Volume 5 ~ Issue 4, April 2015

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Combination of Angkak (Red Yeast Rice), Red Guava (Psidium guajava Linn) Leaf Extract and Red Guava Fruit Juice Increase Thrombocyte in Quinine-Exposed Rats

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Hasim || Dimas Andrianto || Aryani Sismin Satyaningtijas || Fitri Rosary

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0540106  

Dengue fever leads to decrease in the number of thrombocytes. Objective of this research was to study the effect of combination of angkak (red yeast rice), Psidium guajava fruit juice, and P. guajava leaves extract toward blood hematology profile of the quinine-induced rats (number of thrombocyte, erythrocyte, and hematocrit).Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5), consisting of normal group (aquadest), positive control group (Remufit® 0.17 g/kg p.o), negative control group (aquadest), treatment of angkak (400 mg/kg p.o) and P. guajava extract (50 mg/kg p.o) combination, treatment of angkak (400 mg/kg p.o) and P. guajava juice (10 g/kg p.o) combination, and treatment of angkak (400 mg/kg p.o), P. guajava juice (10 g/kg p.o), and P. guajava extract (50 mg/kg p.o) combination. Each group, exclude normal group, was induced by 100 mg/kg quinine on day 1-14 and were administered by specific treatment for each group until day 28. Observation was done on day 0, 14, and 28.Administration of quinine, angkak, P. guajava juice, and P. guajava leaves ethanol extract showed no affect to body weight of animal models (P>0.05) compared to that of normal group. The highest increase in thrombocyte (up to 127%) was achieved by group that administered with 400 mg/kg bw/day of angkak combined with P. guajava juice 10 g/kg bw/day (P<0.05). Combination of angkak and P. guajava leaves ethanol extract significantly increased erythrocyte number and hematocrit value.

Key word: Angkak, Psidium guajava, thrombocyte, rat

[1] Rombe A, Angkak ability in increasing thrombocyte number of Sprague dawley rats, Bachelor thesis, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia, 2005
[2] S. I. Wiyasihati, K. W. Wigati, T. W.Comparing the effect of red yeast rice, date palm, and guava leafextract on thrombocyte and megakaryocyte count in thrombocytopenic white rats, Folia MedicaIndonesiana , 49, 2, 2013, 82-87.
[3] Z. Noor and Y.Astuti, Effect of Angkak against Bleeding Anemia of Rat, Proc.International Conference: Research and Application on Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Health Care (TCAM), June, 22nd-23rd 2012, Surakarta, Indonesia.
[4] M N Diansyah, Suharto, and E A Triyono, 2013, Effect of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) extract to the trombopoietin level in dengue infected patients, Folia Medica Indonesiana, 49(4), 220-225.
[5] Anonimous. Monascus purpureus(Red Yeast Rice).Alternative Medicine Review, 9, 2, 2004, 208-210


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Application of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography with Densitometry for Determination of Active Ingredients and Preservatives in Various Pharmaceutical Marketed Formulations

Country

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Macedonia

Authors

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Vesna Kostik || Biljana Gjorgeska || Sofija Petkovska

Page No.

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07-15

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/05407015  

High performance thin layer chromatography(HPTLC) is a fast separation technique which is advantageous in many means as it is simple to handle and requires a short analysis time to analyze the complex or the crude samples. A new, simple, precise and sensitive analytical method based on HPTLC technique has been developed and validated for the estimation of eighteen active ingredients and preservatives in various marketed pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was accurate and precise (mean recovery in the range from 83.3% to 98.8%, precision with RSD<3.95%; LOQ < 26.4 μg/mL). This method was applied for the quantification of active ingredients and preservatives in: ophthalmic solutions, nasal solution, otic solution, syrups, shampoos, suppositories, ointments, dietary supplements, tablets and capsules.

Key word: active ingredients, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), preservatives

[1] M Raza Siddiqui., Z.A AlOthman and N. Rahman, Analytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis: A review, Arabian Journal of chemistry, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.04.016.
[2] G. Santoni, P. Mura, S. Pinzauti and E. Lombardo, Simultaneous UV spectrophotometric determination of procaine hydrochloride and phenazone in an otic formulation, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 10, 1990, (doi: 10.1016/0378-5173(90)90274-8).
[3] M.A. Korany, M.M. Bedair and A. El-Gindy, Analysis of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and Naphazoline Hydrochloride in Presence of Methylene Blue in Eye Drops by Second Derivative Spectrophotometry, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 16(9),1555-1564 (doi:10.3109/03639049009074383).
[4] L.S. Ramesh., R. Ahmed, R.S. Supriya and D..R. Sheetal, Spectrophotometric estimation of paracetamol and promethazine in tablet dosage forms, Der Pharma Chemica, 4(2), 2012, 714-719.
[5] S Nabeel, H.S. Othman, A. Mahmood and N. Khaleel, Spectrophotometric and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Methods for Determination of Metoclopramide in Pharmaceutical Preparations, Raf. J. Sci., 22(3), 2011, 39- 56.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Candiduria: current scenario

Country

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India

Authors

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Reshmi C Choudhury || Nautiyal Sulekha || Maheswari Bhavna

Page No.

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16-18

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/054016018  

Candida is a commensal of urogenital tract. With the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and wider spectrum of immunocompromised states Candida is gaining importance as pathogenic fungi. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the true prevalence of candiduria in our settings as well as analysing their antifungal resistance pattern. This study was conducted over a period of 6 months from July to December 2012. Identification of Candida species and the antifungal susceptibility was performed manually. The results obtained were analysed statistically using chi-square test for significance. A total of 1072 culture positive urine samples were reported during this period of which 132/1072(12.3%) urine samples showed growth of yeast cells. On speciation 25/132 (18.9%) were found to be C. albicans while 111/132 (84.1%) were identified as non albicans Candida, which included C.tropicalis, C.glabrata, C.kefyr and C.krusei. C.albicans showed resistance to almost all the antifungal drugs tested in variable proportions. Candida earlier assumed as nonpathogenic has acquired a greater clinical role in today's scenario of increasing risk factors, emerging antifungal resistance and immunocompromised states. Though caution has to be maintained in reporting candida from urine but it is suggested not to ignore Candiduria, since it may even be a marker of disseminated candidiasis

Key word: Antifungal susceptibility, Candiduria, C.albicans, non albicans candida,

[1] Talaro A and Talaro K. Foundations in microbiology, (2nd Ed), (USA: Wm. C. Brown Publisher, 1996) 673- 701.
[2] Pfaller MA and Diekema DJ. Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. J. Clin. Microbiol , 42(10), 2004, 4419-31.
[3] Chandra J, Kuhn DM, Mukherjee PK, Hoyer LL, McCormick T, Ghannoum MA, Biofilm Formation by the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans: Development, Architecture, and Drug Resistance. Journal of Bacteriology183(18), 2001, 5385-5394.
[4] Seneviratne CJ, Jin L, Samaranayake LPJ. Biofilm lifestyle of Candida: a mini review. Oral Dis, 14,2008,582-590.
[5] De Rosa FG, Garazzino S, Pasero D, Di Perri G, Ranieri VM. Invasive candidiasis and candidemia: new guidelines. Minerva anesthesiologica 75, 2009, 543-548.
[6] Ha JF, Italiano CM, Heath CH, Shih S, Rea S, Wood FM. Candidemia and invasive candidiasis: A review of the literature for the burns surgeon. Burns, doi:10.1016/j.burns.2010.01.005
[7] Kauffman CA, Vazquez JA, Sobel JD, Gallis HA, Mckinsey DS, Karchmer AW, et al. Prospective multicenter surveillance study of funguria in hospitalized patients. The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis 30(1), 2000, 14-8.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Acute Laryngitis and Croup: Diagnosis and Treatment

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Murtaza Mustafa || P.Patawari ||RK.Muniandy || MM.Sien || MTH.Parash ||J.Sieman

Page No.

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19-23

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/054019023  

Croup is a common respiratory tract infection, among children between 6 months and 5-6 years. Croup is characterized by "barking cough", resembling the call of a seal or sea lion. The stridor is worsened by agitation or crying, and it can be heard at rest, it may indicate critical narrowing of the airways.The virus initially infects the upper respiratory tract and usually produce congestion of the nasal passages and nasopharynx, subsequently, the larynx, the trachea and bronchi are involved. The classic croup- stridor, hoarseness, and cough-arise mostly from the inflammation of larynx and trachea.Parainfluenza virus type 1 is the most frequent cause of croup,with adenoviruses, enteroviruses and Mycoplasma pneumonia.Diagnosis is on clinical manifestations, and the history especially for the younger children.Roentgenographic evaluation is unnecessary, the radiologic picture may be helpful in differential diagnosis. Guidelines for management of croup have been classified as mild,moderate and severe, Westley score of 0 to 2 mild cases, moderately severe score 3 to 7,severe cases with a score of 8 to 11,and high risk score of12 to 17 with imminent respiratory failure.Dexamethosone and budesonide are effective, nebulized epinephrineracemic epinephrine or1-epinephrine may be added to the dexamethasone for severe croup.

Key word: Croup, Barking cough,Viralcroup,Diagnosis and Treatment

[1]. VanderpoolP.Recognizing croup and stridor in children.American NurseToday.2012;7(12).Retrieved 15 April 2014.
[2]. Cherry JD.Clinicalpractice.Croup.N.Engl J Med.2008;358(4):384-91.
[3]. Johnson D.Croup.ClinEvid(online)2009.PMC 2907784 (http:// www. ncbi. nlm .nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907784).PMID 19445760.
[4]. Foy H,CooneyM,MaletzkyA,etal.Incidence and etiology of pneumonia,croup, and bronchiolitis in preschool children belonging to a prepaid medical care group over a four-year period. Am J Epidemiol.1973;97:80-92.
[5]. Denny F,MurphyT,ClydeWJ,etal.An 11 year study in a pediatric practice. Pediatrics.1983;71:871-76.
[6]. CounihanM,ShayD,HolmanR,etal.Human parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalized among children less than five years of age in the United States.Pediatric Infect Dis J.2001;20:646-53.
[7]. Segal A,CrightonE,MoniedinR,etal.Croup hospitalization in Ontario.A 14-year time series analysis.Pediatrics.2005;116:51-55
[8]. EverardMl.Acute bronchiolitis and croup.PediatricClin North Am.2009;56(1):119-33.
[9]. Russell KF,Liang Y,0'Gotman K,etal.Glucocorticoid for croup.Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2011;19(1).CD001955.
[10]. Home F.An inquiry into the Nature,Cause and Care of Croup.In Kincaid A,BellJ.Eds.Edinburgh;1765.
[11]. Cherry J.Croup.InKipleK,ed.Cambridge History and Geography of Human Disease Project,Bowling Green OH:University of Cambridge Press:1990;654-57


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Monitoring histological changes in oral mucosa using AgNORs as biomarkers for oxygenic stress in smokers and COPD patients

Country

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India

Authors

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Galal A. S. Omar || Mohammed Shamssain || Ken McGarry

Page No.

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24-29

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/054030034  

Background: It is well known that tobacco smoke causes cellular proliferation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but changes in buccal mucosa cells in smokers and COPD patients remains unknown.
Aims: The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to assess the effect of smoking on cellular proliferative activity of buccal mucosa in healthy smokers and in smoking COPD patients (ii) to detect early cellular proliferative activity in buccal mucosa. Our hypothesis is that tobacco smoking induces changes in buccal mucosa cells that we can detect using AgNOR analysis.
Methods:879 male subjects; non-smokers (controls), smokers and COPD patients were studied. Cytogenic damage was defined using the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR). Buccal mucosa cells were obtained from swabs and brushing. The respiratory symptoms were assessed by St. George's questionnaire and lung function tests were measured by Vitalograph spirometer. Statistical analysis using ANOVA and discriminant analysis (classification) was used to determine differences between the three groups, regression models were built on the lung function data.
Results:The AgNOR count, nuclear area, nuclear volume, and percentage of cells with 5 or more AgNORs, were significantly higher in smokers than non–smokers (5.20 vs 3.27, 74.66 vs 55.65, 462.67 vs 304.01, 73.93% vs 14.75%, respectively). For COPD patients, the values were 6.77, 110.42, 813.26, 96.97%, respectively. Respiratory symptoms were higher in smokers and COPD patients than non-smokers. There was significant relationship between respiratory symptoms and AgNORs count (P≤ 0.001). There was positive association between cigarette smoking and enhanced cellular activity in oral mucosa. Pack years of smoking is significantly associated with cellular abnormality in smokers and COPD patients.
Conclusions: Strong correlations were found between AgNORs parameters and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and pack years.
Keywords: COPD, buccal mucosa, AgNOR staining, discriminant analysis.

[1]. Bukhari, M. H., Niazi, S., Hashmi, I., Abro, S. A-K., Tayyab, M., and Chaudhry, N. A. (2007). Use of AgNOR index in grading and differential diagnosis of astrocytic lesions of brain. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 23 (2), 206 - 210.
[2]. Cancado, R. P., Yurgel, L. S., and Filho, M. S. (2004). Comparative analyses between the smoking habit frequency and the nucleolar organizer region associated proteins in exfoliative cytology of smoker's normal buccal mucosa. Tobacco induced diseases. 2 (1), 43 - 49
[3]. Chattopadhyay, A. and Ray, J. G. (2008). AgNOR cut- point to distinguish mild and moderate epithelial dysplasia. J. Oral Pathol. Med., 37, 78 - 82.
[4]. De Sousa, F-A-C-G., Paradella, T-C., Carvalho, Y-R. and Rosa, L-E-B. (2009). Comparative analysis of cell proliferation ratio in oral lichen planus, epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med.Oral Pathol. Oral Cri. Buccal,14 (11), 563 - 367.
[5]. Fens, N., Zwinderman, A, van der Schee, M .P, S B de Nijs, Dijkers E., Roldaan A, Cheung D, Bel E, Sterk PJ. (2009), American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 180, 1076-1082.
[6]. Kadivar, M., and Attar, M. (2008). Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region counts in exfoliative cytology of buccal mucosal from opium addicts, smokers and non-smokers. Anayticall Quantitative Cytoogy Histology, 30 (5), 274 - 878.
[7]. Munteanu, I., and Didilescu, C. (2007). Chemistry and toxicology of cigarette smoke in the lungs. Pneumologia, 56 (1) pp 43 - 46.
[8]. Omar, G., McGarry, K.,and Shamssain, M, ,Association between lung function, respiratory symptoms and the argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions from oral mucosa in smokers, Thematic Poster Session in the European Respiratory Society Conference, Barcelona, Sept 18th-22nd 2010.
[9]. Ray, J. G., Chattopadhyay, A., and Caplan, D. J. (2003). Usefulness of AgNOR counts in diagnosing epithelial dysplasia. J. Oral Pathol. Med., 32, 71 - 76.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Anemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Egypt

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Afaf A. Tawfik || Emily T. Hanna || Awatif M. Abdel-Maksoud

Page No.

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30-34

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/xxxxxxxxxx 

Blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin analysis were used to identify the extent of anemia and iron deficiency anemia in Egypt. The study conducted in 2010/11, among 4526 households from eleven governorates and focus on four population groups: mothers (20 – 49.9 yr), children <5 yr (preschool children), children 5-<12 yr (schoolchildren), and adolescents (12-18 yr). The analysis was performed for hemoglobin Hb (18338 subject) and serum ferritin (12293 subjects), and C-reactive protein (CRP) was made for high ferritin sample.
Median Hb values for mothers, adolescents, schoolchildren and preschool children were 12.0, 12.5, 11.9 and 11.2 g/dl, respectively. The corresponding median ferritin values were 14.9, 15.9, 18.9 and 15.4 μg/l. Iron deficiency was more prevalent among whole sample than anemia (44.7% Vs. 39.1%). Cross tabulation for hemoglobin and ferritin, indicated that iron deficiency anemia (IDA, low Hb and low ferritin) was recognized among 18.5% of whole sample population, with high prevalence for mothers (25.1%). Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia (low ferritin with normal Hb) reach 26.0% in whole population, and adolescents showed highest prevalence (29.4%). Almost one-fifth (20.6%) of cases had high ferritin values but still anemic (low Hb) and CRP confirm presence of inflammation.
Anemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia must always be taken into consideration for they have a clear impact on the patient's quality of life and they can be the consequence of severe diseases.
Keywords: adolescents, children, C-reactive protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, mothers

[1]. WHO (2001). Iron Deficiency Anemia Assessment, Prevention and Control. A guide for programme managers. Geneva: Switzerland: World Health Organization WHO/UNICEF/UNU. P. 114.
[2]. Zimmermann, M.B. and Hurrell, R.F. 2007 Nutritional iron deficiency. Lancet. Aug 11;370(9586):511-20.
[3]. Aggett, P.J. (2012). Iron. In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell:506-20.
[4]. Hallberg, L.; Bengtsson, C.; Lapidus, L.; Lindstedt, G.; Lundberg, P.A. and Hultén, L. (1993). Screening for iron deficiency: an analysis based on bone-marrow examinations and serum ferritin determinations in a population sample of women. Br. J. Haematol. Dec;85(4):787-798.
[5]. WHO & FAO (2004). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition, 2nd ed. World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
[6]. Wood, R.J. and Ronnenberg, A. Iron. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, editors. Modern Nutrition in Health And Disease. 10th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. pp. 248–70.
[7]. Nadadur, S.S.; Srirama, K. and Mudipalli, A. (2008). Iron transport and homeostasis mechanisms: Their role in health and disease. Indian J Med Res.; 128:533–44.
[8]. Hunt, J.R. (2001). How important is dietary iron bioavailability? Am J Clin Nutr.;73:3–4.
[9]. WHO/CDC (2007). Assessing the iron status of populations, 2nd ed. Report of a joint World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention technical consultation on the assessment of iron status at the population level. Geneva: World Health Organization.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Isolation and Identification of Coliform Bacteria from Drinking Water Sources of Hazara Division, Pakistan

Country

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Pakistan

Authors

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Ehsan Humayun || Aqsa Bibi || Atif ur Rehman || Sajjad Ahmad || Nodia Shujaat

Page No.

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36-40

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/054035039 

In Pakistan there is not a good awareness about water borne diseases. It is just due to lack of knowledge and infrastructure and it is not a hidden thing that in Pakistan water borne diseases are not different from world. In this study determination of coliforms specially E.coli, P.aeruginosa, Salmonella and H. pylori were isolated and identified by using 100 ml of drinking water sample from common sources. WHO recommendation tells us that any 100 ml water sample used for deinking must not contain any coliforms in it. In this study a total of 90 samples were collected from 3 different cities of Hazara Division (Mansehra, Abbottabad and Haripur). To find out pathogenic bacteria culturing technique was used followed by staining for identification of bacterial specie. In Mansehra 15 samples (16.66%) were found pathogenic, 18 samples (20%) from Abbottabad and 16 samples (17.77%) from Haripur respectively. Four Different bacterial species were found i-e E.coli, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella and H. pylori. Ecoli was mostly isolated specie that was identified in 24 samples (26.66%) followed by P. aeruginosa 11 samples (12.22%), H. pylori 8 samples (8.88%) and Salmonella 6 samples (6.66%). This study concludes that disinfection of water should be implemented to reduce water borne diseases, water supplying departments have to follow WHO standards for better public health and to control disease outbreak by coliforms.
Keywords: E.coli, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella, H. pylori, Contamination,

[1]. L.C. Lim, J.A. Low, and K.M. Chan, 1999, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum (Flavobacterium meningosepticum) a report of five case in local hospital. Ann Acad Med Singapor 28 pp 858-860.
[2]. L.T. Bourne, and J.R. Seager 2001, Water the neglected nutrient, S. Afr. J. Clin. Nutr. 14(3) pp 64-70.
[3]. M.E. Buyckx, 2007, Hydration and health promotion: A brief introduction, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 26(5) pp 533-534.
[4]. S.M. Kleiner, 1999 Water: an essential but overlooked nutrient, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 99 pp 200-206.
[5]. M. Sawka, S.N. Cheuvront, and R. Carter, 2005, Human water needs. Nutr. Rev. 63(6) pp 30-39.
[6]. F.G. Anthony, J.R. Elizabeth, T. Gaudy 1980, Microbiology for Environmental Scientists and Engineers McGraw Hill Book Company pp 2 and 667.
[7]. W.B. Solley, R.R. Pierce, and H.A. Peralman, 1998 "Estimated use of water in United States in 1995" U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200.
[8]. D.B. Botkin, and E.A. Keller 2005 Water supply use and management In. Environmental Science 5th ed. John Willey & sons pp 406-415


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Radiosensitivity Effect of Hydroxyurea on HT29 Cell Line

Country

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Iran

Authors

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Alireza Doroudi || Mostafa Erfani || Seyyed Mohammad Mousavinia

Page No.

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40-43

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/054040043 

The radiosensitizer compounds are used in order to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Hydroxyurea is one of the antineoplastic agents and used orally for treatment of melanoma, metastatic or inoperable ovarian cancer, and chronic myelocytic leukemia and as an adjunct to radiation in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma and cancer of the head and neck. This approach was launched to evaluate the efficiency of combination of hydroxyurea and gamma ionization irradiation on HT29 cell line. After the proliferation of HT29 cell line and cells were in the exponential phase, the density of 105 of HT29 cell line was seeded in every well of 96-well dishes; different doses of hydroxyurea were added to each well. The ionizing irradiation has been performed 4 hours after drug treatment. Then the viability of cells was determined by MTT assay. Hydroxyurea at 2.5 μM concentration has not shown significant cytotoxicity on HT29 cell line without ionizing irradiation but the viability of cells have been decreased significantly to about 55 % of control with irradiation combination. The use of low dose of hydroxyurea in conjunction with tumor radiotherapy might results in much greater toxicity to tumor than normal tissues
Keywords:Hydroxyurea, MTT assay, Radiosensitizer

[1] H.P. Beck-Bornholdt , H.H. Dubben , C. Liertz-Petersen , H. Willers. Hyperfractionation :where do we stand? Radiother Oncol 43,1997,1-21
[2] M.J. Zelefsky , S.A. Leibel , Z. Fuks. Three-dimentional conformal radiotherapy and dose escalation: where do we stand? Semin Radiat Oncol 8,1998,107-114
[3] J.C. Mcginn , D.S. Shewach , T.S. Lawrence. Radiosensitizing nucleosides. J Nati Cancer Inst 88,1996,1193-1203
[4] M. Candelaria , A. Garcia-Arias , L. Cetina , A. Duenas-Gonzalez. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer,cisplation and beyond. Radiat Oncol 8,2006,1-15
[5] T.L. Lemke , D. A. Williams , V. F. Roche. Foye's principles of medicinal chemistry , sixth edition,Lippincott&Williams, Page 1181
[6] A.K. Ellis , D.H. Lee. Tumor lysis syndrome induced by hydroxyurea therapy for leukemic transformation of polycytemia vera.Am J Hematol 71,2002,237-238
[7] J.T. Seki , H.M. Al-Omar , D. Amato , D.M. Sutton. Acute tumor lysis syndrome secondry to hydroxyurea in acute myeloid leukemia. Ann of Pharmacother 37,2003,675-678
[8] V.A. Levin. The place of hydroxyurea in the treatment of primary brain tumors. Semin Oncol 19,1992,34-39
[9] S. Lanzkron , J.J. Strouse , R. Wilson , M.C. Beach , C. Haywood , H. Park , C. Witkop , E.B. Bass , J.B. Segal. Systemic review hydroxyurea for the treatment of adults with sickle cell disease. Ann Intern Med 148,2008, 939-955
[10] D. Leyden , N. Ahmed , H.T. Hassan. Hydroxyurea and trimidox enhance the radiation effect in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Anticancer Res 20,2000, 133-138