuhira, M. Studies on the constituents of Fructusmomordicae. II. YakugakuZasshi, 1983, 103, 1155-1166.

[5] Takemoto, T.; Arihara, S.; Nakajima, T.; Okuhira, M. Studies on the constituents of Fructusmomordicae. III. YakugakuZasshi, 1983, 103, 1167-1173.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A case of allergy and food sensitivity: the nasunin, natural color of eggplant

Country

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Italy

Authors

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Lydia Ferrara

Page No.

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54-58

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510054058  

Allergies and food sensitivities can both be considered as "adverse reactions individualistic" to food. Are pathological and individual forms because they affect a few individuals in way rather serious; immediate or delayed reactions occur instead with simple effects histamine, or, in severe cases with respiratory and anaphylactic shock The eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is known to cause food allergies in some Asian countries, but detailed studies on allergies caused by eggplant are lacking, however, it was highlighted the presence of allergens in edible parts of eggplant with preponderance in the peel . The purpose of this study was to propose an extraction method rapid, efficient and cost of natural dye from waste products from the food industry, such as the peels of eggplant, from which it was extracted, isolated and purified the nasunin,a colored molecule in red-fuchsia. Nasusin was tested on 58 patients to evaluate the potential sensitizing effect on the skin. The results demonstrate that allergenic effects are negligible and therefore the nasunin can be used as a colorant in various industrial sectors with a certain safety margin

Keywords – –Nasunin, natural dye,analytical methods, patch test, allergy

[1] B. Wüthrich Food-induced cutaneous adverse reactions. Allergy. 53(46 Suppl) ,1998,131-5

[2] SA Bock (The natural history of food sensitivity J Allergy Clin Immunol 69(2), 1982,173-7

[3] C.D May and A. Bock A modern clinical approach to food hypersensitivity Allergy 33, 1978, 166-88
[4] U. Nurmatov, G. Devereux , A.Sheikh Nutrients and foods for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy: systematic review and meta-analysis J Allergy Clin Immunol. 127(3), 2011 ,724-33.
[5] D. Bernstein, J.Cohen Guidelines for the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational immunologic lung diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84,1989, 781-820.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Indonesian Wild Ginger (Zingiber sp) Extract: Antibacterial Activity against Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Lina Noviyanti Sutardi || Ietje Wientarsih || Ekowati Handharyani || Andriani || Agus Setiyono

Page No.

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59-64

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510059064  

Lempuyang gajah (Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith), lempuyang pahit (Zingiber amaricans BL.), and lempuyang wangi (Zingiber aromaticum Vahl.) are used as traditional medicine (jamu) in Indonesia. It is also used for treatment of microbial infections, helps to increase appetite and stimulate digestion in chickens. Information on their uses are available, but only limited in the scientific data on their bioactivity. The study was conducted on the antibacterial effect of organic extracts of these plants with Mycoplasma gallisepticum as the agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens. Juice and extracts of fresh and dried rhizome are evaluated through the disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. Oxytetracyclin (30 μg) are used as standards. All extracts are individually exhibited as antibacterial activity against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (7 ± 0.11 mm to 21 ± 0.86 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination of plants extracts are ranged from 7.8 mg/ml to 31.2 mg/ml. The preliminary results suggested promising antibacterial properties of wild ginger from Indonesia, and probably could be used in management of chronic respiratory disease in chickens.

Keywords – –Wild ginger, chronic respiratory disease, mycoplasma gallisepticum

[1] Cushnie TTP, Andrew JL. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 26, 2005, 343-356.

[2] Dai DN, Tran DT, Le TMC, Isiaka AU. Chemical constituents of the root essential oils of Zingiber rubens Roxb., and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. Am J Plant Sci. 4, 2013, 7-10.

[3] Ekwenye UN, Oghenerabe VE. The antibacterial activity of crude leaf extract of citrus sinensis (sweet orange). International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 1(4), 2010, 742-750.

[4] Godstime OC, Enwa FO, Jewo AO, Eze CO. Mechanism of antimicrobial actions of Phytochemicals against enteric pathogens – a review. J Pharm Chem Biol Sci. 2(2), 2014, 77-85.

[5] Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis (Chapman and Hall International Edition, New York, 1998, 3 rd Edition).


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clinico-haematological Profile of Falciparum Malaria in a Rural Hospital of Triputa.

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Manas Gope

Page No.

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65-67

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510065067  

Aim: To study the clinico-haematological profile malaria in a rural hospital of Tripura. Material and methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was done from at Kulai District Hospital,Tripura. This hospital based cross sectional study was done on 60 confirmed cases of falciparum malaria (either by peripheral smear or rapid diagnostic test) admitted in Kulai District Hospital. A case sheet proforma was prepared and data (demographic profile,clinical feature, investigation, treatment, and complication) from all indoor patients was collected and analyzed. Result: Out of 60 patients, 40(66.6%) were males and 20 (33.4%) were females. Most of the patients were between the age group 21-40 years with the highest prevalence between the age group of 21-30. Fever was the most common symptom. Anemia was present in 42(70%) patients, out of which 6(10%) patients had severe anemia. Thrombocytopenia was present in 36(60%) patients.Abnormal liver function tests were observed in 26(43.3%) subjects while abnormal kidney function tests were observed in16(26.6%) patients. All the 60 patients received Artemisinin based antimalarial drugs. Conclusion: Early detection, prompt management, and adequate supportive therapy may reduce mortality due to falciparum cerebral malaria.

Keyword: Malaria, Thrombocytopenia, Artesunate, Rapid diagnostic test..

 

[1] Malaria Journal 2009; 8:281
[2] Murthy GL, Sahay RK, Srinivasan VR, Upadhaya AC, Shantaram V, Gayatri K. Clinical profile of falciparum Malaria in a tertiary care hospital. J Indian Med Assoc 2000;98:160-2,169.
[3] Mehta SR, Naidu G, Chander V, Singh IP. Falciparum malaria present day problem, an experience with 425 cases. JAPI 1989;37:264-7.
[4] Deb T, Mohanti RK, Ravi K, Bhagat BM. Atypical presentation of falciparum malaria. JAPI 1992;40:381-4.
[5] Sharma SK, Das RK, Das PK. Hematological and coagulation profile in acute falciparum malaria. JAPI 1992;40:581-83.
[6] B eale P, Cormark J, Oldrey T. Thrombocytopenia in malaria with immunoglobulin change (IgM). Br Med J 1972;1:345-349.
[7] Kueh Y, Yoe K. Hematologic alteration in acute malaria sc and J hematology. 1982;29:147-52.
[8] Lee SH, Looareesuwan S, Chan J et al, plasma macrophage colony stimulating factor and P selectin levels in malaria associated thrombocytopenia. Thrombostat 1997;77:289-93


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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SELF MEDICATION PRACTICES FOR ORAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG DENTAL PATIENTS IN BANGALORE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. KomalRaj M R || Dr. Padma K Bhat || Dr. Aruna C N

Page No.

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68-75

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0510068075  

Introduction: Self‑medication is commonly practiced all over the world. Self-medication is defined as the use of medication by a patient on his own initiative or on the advice of a pharmacist or a lay person instead of consulting a medical practitioner. The present study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-medication for oral health problems among dental patients in Bengaluru city; to identify triggering factors that could influence self-medication practices; to identify sources of medications used; to identify sources of information about medications used; and to identify reasons for self-medication.Study Design: A Cross sectional Study.Methods:A survey was conducted among 175 subjects among dental patients in Bengaluru city. Data were collected through a specially designed proforma using a closed‑ended, self‑administered questionnaire containing 15 questions, in five sections.

Keyword: Self medication, oral health problem, toothache

 

[1] WHO guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in self medication, 2000. [cited2011APRIL21]; Available from www.who.int/medicines/library/qsm/whoedm-qsm-2000- 1/who-edm-qsm-00_1.htm.
[2] Van der Geest S, Hardon A. Self‑medication in developing countries. J SocAdm Pharm 1990;7:199‑204, 22.
[3] Shah AP, Parmar SA, Kumkishan A, Mehta AA. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey regarding the safe use of medicines in rural area of Gujurat. Adv Trop Med Public Health 2011;1:66‑70.
[4] Abrahams N, Jewkes R, Mvo Z. Indigenous healing practices and self‑medication amongst pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. Afr J Reprod Health 2002;6:79-86.
[5] Afolabi AO, Akinmoladun VI, Adebose IJ, Elekwachi. Selfmedication profile of dental patients in Ondo State, Nigeria. NigJ Med 2010; 19: 96-103.