Volume 5 ~ Issue 2 February 2015

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Seasonal Variation of Circadian Activity of Rat Measured by Circadian Locomotor Modified Cage

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Menatallah M. Mohammed

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0520106  

Circadian rhythm variations are related to seasonal photoperiodic variations, which affect animal as well as human physiology and behavior. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of photoperiodic variations on circadian locomotor activity using circadian locomotor modified cages to maintain animals' welfare demands. Twelve male Sprague Dawley rats (140-180g) housed under natural photoluminous periods. Rats were divided into two groups (each, n=6), summer group (Long photoperiod; GA; LD 14:10) and winter group (Short photoperiod; GB; LD 11:13). Circadian locomotor activity rhythm was examined in both groups. Rats were housed individually in circadian locomotor plastic cages with voluntary running wheel. Results revealed that GB rats had significantly (p<0.05) greater locomotor activity during the day and longer tau than GA rats. Locomotor activity of GB significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to GA. Taken together, it could be concluded that the ability of GA rats to entrain to long photoperiod compared to GB, suggests that the photoperiod affects the circadian locomotor rhythm. Moreover, the present study tried to introduce a design for circadian locomotor modified cage.

 

Key Words: Circadian, photoperiod, locomotor, running wheel, rats.

[1]. Albrecht, U., Zheng, B., Larkin, D., Sun, Z.S. and Lee, C.C. 2001. MPer1 and mper2 are essential for normal resetting of the circadian clock. J. Biol. Rhythms, 16:100-104.
[2]. Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M. 2013. Effect of cage type and flooring on reproductive performance of laboratory rats. J. Biol., 1(4):86-91.

[3]. Baumans, V. 2005. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: laboratory animals. Rev Sci Tech., 24:503-13.
[4]. Elliott, J.A. and Tamarkin, L. 1994. Complex circadian regulation of pineal melatonin and wheel-running in Syrian hamsters. J. Comp. Physiol., 174:469-484.
[5]. Cain, S.W., Verwey, M., Hood, S., Leknickas, P., Karatsoreos, I., Yeomans, J.S. and Ralph, M.R. 2004. Reward and aversive stimuli produce similar nonphotic phase shifts. Behav. Neurosci., 118(1):131-137.
[6]. Canini, F., Brahimi, S., Drouet, J.B., Michel, V., Alonso, A., Buguet, A., and Cespuglio, R. 2009. Metyrapone decreases locomotion acutely. Neurosci. Lett., 457(1):41-44.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from chronic skin ulcer of patients in Kaduna state, Nigeria.

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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J. Baba||H.I. Inabo|| V.J. Umoh|| A.T. Olayinka

Page No.

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07-12

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/05207012 

The aim of this study is to investigate the antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from out - patients with chronic skin ulcer in four different hospitals in Kaduna state. A total number of 292 swab samples were collected from January 2012 to January 2013 and analyzed. MRSA isolates recovered were 14 (78 %) of the total number of Staphylococcus aureus found on the different sites of infection sampled. The highest number of MRSA isolates of 08 (57 %) were recovered from the leg (lower extremity ulcer), while 02 (14 %) isolates each were recovered from hand, abdominal region and mouth (buccal cavity) sites of infection. No MRSA isolates was recovered from the other parts of the skin. From the susceptibility studies of the isolates, it was found that all the MRSA isolates showed 100 % resistance to Amoxacillin + clavulanic acid (Augmentin), and least resistance of 07% to gentamicin. The antibiotic resistance pattern common to all the MRSA isolates is in the order of cefoxitin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, Trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole.

 

Key-words:Antibiotic, resistance, methicillin, Staphylococcus aureus, ulcer

[1]. Abdallah,M., Zaki,S.M., El-sayeed, A and Erfan D (2007). Evaluation of Secondary bacterial infection of skin diseases in Egyptian in and out-patients and their sensitivity to antimicrobials. Egyptian dermatology on line journals,3 (2): 3.
[2]. Alam, M,R, Hershberger, E and Zervos, M. J (2002). The role of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep, 4: 426-32
[3]. Al-Anazi and Awadh R. (2010). Prevalence of Methicillin –Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Biomedical Research, 20 (1): 7-14.
[4]. Arunava,K., Selvaraj, S., Sivaraman, U, Shailesh K., Noyal,M.J., Sreenivasan,S (2013). Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research,7(9): 1979-1982.
[5]. Bowler PG, Duerden BI, Armstrong DG(2001).Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin Microbiol Rev 41: 244-69. [6]. Bowler, G. (1998). The anaerobic and aerobic microbiology of wounds: a review. Wounds, 6;10:170-178. [7]. Cheesborough, M (2002). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Part 2. Cambridge University press, London. 132-194.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clinical manifestations, diagnosis,and treatment of Melioidosis

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa||Joseph, Balingi||Jayaram Menon|| Fredie Robinson||MS.Rahman

Page No.

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13-19

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052013019 

Meliodosis is endemic in Southeast Asia,northern Australia, and Brazil. Northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of melioidosis. Septicemic meliodosis has high mortality,87% in Thailand,75%in East Malaysia,39% in Singapore and 19% in Australia. Localised melioidosis has lower mortality. Burkholderia pseudomallei is found in soil and water,a history to contact with soil or surface water almost invariable with melioidosis. Diabetes mellitus, renal failure,thalassemia,haematological conditions, malignancy,steroids therapy,alcoholism and penetrating injury are the main risk factors.Clinical spectrum of melioidosis,being the fulminant end of clinical manifestation, with abscesses throughout both lungs and in in many organs.Ashdown's medium containing gentamicin, is a selective medium for growth of B.pseudomalleui. Antibiotics of choice include, ceftazidime, imipenem for initial intensive intravenous therapy for 10 to 14 days,sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and doxycycline for eradication therapy for minimum 3 months.Septicemic melioidosis has high mortality, high clinical suspicion is required, and appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy should be instituted for a better outcome.

 

Key-words:Melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Diagnosis, and Treatment

[1]. Stanton AT,Fletcher W(1921).‖Melioidosis a new disease of the tropics:Far East Assoc of Tropi Med:transactions of the fourth Congress.Batavia,Dutch East Indies
[2]. Simpson AJ,Suputtamongkol Y,Smith Mad,et al.,Clin Infect Dis.1999;29(2):381-87.
[3]. Stumoller P,Kraneveld FC,Van Der Schaaf A.Melioidosis(Pseudomalleus) in sheep,goats,and pigs on Aruba(Neitherland Anitlles).J Amer vet Med Ass.1957;130:415-17.
[4]. Limmathurotsakul D,Wongratanacheewin S,Teerawattanasook N.Increasing incidence of Human Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand.Am J Trop MedHyg. 2010; 82(2):1113-7.doi:10.4269ajtmh.2010.10-0038.
[5]. Parkes Helen M,Shilton CM,Jerrett IV,et al.,Primary ocular melioidosis due to a single genotype of Burkholderia pseudomallei in two cats from Arnthem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia.J Feline Med Surg.2009;11(10):856-63. Doi: 10 .1016. Jfms.2009.02.009.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Clinical Evaluation of 99mTc-MDP Three Phase Bone Scan and
99m Tc-UBI 29-41 Scintigraphy Imaging in Preferentially Detection Infection from Sterile Inflammation among Diabetic Patients with Suspected Foot Infection

Country

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Iran

Authors

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Alireza Doroudi || Hamidreza Samaee || Seyyed Mostafa Saadati || Faramarz Ahmadi || Ali Kiasat || Mostafa Erfani

Page No.

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20-26

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052020026 

Ubiquicidin 29-41 (UBI 29-41) is an antimicrobial peptide with six positively charged residues which preferentially binds to the negatively charged groups present on the microbial membrane by electrostatic interaction at the foci of infection. For this reason UBI 29-41 has been suggested to label by 99mTc (99m Tc-UBI 29-41)directly or by using coligand reagents like 6-hydrazinopyridine 3-carboxylic acid(HYNIC)and tricine[ 99m Tc/Tricine/HYNIC]UBI 29-41 indirectly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of [99m Tc/Tricine/HYNIC] UBI 29-41 scintigraphy imaging in combination with 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) three phase bone scanning among diabetic patients with suspected foot infection.
Ten diabetic patients 6 man and 4 women (mean age 62.45, range 57 -67 years) with suspected foot infection before antibiotic therapy for the present complication have been participated in this study. Every patient underwent 99mTc-MDP three phase bone scan and 99mTc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy imaging.
All subjects had positive cultures. None of the patients reported any adverse reaction after the (740-920 MBq) 99m Tc-MDP and the (555-740 MBq) 99mTc-UBI 29-41 injections. The visualized site of infection with 99mTc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy imagines were consistent with 99m Tc-MDP three phase bone scanning. 99mTc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy image demonstrated rapid distribution at the suspected region to infection. This matter can provide scan interpretation of suspected infection as early as 5 min after injection. Not only there was no major improvement in scan contrast was observed up to 120 min after injection, but also there was no any appreciable distribution difference between soft tissue and bone at the site of infection. For preferentially discrimination diagnosis of infection from sterile inflammation lesions among diabetic patients with diabetic foot problem, 99mTc-UBI 29-41 scintigraphy imaging may be considered after the 99m Tc-MDP three phase bone scan of the patient is positive.
It is suggested to preferentially diagnose infection from sterile inflammation lesion among patients with suspicious foot infection two scintigraphy imaging 99m Tc-MDP and 99mTc-UBI 29-41 can be considered.
KEYWORDS: Diabetic foot infection; 99m Tc-MDP; 99mTc-UBI 29-41; Ubiquicidin;.

[1] A. Hartemann-Heurtier A, E. Senneville E. Rewiew Foot osteomyelitis. Diabetes Metab 34,2008, 87-95
[2] W.T. Yuh, J.D. Corson, H.M. Baraniewsli , K. Rezai Asad , A.R. Shamma , M.H. Kathol, Y. Sato, G.Y. El-houry, D.R. Hawes, C.E. Platz , R.R. Cooper, R.J. Corry . Osteomyelitis of the foot in Diabetic Patients :Evaluation with plain film,99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy ,and MR Imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152,1989, 795-800
[3] P.R. Cavanagh , M.J. Young, J.E. Adams , K.L. Vickers, A.J. Boulton . Radiographic abnormalities in the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy .Diabetes Care 17,1994, 201-209
[4] C.J. Palestro . The current rule of gallium imaging in infection. Sem Nucl Med 14,1994, 128-141
[5] P. Laverman, C.P. Bleeker-Rovers , F.H.M. Corstens , O.C. Boerman ,W.J.G. Oyen. Development of infection and inflammation targeting compounds.Curr Radiopharm 1,2008, 42-48
[6] H.A. Bohchelian, A.D. Klisarova, L.A. Koeva Radioimmune imaging of diabetic fFoot infection Tc-99m-labelled antigranulocyte antibody in combination with Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy .Turk J Med Sci 32,2002,255-259
[7] S. Crerand, M. Dolan, P. Laing, M. Bird, L.M. Smith,L. Klenerman Diagnosis of osteomyelitis in neuropathic foot ulcers. J Bone and Joint Surg 78,1996, 51-55


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Some useful Medicinal Plants used against measles from West Bengal

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Sharmistha Gupta|| Mithun Mukherjee

Page No.

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27-31

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052027031 

India is known as the botanical garden of the world. The plant kingdom has so many species of Medicinal and Aromatic plants that possess a large number of secondary constituents. Although plants do not use them for their primary needs, they are basically used against adverse conditions. These secondary metabolites are used to treat a wide varieties of human as well as animal diseases, the added advantage of using plants as medicine is that they are cheap and easily available. The present paper deals with seven species of medicinal plants from West Bengal which are used against measles

 

Key-words:Medicinal plants, measles, West Bengal.

[1]. Strebel P, Papania MJ, Dayan GH, Halsey NA. Measles Vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, editors. Vaccines 5th edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2008, 353–98.
[2]. American Academy of Pediatrics. Measles. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, editors. 2009Red book: report of the committee on infectious diseases. 28th edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009:444–6.
[3]. Simons E, Ferrari M, Fricks J, et al. Assessment of the 2010 global measles mortalityreduction goal: results from a model of surveillance data. Lancet 2012; 379:2173–8.
[4]. World Health Organization. Measles fact sheet No.286. Available at:http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/factsheets/fs286/en/index.html. Accessed Feb 2013.
[5]. Schoub BD. Lessons from the 2009 measles epidemic in South Africa. Samj S Afr Med J 2011; 101:519.
[6]. Grais R. The changing epidemiological landscape of measles in Sub-Saharan Africa: the examples of Malawi and DRC. Trop Med Int Health 2011; 16:84–5.
[7]. Siegfried N, Wiysonge CS, Pienaar D. Too little, too late: measles epidemic in South Africa. Lancet 2010; 376:160.
[8]. Zarocostas J. Measles deaths fell by more than 90% worldwide from 2000 to 2008, except in Southern Asia. Brit Med J 2009; 339.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Comparison of GFR by Cockcroft-Gault Equations and Gates method for estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

Country

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India

Authors

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DR.SRABONI SEN || DR.ARUNA BHATTACHARYA||DR.NANI SEN||DR.ABHIJIT BANDYOPADHYAY||DR.SUSHANTA PAL

Page No.

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32-34

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052032034 

The gamma camera uptake method with 99m Technetium labeled Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (Tc-DTPA) is simple and less time consuming for determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Predicted creatinine clearance methods were compared with Gates method using 99m Tc-DTPA for measurement of GFR.99mTc-DTPA renography was performed on 92 patients (72 men and 20 women, age range being 21 to 72 years) with wide range of renal function. The GFR was determined simultaneously by two methods,(a)Gamma camera uptake (Gates),(b)Predicted creatinine clearance methods: (i) Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and (ii) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD). The Gamma camera uptake method was chosen as a reference. For GFR <15ml/min/1.73m2, there were no formulae correlated with isotopic GFR (iGFR). The MDRD equation was found to correlated with iGFR when GFR ranges16-29 ml/min/1.73m2 (P=0.0004) and GFR ranged from 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2 (P=0.0001). The CG formula was correlated with iGFR (P=0.0172) when GFR ranges from 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2.CG estimate of GFR predicts renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in normal GFR range (>60 ml/min/1.73m2). The MDRD equation estimated that the GFR predicts renal function in patients with CKD when GFR range from (16 to 60 ml/min/1.73m2). There are no formulae that predicts GFR<15 ml/min/1.73m2

 

Key-words:Glomerular Filtration Rate, 99mTc-DTPA, Cockcroft-Gault's equation, MDRD

[1] National kidney foundation. (2002). K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification , 39(1): S1-S226.
[2]. Johnson, C.A., Levey, A.S., Coresh, J. (2004). Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in adults: part-II. Glomerular filtration rate, Proteinuria, and other markers. , 70: 1091-97.
[3]. Gates, G.F (1982). Glomerular filtration rate: Estimation from fractional renal accumulation of TC-DTPA (stannous). , 138:565-
570.
[4]. Russel, C.D., Bischoff, P.G., Kontzen, F., Rowell, K.L.,Yester, M.V., Lloyd, L.K, . (1985). Measurement of glomerular filtration rate using Tc-DTPAand gamma camera: a comparison of methods. , 10:519-521.
[5]. Fawdry, R.M., Grueneward, S.M., Collins, L.T and Roberts, A.J.(1985). Comparative assessment of techniques for estimation of
glomerular filtration rate with Tc-DTPA. 11:7-12.
[6]. Russel, C.D and Dubovsky, E.V (1986). Gates method forGFRmeasurement (Letters to the Editor) , 27:1373-1374.
[7]. Russel, C.D (1987). Estimation of glomerular filtration rate using Tc-DTPAand the gamma camera , 12:548-552.
[8]. Mulligan, J.S.,,Blue, P.W and Hasbargen, J.A (1990). Methods for measuring GFR with Tc-DTPA: an analysis of several common methods , 31:211-1219.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Echocardiographic profile in patients under maintenance haemodialysis.

Country

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India

Authors

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DR Rajesh Debbarma|| DR Manas Gope

Page No.

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35-37

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052035037 

Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients under maintenance haemodialysis
.Methods: Fourty six patients under maintenance haemodialysis were subjected to two-dimensional and M mode echocardiography. All patients were evaluated clinically, biochemically and radiologically and were diagnosed as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were taken as measures of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. Diastolic function was determined by measuring E/A ratio by spectral doppler LV inflow velocity.
Results: Out of 46 patients studied, there were 36 males (78.27%) and 10 females (21.73%). Hypertension (60.86%) was leading cause of CKD. Echocardiography showed that left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 71%. Systolic dysfunction as measured by decreased LVEF (< 50%) was present in 26.86%. Diastolic dysfunction as denoted by E/A ratio of less than 1 was present in 43.47% of patients. Regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) was present in 13.04%. Pericardial effusion was noted in 23.08% of patients. Valvular calcification was noted in 10.86% patients. Mean left ventricular internal diameter in diastole was 34.30± 7.97 mm.Mean left atrium diameter was 38.57±5.83 mm.
Conclusion: Patients under maintenance haemodialysis had higher prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities and echocardiogram is a complementary, non-invasive, broadly used method in the assessment of heart structure and function, and can detect Cardiovascular abnormalities prior to clinical detection

[1]. London GM. Cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure: pathophysiologic aspects. Semin Dial. 2003; 16: 85-94.
[2]. Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998; 32: S112-9.
[3]. McCullough PA. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease from a cardiologist's perspective. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2004; 13: 591-600
[4]. Parfrey PS, Foley RN. The clinical epidemiology of cardiac disease in chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999; 10: 1606-15
[5]. Yamada H, Goh PP, Sun JP, Odabashian J, Garcia MJ, Thomas JD, et al. Prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by Doppler echocardiography: clinical application of the Canadian consensus guidelines. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002; 15: 1238-44.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Occurrence of aflatoxins in some medicinal plants stored under different conditions

Country

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India

Authors

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Vesna Kostik

Page No.

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38-44

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052038044 

Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The aim of this study was to determine the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and the sum of total aflatoxins (AFs) in medicinal plants which were stored in storehouses with controlled macro-environment such as humidity, temperature; modified macro-environment of 50% CO2, 30% O2 and 20% N2 and in storehouses with air at 25 0C and relative humidity between 70% and 80%. The results of this study revealed that the content of AFs was the lowest in medicinal plants which were stored in modified macro-environment. This implies the necessity of continuous monitoring of the macro-environmental condition during the storage.
Keywords – aflatoxins, macro-environment, medicinal plants

[1] M.E. Zain, Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, J. Saudi. Chem. Soc. 15, 2011, 129–144.
[2] J. I. Pitt, What are mycotoxins, Aust. Mycotoxin Newslett. ,7.1, 1996.
[3] E. Petzinger, and .K. Ziegler, Ochratoxin A from a toxicological perspective, J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther., 23, 2000, 91–98.
[4] M.A Passone, L.C Rosso, A. Ciancio, and M. Etcheverry, Detection and quantification of Aspergillus section Flavi spp. in stored peanuts by real-time PCR of nor-1 gene, and effects of storage conditions on aflatoxin production, Int. J. Food Microbiol. , 138, 2010, 276–281.
[5] J.W. Bennett, and M. Klich, Mycotoxins. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. , 16, 2003, 497–516.
[6] R. A. Squire, Ranking animal carcinogens: a proposed regulatory approach, Science 214, 1989, 887–891.
[7] IARC (International agency for research on cancer), Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans: Some naturally occurring substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins, 56, 1993, 245–521.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Oral Health and its Association with Cardiovascular Disease

Country

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India

Authors

::

Murtaza Mustafa|| Y.Rusmizan|| M.Phanindranath|| MS.Rahman|| MM.Sien|| N.ootha

Page No.

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45-51

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052045051 

Cardiovasculardisease (CVD) accounts for 29% of deaths worldwide, and CVD contributes 39% of deaths annually in the United States. There is a link between oral health and cardiovascular disease. Recently concern about possible links concern periodontal disease(PD) and atherosclerotic vascular disease(ASVD).Pro inflammatory mediators, such as C-reactive(CRP),interleukin-6,fibrogen,von Will ebrand factor, and serum amyloid A have been shown to be elevated in patients with PD. Exposure to infections like PD have been postulated to perpetuate inflammatory events in the atherogenesis. The pathways that link between CVD and PD include direct bacterial effect on platelets, autoimmune responses, uptake of bacteria in endothelial cells and macrophages, and endocrine-like effects of pro-inflammatory mediators. Tooth scaling was associated with decreased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Oral health of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was worse than oral health of patients without CVD. Over 700 bacterial speciesfrom the oral cavity have been identified. S.mutans and A.actinomycetemcomitans are important pathogens associated with periodontitis. Clinicians and the patients should be aware of potential benefits of periodontal interventions
KEYWORDS: Oral infection, Acute coronary syndrome, Coronary heart disease, Periodontal disease.

[1]. PaquetteWD.Cardiovascular disease,inflammation,and periodontal infection.Periodontol.2000;44:113-125.
[2]. World Health Organization.The World Health Report 1997.Geneva:World Health Organization.1997
[3]. American Heart Disease Association. Heart Disease and Stroke statistic-2004 update.Dallas,TX:American Heart Association,2003.
[4]. Lockhart BP.Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease:Does the Evidence Support an Independent Association ?.Circulation.2012;125:2520-2544.
[5]. DeStefano F,Anda RF,Kahn HS,et al.Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality.BMJ.1993;306:688-91.
[6]. Wu T,Trevisan M,Genco RJ,et al.Examination of the relation between periondontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol-reactive protein and,and plasma fibrogen.Am J Epidemiol.2000;151:273-82.
[7]. Leu HB,Chung CM,Chung Sy,et al.Genetic variation of connexin37 are associated with carotid intima-medical thickness and future onset of ischemic stroke Atheroscelerosis. 2011;214:101-106.
[8]. Chen ZY,Chiang CH,Huang CC,et al.The association of tooth scaling and decreased cardiovascular disease:A nationwide population=based study.Am J Med.2012;125(6):568-75.

Br>

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effect of medical compounds plant cloves (Dianthus spp) on the positive and negative bacteria to gram

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Baan Munim Abdulrazzaq Twaij

Page No.

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52-56

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052052056 

The research was conducted in the greenhouse (Botanical Garden) and laboratory microbiology, Mustansiriya University, college of Science / Department of Biology, for a period of 19 \ 1 \ 2014 to 15 \ 4 \ 2014 the target noted the effect of plant hormones to increase the intensity and number of leaves plant, and determine the effect of plant extracts of cloves (seeds, leaves which treatment with plant hormones, leaf not treatment with plant hormones) on bacterial growth. And use the hormone vegetable (Kin) Kinten to plant cloves were compared the results with the number and plant leaves density of plant cloves that were without hormonal treatment where it was working on a set of clips (seedlings) and small-old, as it has been sprayed with different concentrations of (Kin) (0.1 , 0.2, 0.3) mg \ l, results showed that the concentration (0.2) mg \ l (kin) gave the best result of the growth and density of plant leaves. Have also been used clove extracts to determine their effectiveness on bacterial growth was observed where the effectiveness of the bacteria and negative and gram-positive and different concentrations where all of these extracts showed the effectiveness of both negative and positive types. And showed us the seeds of carnations best effect inhibitory at concentrations (100,500) g \ ml and a diameter of inhibitory (14.15) mm negative bacteria and positive, respectively, and came after the securities transaction when the focus (300) g \ ml and diameter (11.13) mm respectively , then untreated papers which gave comparable results in all concentrations. Experimental results show the effectiveness of extracts normalize against negative bacteria higher than in positive bacteria.
KEY WORDS:- Dianthus spp, medical compounds plant cloves

[1]. Albhedy, Mohammed Abdel-Hamid, Hassan Ahmed Hassan (1985) Horticulture book translator, Arab House for publication and distribution Cairo.
[2]. Plants.usda.gov (scientific classification of Dianthus spp).
[3]. Moussa Al Jafar Hassan odaa Credi, Khamis Al Habib Mutlaq, and Sundus Hamid Ahmed (2013), Department of Food Technologies, Agricultural Research Service, the Ministry of Science and Technology.
[4]. Dictionary of plants and herbal therapy.
[5]. Abbas, Fadel (1987) care and storage of fruits and vegetables Public Library Printing and Publishing Directorate of Mosul.
[6]. Shahat, Nasir Abu Zeid (1988), aromatic plants, agricultural and pharmaceutical products, the first edition, Dar Al Arabia for Publishing and Distribution, Egypt, p. 79.
[7]. Ani, Tariq Ali (1991) Physiology germination and composition of growth, Dar al-Hikma for printing and publishing, Baghdad, Iraq.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluating awareness and screening of cervical cancer among women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Zakia

Country

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United Arab Emirates

Authors

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Zakia Metwali|| Fatima Al Kindi|| Sawsan Shanbleh|| Sarah Al Akshar|| Fadi Sarhan

Page No.

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57-64

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/xxxxxxx

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/052057064 

Carcinoma of the cervix uteri is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. It can be preventable by detecting precancerous lesions and early invasive cancers by various screening tools. Screening can be possible if women are aware of the problem and if they have positive attitude towards it. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of screening for carcinoma of the cervix (Pap smear) among married women in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from December 2013 to February 2014 in five primary health care clinics in Sharjah. Demographic profile of women was noted and questions pertaining to KAP on screening for cervical cancer were asked. The study included 212 respondents, of which 29% of respondents knew about the disease, 74.5% had knowledge about the Pap smear test, while only 10% were aware of one or more of the risk factors. In addition, 2.73% of the participants had never been screened for cervical cancer. More than 70% of women had a positive attitude towards screening, however, 59.9% did not know that they can be vulnerable to cervical cancer. The awareness and practice of the screening procedure of cervical cancer (Pap smear) among married women in Sharjah, UAE was low. However, the attitude of women towards screening was positive. Therefore, there is a need for intensifying health education provision on cervical cancer screening in the city, by educating women on possible susceptibility to cervical cancer & the possibility to prevent it by early detection.
KEYWORDS: Cervical cancer, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Pap smear

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