Volume 5 ~ Issue 8, August- 2015

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Challenges in management of peripartum cardiomyopathy with diuretic resistance, hypoalbuminemia and hypothyroidism

Country

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TANZANIA

Authors

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Hanee Mehboob Mohamed || Henry Mayala, Peter Kisenge

Page No.

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01-04

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/05800104  

Background: Peri-partum cardiomyopathy is an idiopathic cardiomyopathy that presents with heart failure secondary to left ventricle systolic dysfunction towards the end of pregnancy or in the months after delivery, in the absence of any other cause of heart failure.Approximately 75% of cases are diagnosed within the first month peri-partum, and 45% present in the first week. Case
presentation: In this report we present a 30 years old female patient, Para 1 living 1, who was admitted one month ago with complaints of abdominal distension, lower limb swelling and difficulty in breathing that started worsening two weeks prior.12-lead ECG showed sinus tachycardia (100beats/min), low voltage and non-specific T inversion and flattening.Echocardiography showed dilated left ventricle (5.8cm) and left atrium (4.4cm), global hypokinesia with ejection fraction of 36% by biplane. Grade 1 diastolic dysfunction, no thrombus seenand Mild pericardial effusion.
Conclusion: Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with considerable morbidity and mortality,thus it should not be underestimated. It should be dealt with accordingly and when suspected, one must establish the diagnosis rapidly.
KEYWORDS: peri-partum cardiomyopathy, heart failure, difficulty in breathing

[1]. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/153153-overview#a1
[2]. Bello N et al. BelloThe relationship between pre-eclampsia and peripartumcardiomyopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Oct 29;62(18):1715-23.
[3]. Tibazarwa K, Sliwa K, Wonkam A, Mayosi BM. Peripartum cardiomyopathy and familial dilated Cardiomyopathy: a tale of two cases. Cardiovasc J Afr. Jun;24(5):e4-7.
[4]. Sliwa K, Tibazarwa K, Hilfiker-Kleiner D. Management of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2008 Dec;5(4):238-44.
[5]. Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Struman I, Hoch M, Podewski E, Sliwa K. 16-kDa prolactin and bromocriptine in postpartum cardiomyopathy. Curr Heart Fail Rep. Sep;9(3):174-82.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Hypokalemia paralyzing revealing a rare association of autoimmune diseases: type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis and tubulopathy about a case.

Country

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MOROCCO

Authors

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Matali Suzanne || Diarra Martin || Tadmori Az Eddine || El Ouahabi Hanane || Ajdi Farida

Page No.

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05-07

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/05800507  

Hypokalemia is a Paralyzing uncommon pathology, primitive often genetic autosomal dominant. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas responsible for a total deficit of insulinsecretion and hyperglycaemia. Someclinical manifestations extraglandular, canbe a discovery mode of the disease. We report the case of a patient with hypokalemiamoroccan Paralyzingrevealingthis pathology Whose combination with a renaltubulopathy by distal tubular acidosis (DTA) type 1 and autoimmune diseases of specific organ is rare. The DTA type 1 is related to the Inability of the distal tubule to secrete sufficient amount of hydrogen ions, making it possible to acidification of the urine below pH 5.5. This DTA is responsible for a severe rarely hypokalemia, neuromuscular complications, or revealing of a type 1 diabetes as is the case of our patient. A case of hypokalemiaparalyzingpuring a Sjögren syndrome (GSS) is associated with a thyroiditis was reported. Hypokalemia paralyzing revealing combination of autoimmune diseases annually (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis and tubulopathy) isuncommon and difficulties to diagnose. Thus, faced with an unexplained hypokalemia neuromuscular paralysis in young patients, we must think although rare to a tubulopathy in the context of autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: HypokalemiaParalyzing, Tubulopathy, Distal renaltubular acidosis (DTA) type 1, type 1 diabetes, Thyroiditis.


[1]. Flamant M, H Azar, Mr. Bonaydisordersacid-base balance and fluid and electrolyte disorders (part 2). Rev Prat 2008; 58: 1363-1371.
[2]. Lin HS ML Halperin. Hypokalemia: apraticalapproach to diagnosis and Its genetic basis. Curr Med Chem 2007; 14: 1551-1565.
[3]. Flamant M, H Azar, Baker H. Disorders of acid-base balance and fluid and electrolyte disorders (Part 1). Rev Prat 2008; 58: 1601-1611.
[4]. Taylor I, Mr. Parsons hypokalemicparalysisrevealingSjögren's syndrome. J Clin Neurosci 2004; 11: 319-21.
[5]. Raynal C. Durupt S, Durieu I Boudray C, F Bouhour, Levrat R, et al. QuadriparesisHypokalemicwith distal renal tubular acidosis revealing a primarySjögren's syndrome. Press Med 1999; 28: 1935-7.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Syndrome de Parry-Romberg à propos d'un cas

Country

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MOROCCO

Authors

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Doubi Sana || Matali Suzanne || El Ouahabi Hanane || Ajdi Farida

Page No.

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08-12

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/058008012  

Le syndrome de Parry-Romberg (SPR) est une entité clinique rare, caractérisée par une atrophie hémifaciale progressive, des atteintes endocriniennes peuvent être associées notamment les dysthyroïdies. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant une acromégalie associée à ce syndrome...

 

Keywords - Parry Romberg, atrophie hémifaciale, acromégalie, étiopathogénie, chirurgie réparatrice.

[1.] B. Ruhin, S. Bennaceur, F. Verecke, S. Louafi, B. Seddiki, J. Ferri. L'atrophie hémifaciale progressive du sujet jeune : où en sommes-nous des hypothèses physiopathologiques, diagnostiques et thérapeutiques ? STO-12-2000-101-6-0035-1769-101019-ART3.
[2.] Wartenberg R. Progressive facial hemiatrophy. Arch of Neurol and Psy 1945;79:602-30
[3.] Rogers BO. L'hémiatrophie faciale progressive : analyse de l'étiologie, du traitement et revue bibliographique de plus de 772 cas. Excepta Medica 1963;58:142-8.
[4.] Lasalle A, Archambault G, Fromm H. Progressive facial hemiatrophy. Arch Neuro and Psy, 1932;27:529-84.
[5.] Park YW. Progressive hemifacial atrophy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993;108:100-1


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of clove mistletoe leaf extracts (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq)

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Tiana Fitrilia || Maria Bintang || Mega Safithri

Page No.

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13-18

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0580013018  

Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq) is one of the semi-parasitic plants belonging to the Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe leaf extracts have many biological activities such as antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the content of secondary metabolites in clove mistletoe leaf extracts through phytochemical screening and determine its antioxidant activity through DPPH free radical scavenging. Samples were tested include water and ethanol 70 % extracts, as well as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions. Phytochemical screening showed that all samples containing tannins and flavonoids but no alkaloids. The highest total phenol contents was ethyl acetate fraction namely 358.4 mg GAE/ g. The best antioxidant activity was water extract, ethanol 70 % extract and ethyl acetate fraction. Therefore, clove mistletoe leaf extracts are potential source for antioxidant.

 

Keywords - Antioxidant, clove mistletoe leaf, DPPH, phytochemical

[1] Ojowole JA, and Adewole SO, Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (Loranthaceae) aqueous leaf extract in rats, Cardiovasc J South Afr, 18(1), 2007.
[2] Artanti N, Firmansyah T, and Darmawan A, Bioactivities evaluation of Indonesia mistletoes (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Mig.) leaves extracts, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2(1), 2012, 24-27.
[3] Adaramoye O, Amanlou M, Habibi-Rezaei M, Pasalar P, and Moosavi-Movahedi A, Methanolic extract of African Mistletoe (Viscum album) improves carbohydrate metabolism and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Asian Pasific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2012, 427-433.
[4] SD Dibong, R Mony, CF Ladoh, IJ Boussim, and A Amougou, Parasitism evolution of Loranthaceae in the Ndogbong Chiefdom's Orchard (Douala, Cameroon), IJPAES, 1(3), 2011, ISSN 2231-4490.
[5] Suryanto E, and Wehantouw F, Free radical scavenging activities of phenolic extracts from clove parasite, Jurnal Bahan Alam Indonesia, 6(5), 2008, ISSN 1412-2855.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Common antibiotics prescribed for acute respiratory tract infected children in Libya

Country

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Libya

Authors

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Domma A. M || Gamal M. A, B || Bioprabhu Sangar

Page No.

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19-22

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL :05.3013/0580019022  

Background: Acute respiratory infection is a common disease in children. Most cases were due to upper respiratory tract infection. Early intervention and prompt treatment of acute respiratory infections are the easiest ways to prevent complications. Objective of the study: to determine the indications, frequency, and types of antibiotics used in hospitalized paediatric patients Messellata General Hospital , Messellata, Libya and to evaluate whether the prescribed antibiotics were based on the isolation of organism and their sensitivity. Study Design: Descriptive observational hospital based study. Results and discussion: A total of 200 child patients were included over 6 months of study period, in whom antibiotics were prescribed at the time of admission. The majority were between < 2 and 8 years of age. Fever was the commonest symptom. Out of 200 encounters for patients with various acute respiratory infections, acute pharyngotonsillits were (62.5%), followed by acute laringitis (26.5%). Acute pneumonia represented by (11%) of the total acute respiratory infection cases. Penicillins were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for acute pharyngotonsillitis among children patients (40.8% of prescriptions), followed by cephalosporins (36.0%) and aminoglycosides (23.2%). A high percentage (59.1%) of children patients diagnosed with acute pneumonia was treated with cephalosporins, whereas (27.3%) of children patients with acute pneumonia were treated with penicillins. However, only (13.6%) of children patients with acute pneumonia often treated with aminoglycosides antibiotics. In case of acute laryngitis, the antibiotic prescription rates were as follow: Penicillins (58.5%), Cephalosporis (30.2%) and aminoglycosides (11.3%).

 

[1] Ashworth M., Charlton J., Ballard K., Latinovic R. and Gulliford M. (2005): Variations in antibiotic prescribing and consultation rates for acute respiratory infection in UK general practices 1995-2000. Br J Gen Prac.; 55:603-8.
[2] Scott J. A., Brooks W. A., Peiris J. S., Holtzman D. and Mulhollan E. K. (2008):Pneumonia research to reduce childhood mortality in the developing world. J Clin Invest.; 118,1291-300.
[3] MOHP, (2000): Report on IMCI early implementation phase – December 1996 – March 2000, PHC sector, MOHP, Cairo.
[4] World Health Organization (WHO) (2009): Acute Respiratory Infections in Children. www.who.int/fch/depts/cah/resp infections/en/.
[5] Kieny M.P. and Girard, M.P. (2005): Human vaccine research and development: An overview. Vaccine, 23, 5705-7


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Quality of life and comorbid anxiety disorder in persons with schizophrenia, schizo-affective and bipolar affective disorder under remission

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr. Vivaswan Boorla || Dr. Siva Prasad Kasimahanti M.D (Psy)

Page No.

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23-30

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/058023030  

BACKGROUND: Quality of life is considered in clinical psychiatry as an intermediate and distal outcome in the management of major mental disorders. Anxiety disorder is the commonest mental disorder which can be identified easily and can be treated easily. Treating co-morbid Anxiety disorders has multiple benefits of improving quality of life, reducing distress to the patient and family, and performance of the patient. AIM: To assess the quality of life and comorbid anxiety disorder in persons with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder under remission.

METHODS: Patients attending for review at Institute of Mental Health (IMH), Hyderabad, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder according to ICD-10 in the past and currently on treatment were all considered. Tools administered included - Mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) to ascertain any other axis I diagnosis; Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM–A) to know the severity of anxiety symptoms and WHO QOL – BREF for assessing the quality of life RESULTS : The mean physical health, psychological, social, and environmental domain of WHOQOL-BREF scale scores in schizophrenia, bipolar group and schizoaffective groups were found to be significant. HAM-A mean scores of schizophrenia group, bipolar group and schizoaffective group were 7.23, 7.83 & 5.23 respectively.

CONCLUSION: In the present study sample, Schizophrenia group scored the highest on WHOQOL-BREF scale while bipolar scored the least. However there was no significant difference among three groups when compared. The most commonly reported anxiety symptoms on HAM-A scale was anxious mood and cardiovascular symptoms. There was no significant difference of anxiety levels among the three groups. In future, studies must be carried out on patients under remission over a period of time, preferably from a sample in the community.

KEY WORDS: Quality of life, comorbid anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder.

 

[1] The world health organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the world health organization. Soc sci med. 1995;41(10); 1403-9.

[2] Michalak E, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam. Quality of life in bipolar disorder. health and quality of life outcomes.2005;3(72):1477-7525-3-72.
[3] Ram Kumar Solanki, Paramjeet Singh, Aarti Midha, Karan Chugh. Schizophrenia: impact on quality of life. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;50:181-6.

[4] Malm et al. Measuring quality of life in schizophrenia. Psychiatry & amp; Mental Health ejournal. 1997;2(6).
[5] Maina G, Albert U, Bellodi L, Colombo C, Faravelli C, Monteleone P, Bogetto F, Cassano GB, Maj M. Health-related quality of life in euthymic bipolar disorder patients: differences between bipolar I and II subtypes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(2):207-12.

[6] Tharoor H et al. Across sectional comparison of disability and quality of life in euthymic patients with bipolar affective or recurrent depressive disorder with and without comorbid chronic medical illness. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008;50(1):24-9.
[7] Sofia Brissos, Vasco Videira Dias, Ana Isabel Caritac, Anabel Martinez-Aránd. Quality of life in bipolar type I disorder and schizophrenia in remission: Clinical and Neurocognitive Correlates. J.psychres.2007;04:010.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Rajpravartini Vati & Hingvashtak Vati in the Treatment of Kashtartava W. S. R. To Dysmenorrhoea

Country

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India

Authors

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Vd.Bhagyashri Khot || Vd.Rupali Sanjekar

Page No.

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31-33

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/058031033  

The women face a lot of physical & psychological problem both at the time of menarche as well as menopause. Kashtartava is a disease where in a female during her reproductive age experiences difficult & painful menstruation. Pathologically its tridoshas having vata predominance .A total 60 patients were randomly divided in these group. An assessment was done on the basis of subjective as well as objective parameters with the help of vas.The study revealed the good report.

Key words : kashtartava –Dysmenorrhoea ,Rajpravartini vati,Hingvashtat vati.

 

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Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Novel RP-HPLC Method for Simultanious Determination of Sitagliptin and Simvastation in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

Country

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India

Authors

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P. Ravisankar || SK. Hassain || Shaik Mohammed Neeha

Page No.

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34-40

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/058034040  

A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous analysis of Sitagliptin and SIMV in pharmaceutical dosage form has been developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on Welchrom RP-C18 Column (250 mm X 4.6 mm; 5μm), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence Liquid Chromatograph and with a mixture of 10 mM Phosphate buffer: acetonitrile and methanol in the range of (45:35:20 v/v/v). The flow rate was fixed at 1mL/minute and the analysis was performed using Shimadzu SPD-20A Prominence UV-detection was performed at 255 nm. The Sitagliptin and Simvastatin were separated within seven minutes. The retention time for SITA and SIMV was found to be 3.352 minutes and 5.402 minutes respectively. The calibration plots were linear over the concentration range of 10-50 μg/mL for SITA (r2 = 0.9998) and 4-20 μg/mL for SIMV (r2 = 0.9999). There was no interference due to commonly used excipients. The relative standard deviation for inter-day precision was lower than 2.0 % which obviously indicates that the present method was said to be highly precise. Regarding accuracy of the developed method the % RSD were also found less than 2 % which shows the method is completely accurate. The method was very sensitive with regard to LOD 0.681 μg/mL, 0.116 μg/mL and LOQ 2.250 μg/mL, 0.384 μg/mL respectively. The mean assay values for SITA and SIMV were determined in tablet dosage form were found to be within limits. The developed RP HPLC method was found to be simple, rapid, sensitive, highly precise and accurate highly suitable for routine analysis of drug samples containing Sitagliptin and Simvastatin.

Key words : Sitagliptin and Simvastatin, RP-HPLC Method, Simultaneous estimation..

 

[1] L. Wang and M. Asgharnejad, Second-derivative UV spectrometric determination of Simvastatin in its tablet dosage form, J Pharm Biomed Anal. 21(6), 2000, 1243-1248.
[2] P. Ravisankar, G. Mounika, Ch. Devadasu and G. DevalaRao, A simple validated UV Spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of Sitagliptin phosphate in pharmaceutical dosage form, 2014, JCPS, 7(3), 254-258.
[3] RK. Naga, I. Sudheer, R. Jyothi and S. Prathyusha, Spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Simvastatin in bulk drug and its dosage form. International Journal of pharmaceutical, chemical and biological sciences. 2012, 2(1), 124-129.
[4] B. Amruta, Loni, R. Minal, Ghante and SD. Sawant, Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Sitagliptin phosphate and Metformin hydrochloride in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form, Der Pharma Chemica, 2012, 4(3), 854-859.
[5] B. Shyni, and M. Molly, Spectrophotometric method of estimation of Simvastatin by Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin reaction. Int J of Pharm Res and Dev. 2012, 4(2), 102-107.
[6] HV. Joshi, JK. Patel, and K. Lata, Simultaneous Derivative and multicomponent Spectrophotometric determination of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in tablets, Der Pharma Chemica. 2010, 2(2), 152-156.
[7] P. Bonde, S. Sharma, N. Kourav, and AM. Attar, Development and Validated UV Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods for the estimation of Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in combined pharmaceutical dosage form. Inter J Curr Trends Sci Tech. 2010, 1(3), 135-142.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal: Evaluation of Screening Test

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Dr Habiba Ibrahim Abdullahi || Dr. Yunusa, Thairu

Page No.

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41-47

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/058041047  

Introduction: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is common with a prevalence of 2 – 10% and is similar to that observed among non–pregnant women. It is however more likely to progress to symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy because of the physiological changes associated with pregnancy. The value of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy cannot be over-emphasize, but the kits and methodology need to be evaluated before adoption. Methodology: The study was a prospective, cross sectional, hospital based study. All the subjects were given plastic universal sterile transparent container with screw cap and were enlightened to collect clean catch midstream urine for urinalysis dipstick and microscopy methods using a calibrated wireloop and tested against culture method (which was considered gold standard). RESULT: The urinary strip for nitrite gave a sensitivity of 25.0%, a specificity of 99.1% and a negative predictive value of 90.0% and positive predictive value of 80.0%. From the foregoing the false positive rate was 1.0% while the false negative rate was 10.0%. The efficacy of microscopy method was evaluated as evidence by the presence of pus cells and positive Gram's stain (positive or negative Gram organism) and compared with gold standard culture, sensitivity (true positive) of 81.3%, a specificity of 94.5% was obtained. Conclusion: Microscopy method has appreciable sensitivity and specificity, biochemical methods have low sensitivities but high specificities when compared to the gold standard.

Key words : Evaluation of methods, screening, asymptomatic bacteriuria and pregnancy

 

[1]. Larry, C and Gilstrap. Infections in pregnancy Alan R. Liss. 2nd Atlanta, USA. Inc 1990: 15-27.
[2]. Kunin, G. Detecting prevention and management of urinary tract infections. 7th ed. Philadelphia USA 1994:210-213.
[3]. Turpin VA, Minkah B, Danso DA and Frimpong EH. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Antenatal clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumas, Ghana. Ghana Madical Journal 2007; 41: 26-39.
[4]. Cornforth T. Urinary Tract Infections causes. Symptoms – Treatments www.womenshealth, Updated 2009. Accessed 202
[5]. Smail F, Vazquez JC. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of systematic Reviews 2007; 2: 224
[6]. Smail F. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007; 21(3): 439-450.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Production of shell eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids

Country

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Macedonia

Authors

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Vesna Kostik (Rizova)|| Biljana Gjorgjeska || Biljana Bauer || Kiril Filev

Page No.

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48-51

Paper Index

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DOI :10.9790/XXXXXXXXX

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/058048051  

Unsaturated long chain fatty acids (n-3 FAs) have been proposed in a human diet to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and therefore the risk of stroke. N-3 FAs also play an important role in retinal and brain tissue development in the neonate. The main natural source of n-3 FA is marine fish. The aim of this work was to create shell egg enriched with n-3 FAs using natural golden marine algae (MA) as a supplement in hen's diet. Three experiments were conducted: (1) hundred hens from the hybrid Lohmann Brown were fed with diet containing 1.27% MA; (2) hundred hens from the same hybrid were fed with diet containing 1.77% MA; (3) hundred hens were the control group. The duration of the experiments was 4 weeks. Slight enriching of the shell egg yolk at the both groups fed with diet containing MA happened after the end of the second week. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n=3) at the 1st experimental group was 90.3 mg/100 g of egg mass, and 112.1 mg/100 g of egg mass at the 2nd experimental group. The concentration of DHA at the control group was 54.5 mg/100 g of egg mass. After the 3rd week the concentration of DHA at the 1st group increased to 201.2 mg/100 g of egg mass and to 304.9 mg/100 g of egg mass at the 2nd group. At that time the concentration of the DHA at the control group remained unchanged. At the end of the 4th week the concentration of DHA reached the maximum level: 224.5 mg/100 g of egg mass at the 1st group and 328.4 mg/ 100 g of egg mass at the 2nd group. The concentration of the DHA at the control group was 51.9 mg/100 g egg mass. It is interested to note that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n=3) appeared in low concentrations of 10-15 mg/100g of egg mass at the end of the 4th week of the experiment at the 2nd experimental group.

Key words : eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), marine algae (MA), omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs),

 

[1] N. M Lewis, S. Seburg and N. L. Flanagan, ״Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans״, Poult Sci. vol. 79(7), pp. 971- 4, 2000.
[2] V. Kostik, Sh. Memeti and B. Bauer, ״Fatty acid composition of edible oils and fats״, Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design, vol. 4, pp. 112-116, 2013.

[3] V. Laudadio, V. Lorusso, N.M.B. Lastella, K. Dhama, K. Karthik, R. Tiwari, Gazi Mahabubul Alam and V. Tufarelli, ״Enhancement of Nutraceutical Value of Table Eggs Through Poultry Feeding Strategies״, International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 11, pp. 201-212, 2015.

[4] X. Liu, H.L. Zhao, S. Thiessen, J.D. House and P.J.H. Jones, ״Effect of plant sterol-enriched diets on plasma and egg yolk cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in laying hens״. Poult. Sci. vol. 89, pp. 270-275, 2010.

[5] Chowdhury, S.R., S.D. Chowdhury and T.K. Smith, ״Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens״. Poult. Sci., 81, pp. 1856-1862, 2002