Volume 5 ~ Issue 5, May 2015

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effects of Acalypha torta (Muell) Leaf Extract on Histological Indices of the Visceral Organs of Male (Rattus novergicus) Wistar Rats

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Odigie, B.E.|| Erameh, T.O.|| Ekundina, V.O.

Page No.

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01-07

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0550107  

Acalypha torta (Muell) a lush ornamental plant is commonly used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases, pain, fever, and ulcer. It is used by traditional herbal practitioners in Nigeria without a safe dose regimen. For this reason, the present study examines the histological indices (cyto-architecture) in rats treated orally with A. torta crude leaf aqueous extract. Thirty male Wistar rats with average weight (202.25g) were assigned to 5 groups (n=6). The animals were acclimatized under a standard ambient temperature of 26-280C. Food and water were provided as required. Extracts between 50mg/ml to 500mg/ml were administered to the rats in group (A, B, C and D) orally while E served as the untreated group. All rats were sacrificed by (Chloroform) anesthetization at the termination of the experiment. Grossing was done following excision of visceral organs of interest (liver and kidney). Cut tissue at 3-5mm was processed histologically and was sectioned at 3-5microns. Mayer's haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined using the light microscope. The results showed normal histological indices of the liver and kidney examined. Though there were negligible signs of acute histopathology effects but were thought to be dose-related offenses. Therefore, the present study provides support for the safety profile of A. torta herbal preparation in a concentration of 500mg/ml in male Wistar rats. However, further studies may attempt to look at higher doses under similar circumstances.

Key word: Acalypha species, cyto-architecture, histological indices, kidney, and liver.

[1]. T. Okoko and S. Ndoni, The effect of Garcinia kola extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue damage in rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009; 8(1): 27-31
[2]. R. Yerra, G. Malaya and K.M. Upal, In Vitro Lipid Peroxidation and Antimicrobial Activity of Mucuna pruriens Seeds. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2005; 4:32-35.
[3]. J.O. Adebayo and A.U. Krettli, Potential antimalarials from Nigerian plants: A review. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133 (2): 289-302
[4]. G.M. Cragg, D.G. Newmann and K.M. Snader, Natural products in drug discovery and development, Journal of Natural Products 1997, 60: 52-60.
[5]. S. K. Adesina, O. Idowu, A.O. Ogundaini, H. Oladimeji, T.A. Olugbade and G.O. Onawunmi, Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of EAcalypha wilkesiana and Acalypha hispida. Phytother Res. 2000; 14: 371-4.
[6]. B.E. Odigie, Histological effects of pre-exposure prophylactic consumption of sulfa drugs on Liver and Kidney of albino Wister rats (Rattus novergicus). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 2013; 5(6):14-19.
[7]. National Research Council, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Academic Press, Washington DC, 1996.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Cervical Sympathetic chain ganglioneuroma : case report and review of literature

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Dr. Ashish Gopal || Dr. Sangeeta Singh|| Dr. Meenakshi Sridhar|| Dr. Nita Khurana

Page No.

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08-11

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/05508011  

Ganglioneuroms are benign tumor of the autonomic nerve fibers, arising from neural crest and the reported incidence of ganglioneuroma is one per million population. They usually present in patients under 20 years of age with a slight female predominance .The most common localization is the posterior medistinum followed by the adrenal gland ,retroperitoneum (sympathetic ganglia) ,and head& neck.In the neck cervical sympathetic chain is the most frequent site of origin . Cervical Sympathetic chain ganglioneuromas are usually asymptomatic neck masses and complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Surgical excision via a cervical approach offers definitive therapy but may be associated with an iatrogenic Horner's syndrome for which the patients should be counseled prior to operative procedure . Being quite rare among other neurogenic tumors, A case of cervical Sympathetic chain ganglioneuroma is presented and the literature is reviewed.

Key word: Cervical ganglioneuroma, Head and neck tumors, neurogenic neck tumours , sympathetic chain.

[1] H.B.Schumaker Jr., and E Lawrence, Cervical sympathetic ganglioneuroma: Case report and review of literature. Surgery 5, 1939,572-81
[2] K.E. Bove , A. J. Mc Adams : Composite ganglioneuroblastoma an assessment of the significance of histologic maturation in neuroblastoma diagnosed beyond infancy. Arch Path Lab Med ,105,1981, 325
[3] H.Shimada , I.M.Ambros ,L.P. Dehner : Terminology and morphologic criteria of neuroblastic tumours. Recommendations by the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Committee. Cancer 86,1996 349-363
[4] B.George B.,B.Hero ,D. Harm. : Metabolic activity and clinical features of primary ganglioneuromas. Cancer 2001 May 15; 91(10): 2001, 1905-1913.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Effectiveness of Resveratrol on Metastasis: A Review

Country

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USA

Authors

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Brittany Wolfe || Ricky Gandhi || Talitha Rajah

Page No.

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12-18

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055012018  

Resveratrol's effects on different cancers have been studied extensively over the past 15 years. Researchers have noted the compound's potential ability to mitigate cell proliferation and metastasis and promote apoptosis. This review primarily focuses on the former, while noting that both processes are intrinsically related. This thorough analysis of resveratrol finds that it can inhibit cancer progression through a multitude of pathways, making it a potential candidate for future drug therapies. This review also highlights the need to study combinatorial effects of resveratrol with other compounds in an attempt to develop more effective and efficient drugs.

Key word: angiogenesis, cancer, metastasis, resveratrol, review

[1] GLOBOCAN (IARC), Section of Cancer Surveillance, 2012.
[2] American Cancer Society, The Global Economic Cost of Cancer, 2010.
[3] M.R. Sartippour, Z.M. Shao, D. Heber, P. Beatty, L.P. Zhang, C.H. Liu, L. Ellis, W. Liu, V.L. Go and M.N. Brooks, Green tea inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VGEF) induction in human breast cancer cells, Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2002, 2307-2311.
[4] I. Leon-Galiciaa, Resveratrol induces downregulation of DNA repair genes in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 22, 11–20.
[5] S.J. Lee, Resveratrol with antioxidant activity inhibits matrix metalloproteinase via modulation of SIRT1 in human fibrosarcoma cells, Life Sciences, 88, 2011, 465–472.
[6] Y.S. Kim, Suppressing effect of resveratrol on the migration and invasion of human metastatic lung and cervical cancer cells. Mol Biol Rep, 39, 2012, 8709–8716.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies on the Osteoprotective and Antidiabetic Activities of Moringa Oleifera Plant Extract.

Country

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India

Authors

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Chirag Patel || Rangrez Mohammed Ayaz || Pragna Parikh

Page No.

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19-22

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055019022  

Diabetes mellitus has been known to be associated with a high risk of osteoporosis. Moringa oliefera , a traditional Asian herbal medicine, has various uses, such as antioxidants, antiaging and anti-inflammatory treatment, among others. We have investigated the effect of different parts of Moringa oliefera (Leaf, fruit and flower extract) on bone health markers in diabetic osteoporosis (STZ-OVX) rats. MO treatment resulted into a reduction in glucose levels in STZ-OVX rats, of the three components fruit extract was found to be highly significant in reducing the elevated glucose levels as well as osteoclastic bone marker TRAcP in STZ-OVX rats. On the other hand it resulted into a increase in ostoblastic marker ALP in STZ-OVX rats. Of all the three parts of MO exposed it was fruit which exhibited the maximum amelioration. The results obtained in the present study provide evidence that MO fruit extracts contributes importantly to the prevention of bone loss in STZ-OVX rats.

Key word: ALP, Diabetes, Glucose, Moringa olifera, Osteoporosis, TRAcP.

[1]. Horcajada-Molteni, M., Chanteranne, B., Lebecque, P., Davicco, M.J., Coxam, V., Young, A., Barlet, J.P., Amylin and bone metabolism in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. J Bone Miner Res., 16, 2001, 958–965.
[2]. Gooch, H., Hale, J., Fujioka, H., Balian, G., Hurwitz, S.R. Alterations of cartilage and collagen expression during fracture healing in experimental diabetes. Connect Tissue Res., 41, 2000, 81–91.
[3]. Lu-Ping, Q., Qiao-Yan, Z., Ye-Ping, T., Han-Chen, Z., Mao, H. and Bao-Kang, H., Total coumarins from fruits of Cnidiummonnieri inhibit formation and differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts of rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 24, 2003, 181-186.
[4]. Huang SS, Leal SM, Chen CL, Liu IH, Huang JS. Identification of insulin receptor substrate proteins as key molecules for the TbetaR-V/LRP-1-mediated growth inhibitory signaling cascade in epithelial and myeloid cells. FASEB J.,18, 2004, 1719–1721.
[5]. Patel C., Rangrez A. and Parikh P. Effect of hyperglycemia on overactomy induced bone loss. International journal of phytopharmacology.5(3), 2014, 239- 251
[6]. Modak, M., Dixit, P., Londhe, J., Ghaskadbi, S., Paul, A., Devasagayam, T, Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 40(3), 2007, 163-173.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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An overview of some promising medicinal plants with in vitro anti-urolithiatic activity

Country

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India

Authors

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Jalpa Ram || Pooja Moteriya || Sumitra Chanda

Page No.

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23-28

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055023028  

Kidney stone formation is so acute in some places that they are called stone belts and Gujarat is one of them. Though most prevalent and widespread disease in the world, no guaranteed cure is found till date. None of the known and available treatments prevent the reoccurrence of kidney stone formation. Hence a dire need for herbal formulation appears to be the need of the hour. The present review discuses the causes, cure and treatment of kidney stone formation. It emphasizes herbal remedies and lists of some of the promising plants which show in vitro anti urolithiatic activity. They can be further taken up for in vivo studies or may be used in herbal formulations and find a new herbal drug to treat this dreadful diseases.

Key word: kidney stone, anti urolithiatic activity, in vitro, medicinal plants, herbal formulation

[1]. Agarwal K and Varma R (2012). Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by various extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) PIOT. Inter Res J Pharma 3(3): 261-264.
[2]. Agarwal K and Varma R (2014). Ocimum gratissimum L.: A Medicinal Plant with Promising Antiurolithiatic Activity. Int J Pharmaceut Sci Drug Res 6(1): 78-81.
[3]. Ashok P, Koti BC, Vishwanathswami AHM (2010). Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Mimuspos elengi on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. Ind J Pharmacol 42(6): 380-386.
[4]. Atodariya U, Barad R, Upadhyay S and Upadhyay U (2013). Anti-urolithiatic activity of Dolichos biflorus seeds. J Pharmacog Phytochem 2(2): 209-213.
[5]. Awari MD, Mute V, Babhale SP, Chaudhar PS (2009). Antilithiatic Effect of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Leaves Extract on Ethylene Glycol Induced Nephrolithiasis. J Pharma Res 2: 994-997.
[6]. Bashir S and Gilani AH (2009). Antiurolithiatic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethanopharmacol 122: 106-116.
[7]. Bensatal A and Ouahrani MR (2008). Inhibition of crystallization of calcium oxalate by the extraction of Tamarix gallica L. Urol Res 36: 283–287.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Rare presentation of left maxillary sinusitis: A Case Report

Country

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Sewagram

Authors

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Dr. Deepika Garg || Dr. Roohie Singh || Dr. Sharmishta De || Dr. Ajay Kamble || Dr. Shweta Gadge || Dr. Vishal Tyagi || Dr. P.S.Nagpure

Page No.

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29-31

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055029031  

The maxillary sinus is most commonly affected sinus. The clinical manifestations of rhinosinusitis are diverse. Complications arise due to spread of infection beyond the bony walls (limits) of sinus. However, the findings of physical examination may vary from simple mucopurulent discharge in nasal cavity to edema over septum & edema over inferior turbinate which is rare. Erosion of maxillary sinus wall may also occur in case of chronic sinusitis. The regions of normal dehiscence (semi lunar hiatus and infra-orbital canal) are more prone to destruction by sinusitis. Here we report a patient with rhinosinusitis who presented to us with complain of mass in left nostril and dehiscent medial wall of maxillary sinus.

Key word: Rhinosinusitis, facial pain, Orbital complications, inferior turbinate

[1]Ballenger's Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chapter 34, S Procedure underwent:sinusitis and polyposis, Andrew P Lane, David W Kennedy.
[2]. Scott Brown's Otolaryngology, sixth edition, The complications of sinusitis, V J Lund
[3]. Silent sinus syndrome, Department of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka , University Medical centre and faculty of health sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva , Israel: Tova Monos, Jaime Levy, Tova Livshitz, Moshe Puterman
[4]. The opacified maxillary sinus: CT findings in chronic sinusitis and malignant tumours, Radiology 1987 April/163;(1) 205-10,:Silver A J, Baredes S, Bello J A, Blitzer S K
[5]. Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis: A review of US treatment guidelines;Bradley F Marple,Stephen Brunton,Berrylin J Ferguson:Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, (2006) 135, 341-348.
[6]. Lund VJ, Kennedy DW. Staging for rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997; 117:S35–40.
[7]. Radiological imaging in management of sinusitis,Am Fam Physician 2002;66:1882-1886, Oknyemi K S,Tsue T T
[8]. Functional endoscopic sinusus surgery for pediatrics ,Dept of Otolaryngology,
[9]. UTMB, GrandRounds, January18, 1995 ; Faculty : RonDeskin, Resident : Cathlin McDonald


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Requesting a complete biosensor system in phyto-sourced drug discovery and development

Country

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Brazil

Authors

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Md. Torequl Islam || Bishwajit Guha || Mohammad Ashab Uddin || Rahul Mutsuddy || Aunamika Khastagir || Mohammad Shajid Ashraf Junaid || Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante ||Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

Page No.

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32-41

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055032041  

Constituents from plant origins constitute about 25% of prescribed drugs in modern medication library. But the time taken from discovery to reaching the clinical therapy for a new drug in this field is approximately 12 years. In the modern scientific world, biosensors could lead to groundbreaking and positive changes in drug discovery and development with the potential applicability and advantageous facts coined as simplicity in use, higher sensitivity, rapidity, potential miniaturization, ease of handling, portability and economy: in comparison to well-established, lab-based conventional methods. Keeping a hope that biosensory can be an impending weapon in the phytomedical field of research, the present study is carried out through a comprehensive and systematic bibliographic search in articles and patents in the databases namely - Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, Web of Science, INPI, EPO, WIPO, USPTO, CIPO, and miscellaneous. As per acquired results, it is evident that there is no direct link to a complete phytotherapeutic research conducted using biosensors but the successful use of biosensors in other fields reflects a possibility of it making a tuneful continuation in the field of phyto drug discovery and development.

Key word: biosensors, implementation, phytomedicine, request, search.

[1]. Clark LC, Lyons C. Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiovascular surgery. Annals New York Acad Sci 1962;102: 29–45.
[2]. De Pasquale A. Pharmacognosy: the oldest modern science. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;11: 1–16.
[3]. WHO. World Health Organization. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials, Geneva, 2003.
[4]. Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (Phytotherapeutic agents). Braz J Med Biol Res 2000;33: 179-189.
[5]. Rates SMK. Review: Plants as source of drugs. Toxicon 2001;39: 603–613.
[6]. Harvey AL. Natural products in drug discovery. Drug Discov Today 2008;13: 894–901.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Detection of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Its Treatment with Pergularia Daemia in Rat Models

Country

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India

Authors

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Segaran Bhuvaneshwari || Rajan Poornima || Dr. Horne Iona Averal

Page No.

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42-49

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055042049  

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder which affects mostly the women in the reproductive stage with unclear etiologies. This syndrome is associated with clinical, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunction. The ultimate aim of this research is to analyze about the estrous cycle in the PCOS induced rat models and its treatment with a common trellis vine called Pergularia daemia. Female albino wistar strain rats were given Testosterone Propionate an androgenic hormone intraperitoneally to induce PCOS. The PCOS affected rats were treated orally with the leaf extract of P. daemia. The vaginal smears were observed for a period of 15 days for three different groups namely control, PCOS induced and P.daemia treated. The result shows that irregularity of estrous cycle phase in the PCOS induced group. The remarkable changes were found in the P.daemia treated group by normalizing the estrous cycle and it is quite similar to the control. The statistical analysis also proves that there is a similarity (P < 0.05) between the control and the P.daemia treated group through One way ANOVA. Thus, the current study strongly proves that P.daemia is an effective drug in treating the PCOS which is a major reason for the cause of infertility.

Key word:Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Vaginal smear, albino rats, Testosterone, Pergularia daemia

[1]. E.S. Knochenhauer, T.J. Key, K. M. Miller, W. Waggoner, L.R. Boots, and R. Azziz, Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States: a prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83, 1998, 3078- 3082.
[2]. L.H. Farah, A.J. Lazenby, L.R. Boots, and R. Azziz, Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women seeking treatment from community electrologists. Alabama professional electrology association study group. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 44, 1999, 870 – 874.
[3]. A.H. Balen, G.S. Conway, and G. Kaltsas, Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Human Reproduction, 10, 1995, 2107 – 2111.
[4]. I.F. Stein, and M.L. Leventhal, Amenorrhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecolology, 29, 1935, 181 – 191.
[5]. N. Xita, I. Georgiou, and A. Tsatsoulis, The genetic basis of polycystic ovary syndrome. European Journal of Endocrinolology, 147, 2002, 717 – 725.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Torbangun Extract (Coleus amboinicus Lour) on Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozotocin

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Trini Suryowati || Rimbawan || Rizal Damanik || Maria Bintang || Ekowati Handharyani

Page No.

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50-54

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055050054  

Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) contains phenolic compounds, especially quercetin which act as antioxidants. This study aims to determine the antihyperlipidemic activity of torbangun leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50mg/kg body weight). Normal as well as diabetic rats were divided into groups (n=5) receiving different treatments. Graded doses 620 mg/kg b.w. (T1) and 930 mg/kg b.w. (T2) of torbangun leaf ethanol extract were studied for a period of 14 days. Metformin hydrocloride (62.5 mg/kg b.w.) and quercetin (15 mg/kg b.w.) were used as a reference drug and antioxidant standart. Oral administration with graded doses T1 and T2 of torbangun leaf ethanol extract exhibited antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Data were analyzed with test followed Post-Hoc test with 95% significance level. The daily oral treatment with torbangun leaf ethanol extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose. There were decreased serum contents of triglycerides and significantly total cholesterol, whereas HDL-cholesterol was increased. Studies clearly demonstrated that torbangun leaf ethanol extract possesses antihyperlipidemic activity in diabettic rats.

Key word:antihyperlipidemic, Coleus amboinicus Lour, streptozotocin

[1]. E.S. Knochenhauer, T.J. Key, K. M. Miller, W. Waggoner, L.R. Boots, and R. Azziz, Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States: a prospective study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83, 1998, 3078- 3082.
[2]. L.H. Farah, A.J. Lazenby, L.R. Boots, and R. Azziz, Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women seeking treatment from community electrologists. Alabama professional electrology association study group. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 44, 1999, 870 – 874.
[3]. A.H. Balen, G.S. Conway, and G. Kaltsas, Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Human Reproduction, 10, 1995, 2107 – 2111.
[4]. I.F. Stein, and M.L. Leventhal, Amenorrhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecolology, 29, 1935, 181 – 191.
[5]. N. Xita, I. Georgiou, and A. Tsatsoulis, The genetic basis of polycystic ovary syndrome. European Journal of Endocrinolology, 147, 2002, 717 – 725.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development and validation of GC-MS method for analysis of chloropyramine hydrochloride in ointments

Country

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Macedonia

Authors

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Vesna Kostik || Biljana Gjorgeska || Sofija Petkovska

Page No.

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55-59

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/055055059  

A simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible method for the determination of chloropyramine hydrochloride in ointments based on gas chromatography – mass spectrometry detection was developed and validated. Dissolution of chloropyramine hydrochloride in the ointment was performed with 0.5 M HCl. After alkalization with 25% (V/V) NH4OH, chloropyramine base was extracted with chloroform. The method was validated in respect of linearity, specificity, precision, recovery, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and stability. In terms of performances: Recovery 90.0 – 98.7%, LOD 0.04 mg/g, LOQ 0.132 mg/g, specificity, selectivity and precision the proposed method was found suitable for routine analysis

Key word:chloropyramine hydrochloride, chloropyramine base, gas chromatography- mass detection, ointment

[1]. J. R Vaughan, G. W. Anderson, R. C. Clapp, J. H Clark, J. P. English, K. L Howard,. H. W. Marson, L. H. Sutherland and J. J. Denton, Antihistamine agents; halogenated N,N-dimethyl-N-benzyl-N-(2-pyridyl)-ethylenediamines, Journal of Organic Chemistry 14 (2), 1949, 228–234. doi:10.1021/jo01154a006.
[2]. B.S. Deshmanker, S. L Agarwal, The action of three recent antihistaminic drugs--ambodryl, sandosten and synopen on bronchial muscle, Indian J Med Sci. 13, 1959, 762-766. PMID: 13816133

[3]. Kurenova EV, Hunt DL, He D, Magis AT, Ostrov DA, Cance WG: Small molecule chloropyramine hydrochloride (C4) targets the binding site of focal adhesion kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 and suppresses breast cancer growth in vivo. J Med Chem. 2009 Aug 13;52(15):4716-24. doi: 10.1021/jm900159g.
[4]. G. Wilhelmi, The analgesic effects of anti-inflammatory drugs from the point of view of different pharmacological test methods. Acta Med. Okayama, 18, 1964, 297-310.