Volume 6 ~ Issue 10,~Version 1,~October - 2016


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The DNA and Spermatozoa Quality of Mice (Mus musculus albinus) after Administration Aqueous Leaves and Seeds Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Elsa Lisanti ||, Dondin Sajuthi ||, Muhammad Agil ||, Iis Arifiantini ||, Adi Winarto

Page No.

::

01-09

Paper Index
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XXXX
This study aimed to evaluate the DNA of mice spermatozoa quality, and its effect after aqueous leaves and seeds extract of neem treatment. Method: Thirty six male mice were divided into nine groups. The first group was plotted as a control group and four groups were orally treated by neem leaves extract (two different doses groups) and seeds extract (two groups) in 0.5 mL/mouse/day at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg BW each extract treated for thirty six days then sacrificed. The other four groups were treated same as those in previous four groups and sacrificed at thirty six days post last treatment (day 72nd). Spermatozoa evaluated for its motility, viability, spermatozoa concentration, morphology and DNA damaged. Results: neem leaves extract caused a decrease of sperm motility, concentration, and morphology (P<0.05) but there were not differ in viability spermatozoa (P>0.05). Neem extract stopped for 36th days, indicated spermatozoa quality is not fully recovered. The DNA damaged evaluation using Halomax kit showed that extract were not damaged to DNA. Conclusion: Leaves and seeds extract of neem have a potential to control spermatozoa motility, viability and its concentration. The required time to physiologically recover from extract treatment effect was more than 36 days.
[1] Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 29 Juni Family Planning Days, 2014, Available at www.depkes.go.id
[2] BKKBN, Indonesia's population growth is equivalent to the population of Singapore, 2015, Available online: http://news.detik.com/berita/bkkbn (acessed on 1 March 2016).
[3] Joshi S.C, Sharma A, Chaturvedi M, Antifertility potential of some medicinal plants in males: An overview research article, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(5), 2011, 204-217.
[4] Sharma R.S, Rajalakshmi M, Jeyaraj D.A, Current status of fertility control method in India, Journal of Bioscience, 26(4), 2001, 391-405.
[5] V. Mathew and G. Bantwal, Male contraception, Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 16(6), 2012, 910-917.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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In vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition potential of commonly used Indian spices

Country

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India

Authors

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Urmi Chedda ||, Aakruti Kaikini ||, Sneha Bagle ||, Madhav Seervi ||, Sadhana Sathaye

Page No.

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10-13

Paper Index
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XXXX
Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat that may have deleterious health effects. One of the most approached methods of treating obesity is inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids which then get absorbed through the duodenal mucosa. A pancreatic lipase inhibitor prevents the formation of fatty acids and hence prevents any accumulation of fats in the body. The aim of this study is to evaluate the 3 Indian spices and their mixture for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase. In the present study, three Indian spices namely, Nigella sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trachyspermum ammi and their mixture (1:1:1 combination) were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on porcine pancreatic lipase enzyme using in vitro assay. The inhibitory activity was demonstrated by all the 3 Indian spices and their mixtures which can play a beneficial role in the treatment of obesity

[1] World Health Organisation Factsheets, Obesity and overweight, updated June 2016. Available from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ (Last accessed on 15th September 2016).

[2] I. Kyrou, and H.S. Randeva, Clinical Problems Caused by Obesity, Endotext [Internet]. [3] P. Hossain, B. Kawar, and M. El Nahas, Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World — A Growing Challenge, The New England Journal of Medicine, 356, 2007, 213-215.

[4] P Barbier and F Schneider, Syntheses of Tetrahydrolipstatin and Absolute Configuration of Tetrahydrolipstatin and Lipstatin, 70 (1), 1987, 196-202.

[5] A.L. Garza, F. Milagro, N. Boque, J. Campión and J.A. Martínez. Natural inhibitors of pancreatic lipase as new players in obesity treatment, Planta Medica, 77(8), 2011, 773-785.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A rewiew on Antidiabetic Angiospermic plants from the regions of Uttarakhand, India

Country

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India

Authors

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Razia Parveen ||, Namita Singh

Page No.

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14-61

Paper Index
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XXXX
Among world-wide problematic health issues that are increasingly diabetes in human beings. Diabetes is caused by metabolic disorder of the body systems as a result of chronic hyperglycaemia. This is problematic health challenge is often associated with disturbances in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrate and protein thereby causing defects in insulin activities and secretion due to the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. This can also be as a result of the failure of the body cells to respond to already-produced insulin. This health condition has led to several mortalities and morbidities with highest cases recorded over all worlds. Uttarakhand is characterized by a rich diversity of ethno-medicinal plants as well as a rich heritage site in traditional medicine system in the Himalayan region. In present study exploring of identification and ethno-medicinal and pharmacological knowledge of plant species which are associated with antidiabetic activity about their uses in local peoples by in Uttarakhand .These data were collected during field survey participatory rural appraisal method review and literature. Total 131 antidiabetic plants species belonging to 59 families were collected on the basis of direct circle of local peoples which are used of these plants . The average density of antidiabetic herbs, shrubs, climber and trees ranged forest area of 34,651 km2 which constitutes 65% of the total area of the state respectively in. We identified plant species and their parts that have been used by local people to treat diabetes through their traditional use system and pharmacological aspect. Keywords: Anti-diabetic activity; Pharmacological activity; Hyperglycaemia.

[1] Pande, P. C., Tiwari, L., & Pande, H. C. (2006). Folk medicine and aromatic plants of Uttaranchal. Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.

[2] Semwal, D. P., Saradhi, P. P., Kala, C. P., & Sajwan, B. S. (2010). Medicinal plants used by local Vaidyas in Ukhimath block, Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 9(3), 480-485. [3] Tewari, S., Paliwal, A. K., & Joshi, B. (2014). Medicinal Use of Some Common Plants among People of Garur Block of District Bageshwar, Uttarakhand, India. Octa Journal of Biosciences, 2(1), 32-35.

[4] Rawat, R., & Vashistha, D. P. (2011). Common herbal plant in Uttarakhand, used in the popular medicinal preparation in Ayurveda. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 3(3), 64-73.

[5] Kapkoti, B., Lodhiyal, N., & Lodhiyal, L. S. (2014). Ethno-Medicinal plants and Their Uses by Van Panchayat People in nainital of Kumaun Region, Uttarakhand. Biolife, 2(2), 526-532.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Outcomes of a Pharmacist Managed Anticoagulation Service

Country

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United States

Authors

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Kunal J. Shah, Pharm.D. ||, Rupal Mansukhani, Pharm.D. ||, Douglas Bloomstein, Pharm.D. ||, Michael Serra, Pharm.D

Page No.

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62-67

Paper Index
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XXXX
Objective: Managing patients on warfarin within a therapeutic range is complex due to factors that affect warfarin dosing, making it necessary to monitor patients closely and adjust medication doses to ensure maximal efficacy and minimal adverse events. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of managing patients on warfarin by clinical pharmacists and physicians. Design: The study was a retrospective chart review. Setting: This study took place at the Internal Medicine Faculty Associates ambulatory care clinic affiliated with Atlantic Health System, which services patients in northern New Jersey. Participants: Patients were included in the study if they were seen at the clinic and prescribed warfarinfrom 2012 – 2014. Patients were divided into a pharmacist-managed armand the usual care arm. Measurements: The primary endpoint wastime in therapeutic range (TTR), calculated based on the Rosendaal method.

[1] Wolberg AS, Aleman MM, Leiderman K, Machlus KR. ProcoagulantActivity in Hemostasis and Thrombosis: Virchow's Triad Revisited. AnesthAnalg 2012;114(2):275-85.
[2] Farrell AT. Summary Review for Regulatory Action: Center for Drug Evaluation and Research 2011; Reference ID: 2974107.
[3] Pirmohamad M. Warfarin: almost 60 years old and still causing problems. Br J ClinPharmacol 2006;62(5):509-11.

[4] Warfarin. Micromedex 2.0. Truven Health Analytics, Inc. Greenwood Village, CO. Available at: http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed February5, 2015.

[5] Ageno W, Gallus AS, Wittkowsky A, et al. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012:141(2 suppl):e44s-88s.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 10,~Version 2,~October - 2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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AssessmentofadherancebyhealthcareproviderstowhoTenofovirguil

dlinesatlevy Mwanawasa Generalhospital

Country

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Africa

Authors

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Samwalumilupi ||, Sakala.Christopher*Phd ||, Yassa Pierre,Phd ||, DR Gustave Banza,MD

Page No.

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01-07

Paper Index
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XXXX

Theuseoftenofovirinhiv/Aidspatientshasbeenassociatedwithnephrotoxicity.sisexacerbated

byirregularmonitoringtendenciesbyhealthcareproviders.ThisisdespiteofTheworldhealth

organizationintroducingtreatmentguidelinesontheuseoftenofovir.Thestudy Is Aimed At Assessingtheadherencebyhealth Careproviders On WHO Tenofovirguidelines. Generalobjectives:Thestudyassessedifhealthcareprovidersadheredtothewhotreatment

Protocolsofrequestingforrenalfunctiontestsinhiv/Aidspatientsontenofovirbasedregimen, At 2 Weeks Beforeinitiatingtreatment, At 3 Monthsand 6 Monthsafter Initiatingtreatment. Methodology:Thestudywasaretrospectivecross-SectionalsurveywhichinvolvedareviewofPatientfilesof322studypatientswhowereonten

ofovirbasedregimenatlevymwanawasaGeneralhospital.Thevariablesofthestudywereanal

yzedusingstatisticalpackageforsocial ciences(SPSS)Version16.0.

[1] Adikwu,E.,Ijeoma,O.,Edikpo, N.,Oputiri,D.,Oru-Bogeoffrey., (2013), TenofovirrenalToxicity: Evaluation Ofcohortsand Clinical Studies. 4, 651-662.
[2] Alana, B.D., Evans, M,.Maskew, S., Naicke, (2011),Relationshipbetween Renal Dysfunction, And Nephrotoxicity.1603–1609.
[3] Alij.K,Boyda,L.,Stohra,W.,Dunna,D., (2010),Effectoftenofovirdisoproxilfumarateon Risk Ofrenal,Vol 24 No 4(ISSN 0269-9370).
[4] Andrewr.W., Stohr,A.S., Walker,I.., Williams,W., (2008.).Severerenaldysfunctionand RiskFactors;46:1271–81.
[5] Fernandez, F.B.,Ferrer, A., Ana,B.,(2011).Tenofovirnephrotoxicity:2011Update.Volume2, Article ID 354908, 11 (Doi:10.1155/2011/354908).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Prevalence And Patterns of Drug Related Problems Associated With Anti Retroviral Drugs In The Management of Hiv/Aids Patients At Ndola Central Hospital In 2016

Country

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Africa

Authors

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KalaleMunenu, Bpharm ||, Yassa Pierre,PhD ||, MunogoL.T,PhD ||, Christopher Sakala,PhD

Page No.

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08-23

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background: Antiretroviral therapy has posed multiple risks and challenges particularly in resource constrained African countries. This is due to the chronic nature of HIV/AIDS disease and hence its therapy, the use of combination therapy and also because therapeutic options and treatment guidelines continue to evolve. The increase in access to new essential medicines such as ARVs and the ARV regimen complexity and challenges increase the potential for drug related problems. Objective: To determine the prevalence and patterns of drug related problems associated with anti retroviral drugs in the management of HIV/AIDS patients at Ndola Central Hospital in 2016.
[1] Abah IO, Ojeh VB, Faland KD, Darin KM, Olaitan OO, AgbajiOO.Pharmaceutical care outcomes in an outpatient human immunodeficiency virus treatment centre in Jos, Nigeria. J Basic ClinPharma2014; 5:57-61.
[2] Agu KA, Oqua D, Adeyanju Z, Isah MA, Adesuna A, Oliaeri SI, Ali PN, Ekechukwu N, Akpakwu AA, Sami T, Omeh IO, King RC and Wutoh AK. The incidence and Types of Medication Errors in Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Constrained Settings.Plos One 2014;9(1): e87338.
[3] Carcelero E, Tuset M, Martin M, Lazzari E De, Codina C, Miro J, Gatell JM. Evaluation of antiretroviral-related errors and interventions by the clinical pharmacist in hospitalized HIV infected patients.HIV Medicine 2011;12 (8):494-499.
[4] ChiampasT.D, Kim H, Badowski M. Evaluation of the occurrence and type of antiretroviral and opportunistic infection Medication errors within the inpatient setting.PharmPract (Granada) 2015;13(1):512.
[5] Cipolle RJ, Strand LM, Morley PC. Pharmaceutical Care Practice: The Patient-Centered Approach to Medication Management Services. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Level of Adherence To Tuberculosis Therapy In Adult Tuberculosis Patients At Chilenje Clinic In Lusaka

Country

::

Africa

Authors

::

Theresa Musa Hassab*. Bpharm ||, Yassa Pierre**, Md, Phd ||, Christopher Sakala*, Bpharm , Md, Phd ||, Michael Chigunta*.Bpharm,Mph ||, Mwalungali Gunet*,Bpharm ||, Md.D.Satheesh Kumar ||, Tackson Lambert ||, Lupando Munkonge ||, Evaristo Njelesani ||, James Mwanza ||,

Page No.

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24-32

Paper Index
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XXXX
OBJECTIVE; to determine the level of adherence to TB therapy in TB patients on TB treatment at Chilenje clinic in Lusaka. METHOD; A cross section study was used. The study site wasChilenje clinic in Lusaka and the target population were all TB patients who were on TB therapy between the period from January 2013 to July 2015.The study sample of 321 TB patient's files was selected using a simple random technique on excel version 13. Data collected from patient's files was entered on the data sheet and SPSS version16 .0 for analysis. DATA ANALYSIS; A descriptive analysis was carried out according to the characteristics of variables. Since the study was capturing nominal and categorical variables such as treatment defaulters, missed appointments, therapy completion etc. the percentages were obtained and cross tabulations were done to determine the Pearsons value and the graphical presentations such as the pie charts and bar charts were designed in excel version 13.

[1] Adane, A., Alene, K., Koye, D. and Zeleke, B. (2013). Non-Adherence to Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment and Determinant Factors among Patients with Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia. PLoS ONE, 28(11), p.e78791.

[2] ANYAIKE, C., BABATUNDE, O., MUSA, O., DUROWADE, K. and AJAYI, O. (2013). ADHERENCE TO TUBERCULOSIS THERAPY IN UNILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL, ILORIN, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA. International Journal of Science, Environment, 2(6), pp.1441-1461.
[3] Areias, C., Briz, T. and Nunes, C. (2014). Unbiased MultirresistancePrevalences in Real Testing Practices? An Intuitive Correcting Approach Applied to Tuberculosis in Portugal. JTR, 02(02), pp.79-89.
[4] Chien, J., Lai, C., Tan, C., Chien, S., Yu, C. and Hsueh, P. (2013). Decline in rates of acquired multidrug-resistant tuberculosis after implementation of the directly observed therapy, short course (DOTS) and DOTS-Plus programmes in Taiwan. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(8), pp.1910-1916.
[5] Cramm, J., Finkenflügel, H., Møller, V. and Nieboer, A. (2010). TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis.BMC Public Health, 10(1), p.72.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Associationbetween Gender Differences And Cd4 immunological Failure Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment Naïve Patients On Antiretroviral Therapy Atitezhi-Tezhi District Hospital

Country

::

Africa

Authors

::

Chali Andrew*. Bpharm ||, Yassa Pierre**, Md, Phd ||, Christopher Sakala*, Bpharm ,Md, Phd ||, Michael Chigunta*.Bpharm,Mph ||, MwalungaliGunet*,Bpharm, Md. ||, D.Satheesh Kumar ||, Tackson Lambert ||, LupandoMunkonge ||, EvaristoNjelesani ||, James Mwanza*

Page No.

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33-41

Paper Index
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XXXX

Objectives:TodescribeCD4immunologicalfailureinmaleandfemaleHIVtreatmentnaïvepatientson

HAARTatItezhitezhidistrictHospital.Toachievethisobjectivethestudywasaimedat identifyingandcomparingCD4immunologicalfailurebetweenmaleandfemale HIVtreatmentnaïvepatientsonantiretroviraltherapy. StudyMethod:Adescriptivecross-sectionstudy wasemployed to collect secondary data from patient files. Data collected was serum CD4 cell count at baseline of ART enrolment and at Six (6) months of treatment. Theunitanalysiswereadulttreatmentnaïvepatientsatleastsixmonthsonantiretroviraltherapy at Itezhi-tezhi District Hospital inCentral Province of Zambia. A probability Simple random methodofsampling wasusedtopickfilesofparticipants.Thefileswerefirstenteredonexcelspreadsheet,allocatedarandom

numberandrandomized.Thereafter,thefirst246files will beselected and used in this study.

[1] Bastard M. et al.(2011) Revisiting long-term adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy inSenegal using latent class analysis. J Acquir Immune DeficSyndr. 2011, pp55-61.
[2] Chi etal.(2009,September1). CD4+Responseand SubsequentRiskofDeathAmong Patientson
[3] AntiretroviralTherapyinLusaka,Zambia. pp. 125-131.
[4] CornellMetal. (2012). Gender DifferencesinsurvivalamongAdultsStartingAntiretroviralTherapyin south Africa:AmulticentrerCohortStudy. PloSMed ,9(9),1-9.
[5] CresswellJ. (2003).Researchdesign;qualitative,quantitativeand mixed method approaches(Second Edition ed.).London:SagePublications.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Topical Use of Silver Sulfadiazine In The Prevention of Burn Wound Infection At University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

Country

::

Africa

Authors

::

MWAPE MATILDAH*, Bipharm, MD ||, Yassa Pierre**,Mmed, PhD ||, Munogo L.T***, Bpharm, MD,PhD ||, ,Christopher Sakala, Bpharm, MD,PhD ||, Myer Glickman****,PhD

Page No.

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42-54

Paper Index
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XXXX
The primary challenge in dealing with the colonization of burn wound is to find a mean of prophylaxis that minimizes the establishment of resistant organisms at the burn wound site. The use of topical prophylaxis is important in reducing the wound's microbial load thereby facilitating wound healing. Objective:- The aim of this clinical research was to find out if the use of prophylactic topical SSD prevents the onset of bacteria colonization and wound infection in burn patients at University Teaching Hospital. Methods:- The study design was a quasi-experimental using a single group pre- test post- test design. A single group design demonstrated that a treatment lead to a particular effect in the presence and absence of the SSD. Observation and self-administered tool were used to capture the variable such as Age, gender, TBSA, burn wound swabs post burn, culture and sensitivity test results. The study was conducted over five months.
[1] American Association Society (2012)
[2] Albertyn .R., Bickler S.W and Rode.H. (2006).Burns 32:Pediatrics burn injuries in Sub Saharan Africa—an overview
[3] Barry Wright, Kan Lam, Robert and E. Burrell(1998). Wound management in an era of increasing bacterial antibiotics: a role for topical silver treatment. Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
[4] Bang ,R.L., Gang, R.K., Sanyal ,S.C., Mokaddas ,E and Ebrahim ,M.K. (1998) Burns; 24.Burn septicemia: an analysis of 70 patients.
[5] Bone, R .C., Sibbald, W.J and Sprung, C .L. (1992). The ACP-SCCM consensus conference on sepsis and organ failure: 1481-1490

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Isolation and Identification of fungi from suspected fungal skin infections in patients attending the Dermatology Clinic at University Teaching Hospital

Country

::

Africa

Authors

::

Yassa Pierre, Phd ||, Sakala Christopher, Phd ||, Sandra H. Namoomba, Bsc ||, Lukwesa,MD ||, Mwenya,Msc ||, Geofrey Kwenda,Phd ||, Kantenga, Msc ||, Ikembo Wanga Janine,BPH ||, Kaswa Jean,MD ||, And Subhashi Hira, MD, MPH ||, James Mwansa, Bpharm ||, Michele Mwika Kabeya, MD, MPH ||, Yanvwa Jackson, Bharm

Page No.

::

55-61

Paper Index
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XXXX
The purpose of this study was to determine the fungal species causing skin infections among patients attending the dermatology clinic -UTH in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology A Cross-section and descriptive case study conducted to quantifying the distribution of certain variables among patients with tinea infection which include clinical presentation, age, gender and fungal species Results Aspergillus niger was the most common fungal species isolated accounting for 42%, followed by Cladosporium species 10%, Tricoderma species, Acremonium species and Aspergillus flavus accounted for 5% each while Scopularopsis species, Sporothrix schonkii and Aspergillus fumigatus accounted for about 2% each. Most of the fungal skin infections were found to be from the trunk.Age group of 21 to 40 years was the more affected by the fungal.Female patients were more affected in the study
[1] Adam O Goldstein, Beth G Goldstein, Robert P Dellavalle, Moise L Levy and Ted Rosen, 2011,Dermatophyte (tinea) infections, Topic 4030 Version 12.
[2] Auroba K. Abbas, Zahraa, A. Mohammed and Inads Mohammed., 2012, Isolation and Identification of fungi causing superficial infection, Mustaniriya medical journal vol 11, page 313 -317
[3] Ayaya S.O, Kamar K.K. and Kakai R., 2001, Aetiology of tinea capitis infection in school children, East Africa Medical Journal, Vol 78, Page: 531-535
[4] Brent D. Michaels, DO; James Q. Del Rosso, 2012, Tinea capitis in infants: Recognition, Evaluation and Management Suggestions, The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology (JCAD), Case Report ,http://www.promiuspharma.com/home.html.
[5] Brendan P. Kelly,2012, Superficial Fungal infection, Pediatrics in Review , http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/content/33/4/e22

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Difference In The Trend of Preeclampsia Between Black Women and White Women Living In The Uk.

Country

::

London

Authors

::

Janine Ikembo Wangi ||, Amina Dilmohamed, MD ||, and Yassa Pierre**,PhD

Page No.

::

62-73

Paper Index
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XXXX
Preeclampsia is a major leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Thus, it is increasingly recognized as more than an isolated disease of pregnancy. Obese women aged above 35 at their first pregnancy have a greatly increased risk of high blood pressure and a considerable risk of developing preeclampsia and its complications. This is the case especially amongst black African women. Preeclampsia and its complications are more prevalent amongst black African women. The objective of the present study was to determine differences in the trend of preeclampsia between obese black women and white women aged 35-45 living in the UK. Also, the project aimed to investigate whether preeclampsia is common.
[1] Adekane et al (2015). Health worker "knowledge on future vascular risk in women with preeclampsia in south Nigeria. BMC.
[2] Andrea, P, Cynthia, J and Hani, K (2001). Preeclampsia related mortality from preeclampsia and eclampsia science-direct.
[3] Anna, M. (2012). Pregnancy obesity: determinants, consequences and solutions. Advances in nutrition.
[4] Annettee, N et al (2014). Pregnancy and preeclampsia in women of African ancestry. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. Elsevier.
[5] Barry et al (2009). The growing challenge of maternal obesity. BMJ.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluating The Knowledge and attitude of Community Pharmacists Toward Type Ii Diabetes In Luasaka, Zambia.

Country

::

Africa

Authors

::

MWALUNGALI GUNET*, Bpharm, MD ||, Yassa Pierre**,Mmed, PhD ||, Munogo L.T***, Bpharm, MD,PhD ||, Christopher Sakala, Bpharm, MD,PhD ||, D.Satheesh Kumar ||, Tackson Lambert ||, Lupando Munkonge ||, Evaristo Njelesani ||, James Mwanza

Page No.

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74-79

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:- This study is hinged on the basis that in addition to knowledge updates, the attitudes of health care professionals toward current concepts about diabetes care are even more critical. The core philosophy of modern diabetes care puts emphasis on patient autonomy and optimal utilization of health care professionals' different specialties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists toward diabetes care.
[1] 1. Yarborough. Diabetes Mellitus. [book auth.] Alan H, Mutnick, Paul F, Souney, Larry N, Swanson Shargel L. Comprehensive Pharmacy Review. Baltimore : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007.
[2] 2. Ayesha M, Kaushik R.Diabetes the hidden pandemic and its impact on sabsaharan africa. Johanesburg : Diabetes leadreship forum, 2010.
[3] 3. Hsiang-Yin, Tzung-Yi Lee b, Wan-Tsui Huang b and Chang cShort Term impact of continuing education on Pharmacist`s Knowledge and Attitude towards type 2 diabetes: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2004, Vol. 68.
[4] 4. Jungnickel PW and Wisehart DA.Evaluation of community pharmacists'experiences with cholesterol screening programs.. 1997, J AmPharm Assoc, Vols. 640-6., p. NS 37.
[5] 5. WHO.Adherence to long-term therapies:evidence for action. 2003.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 10,~Version 3,~October - 2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity And Ascorbic Acid In Children With Urinary Tract Infection

Country

::

Egypt

Authors

::

ManalAbd El-Salam ||, Gamil El-Sayed Ibrahim ||, Amira El-DesoukeyShiha

Page No.

::

01-06

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common pediatric infections. It causes oxidative stress and leads to suppression of the antioxidant enzymes. Aim: To assess the association between total antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid status and urinary tract infection in children. Material and Methods: This case control study included 30 pediatric patients with urinary tract infection documented by urine culture and sensitivity. Their ages ranged from 6:12 years, they were selected from children attending the outpatient pediatric clinic and inpatients of the pediatric department, Al-Zahraa University hospital during the period from March 2015 to December 2015. Also it included 30 healthy children age and sex matched as a control group. Assessment of serum ascorbic acid and total antioxidant capacity were done for both groups.
[1] Shaikh N, Morone NE, Lopez J, Chianese J, Sangvai S, D'Amico F, Hoberman A and Wald ER (2013): Does This Child Have a Urinary Tract Infection? JAMA; 298(24): 2895-2904.
[2] Saeed CH, AL-Otraqchi KIB and Mansoor IY (2015): Prevalence of urinary tract infections and antibiotics susceptibility pattern among infants and young children in Erbil city. Zanco J. Med. Sci; 19 (1): 915-922.
[3] Ozbek E (2012): Induction of Oxidative Stress in Kidney. Int J Nephrol; 46: 23-27. [4] Upadhyaya H, Akula N, Young K, Chun S, Kim D and Park S (2010): Enhanced ascorbic acid accumulation in transgenic potato confers tolerance to various abiotic stresses. BiotechnolLett; 32:321-33.
[5] Buscemi S, Rosafio G, Arcoleo G, et al. (2012): Effects of red orange juice intake on endothelial function and inflammatory markers in adult subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Am ClinNutr J; 95:1089-1099.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Estimation of Sugar Content By The Effect of Gibberelline InThe Perisperm of Euryale Ferox Salisb. ( Makhana) Due To Polynomial Regression Fit Equation

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Praween N. ||, Choudhary S.K

Page No.

::

07-10

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Euryale Ferox Salisb. ( Also Known As Fox Nut , Makhana , Or Gorgon Plant ) is the only species in the genus Euryale . It is a flowering plant classified in the Waterlily family , Nymphaeceae . The main edible portion of Makhana is the white perisperm inside the seed which is consumed mainly in its popped form either as snacks or as desserts. Raw Makhana seed powder is an essential ingredient of the baby foods in China. Makhana is high nutritional value . Calorific value of Makhana correspond well with staple food materials and Carbohydrate rich Cereals . The moisture content of Makhana is 12.8% and it is free of cholesterol . Polynomial Regression is a form of Linear Regression in which the relationship between the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y is modelled as an 9th degree Polynomial . Due to this method , the estimation of total sugar content was done by Dubois et al. ( 1956) with the use of Phenol-sulphuric acid reagent . The effect of 0.0001% and 0.001% GA3 after 1min treatment as well as that of 0.0001% GA3 after 5 min treatment exhibits palallelism in the pattern of changes in total sugar content .

[1] Alfasane, M.A., Khondker M., Begum Z.N.T., Banu, L.A., Rahman, M.M. And Shahjadee U.F. (2008). Fruit Production And Biochemical Aspects Of Seeds Of Euryale Ferox Salisb. Under Ex-Situ Conditions. Bang. J. Of Bot. 37(2): 179-181.
[2] Jha, V., Barat, G.K. And Jha, U.N. (1991b). Nutrition Evaluation Of Euryale Ferox Salisb. (Makhana). I. Food Sci. Technol. 28(5): 326-328.
[3] Editorial Committee For Chinese Herbal Medicine Of State Administration Of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ist Ed.; Shanghai Science And Technology Press: S Deng, G.F.; Xu, X.R.; Guo, Y.J.; Xia, E.Q.; Li, S.; Wu, S.; Chen,; Ling, W.H.; Li, H.B.

Determination Of Antioxidant Property And Their Lipophilic And Hydrophilic Phenolic Contents In Cereal Grains. J.Foods 2012, 4 906-914.
[4] Ningappa, M.B.; Dinesha, R.; Srinivas, L . Antioxidant And Free Radical Scavenging Activities Of Polyphenol-Enriched Curry Leaf (Murraya Koenigii L.) Extracts. Food Chem 2008, 106, 720-728 Kappel, F. And Mac Donald, R.A (2002). Gibberellic Acid Increases Fruit Firmness, Fruit Light And Delays Maturity Of Sweet Heart, Sweet Cheery. Am. J. Pomol. Soc. 56;219-222.
[5] Matheson, N.K. (1984). The Synthesis Of Reserve Oligosaccherides And Polysaccharides In Seeds In : Seed Physiology., Murray D. R. (Ed)., Academic Press, London ;1:167-208.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Medicinal plants affected male and female fertility (part 1)- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

11-26

Paper Index
::
XXXX
The previous studies revealed that many medicinal plants were affected male and female fertility. These plants included: Achillea santolina, Ailanthus altissima, Alhagi maurorum, Allium cepa, Althaea rosea, Ammannia baccifera, Anethum graveolens, Anthemis nobelis, Arctium lappa, Asplenium trichomanes, Avena sativa, Bacopa monniera, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caesalpinia crista, Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Carum carvi, Chenopodium album, Cicer airetinum, Cistanche tubulosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrus species, Coriandrum sativum, Cressa cretica, Crocus sativus, Crotalaria juncea, Cuminum cyminum, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotuntdus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Dalbergia sissoo, Datura fastuolsa, Datura metel, Daucus carota, Dodonaea viscose, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus carica, Phoenix dactyliphera. This review will highlight the medicinal plants which affected male and female fertility. Keywords: Medicinal plants, herbs, fertility, reproductive systems, male, female
[1] Phillipson JD. Plants as source of valuable products. In: Charlwood BV, Rhodes MJC (eds). Secondary products from plant tissue culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1990: 1-21.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems ( part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248.
[3] -Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants affected reproductive systems (part 2) - plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(5): 159-174.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Clinically tested medicinal plant: A review (part 1). SMU Medical Journal 2016; 3(1): 99-128.
[5] Al- Janabi AS, Al-Tahan FJ and Al- Snafi AE. Effect of a benzodiazepine on serum level of thyroid hormones. The veterinarian 1992; 2(1): 55-58.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Synthesis of some novel indole derivatives aspotential antibacterial, antifungaland antimalarial agents

Country

::

India

Authors

::

B.P. Yadav ||, Iftakhar Ahmad ||, Meenakshi Thakur

Page No.

::

27-33

Paper Index
::
XXXX
The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimalarial resistance are complex and severe
health issue nowadays as many of microbial strains had become resistant to the available antibiotics. For
discovery of new compoundsIndole derivatives are chosen as they are well known for their wide range of
biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The synthesis of new
series of 2-alkyl 1-alkyl 5-chloro-3-subs-1H-indole-carboxylates have been prepared and assayed for their
antibacterial, antifungal and antimalarial activities against human pathogens viz., Escherichiacoli,
Pseudomonasaerugenosa, Staphylococcusaureus, Streptococcuspyogenus, Candidaalbicans, Aspergillusniger,
Aspergillus clavatus and antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.Since the activity of antibacterial
drugs depends upon its concentration in vitro characterization of antibacterial activity commonly includes the
determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).The objective of this study was to evaluate the MIC
values and mean half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of newly designed heterocyclic
compounds.
Key words:-Antimalarial,Antimicrobial, Indole,methicillin-resistant,vancomycin-resistant.
[1] Desai N C, Bhatt N B, Somani H C, & Bhatt K A, Indian Journal of Chemistry, 55B, 2016, 94-101.
[2] Moustafa M A, Gineinah M M, Nasr M N & Bayoumi W A, Arch Pharm, 337,2004, 427.
[3] Andriole V T, J Antimicrob Chemother, 44, 1999, 151.
[4] Panwar H., Verma R. S., Srivastava V. K., Kumar A., India J Chem 45B, 2006, 2099.
[5] Abele E, Abele R, Dzenitis O, Lukevics, E.Chem Heterocycl Compd 39, 2003, 3.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Prevalence ofRisk Factors forNon-Communicable Diseases (NCD) Using WHO STEP-Wise Approach inHerat City Afghanistan

Country

::

Afghanistan

Authors

::

Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc) ||, Mohammad Hafez Rasooly (MD, MSc)

Page No.

::

34-40

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Background:Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are one of the major health and development challenges of the current century which is increasing worldwide due to high prevalence of controllable risk factors. This study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major risk factors for non-communicable diseases in an urban setting, Herat city -Afghanistan. Materials and Methods:A provincial cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 on the prevalence of NCD risk factors using the WHO STEPS adapted instrument. The study enrolled a random sample of1129 adults of age group of 25-70 years.Data were collected using a study questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.
[1] WHO (2014) Global status report on non-communicable diseases 2014 Geneva: World Health Organization.
[2] World Health Organization. Projections of mortality and causes of death, 2015 and 2030 (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/projections/en/, http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/en/, accessed 4 November 2014).
[3] CDMathers, Loncar D.Projections of global mortality and burden of disease 2002–2030. PLoS Med.2006; 3(11):e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442
[4] World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates: Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and Country, 2000-2012.Geneva, WHO, 2014.
[5] The Political Declaration of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases: Commitments of Member States and the way forward.Technical Discussion paper. Fifty-ninth session of the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, August2012. Provisional agenda item 4(a) (EM/RC59/3) (http://applications.emro.who.int/docs/RC_technical_papers_2012_3_14578_EN.pdf.)

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Biochemical Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profile and Serum Uric Acid in Preeclampsia: A Case- Control Study

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Ms. Monica. N ||, Mrs. Mamatha Kunder ||, Dr. K.N.Shashidhar ||, Dr. J. Gayatri Devi ||, Dr. Harish R

Page No.

::

41-44

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific, multisystem disorder characterized by various biochemical abnormalities. Dyslipidemia and Hyperuricemia have been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the disease and often precede clinical manifestations. Objectives: To evaluate Serum lipid profile and uric acid in preeclampsia subjects and to determine if there is any change in these parameters as compared tonormal pregnant women. Materials and Methods:In our study we have included 35 Preeclampsia and 35 Normal pregnant women. Serum lipid profile and uric acid were estimated by standard methods. Results:We observedsignificantly increased Serum uric acid and Triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively) in preeclampsia group compared to control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C was increased and HDL-C was decreased in preeclampsia group as compared to normal pregnant group but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Measurement of blood lipids and uric acid may be helpful in early diagnosis and prevention of maternal and fetal complications in preeclampsia.
[1] AnjumSayyed and AlkaSontakke, Study of lipid Peroxidation and antioxidant status in Preeclampsia, JKIMSU, 2(2), 2013, 69-76.
[2] Gohil J.T, Patel P.K and Gupta Priyanka, Estimation of Lipid Profile in subjects of Preeclampsia,The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India , 61(4), 2011, 399-403.
[3] Dr. P. Josephine Latha and Dr. S.Ganesan, Evaluation of Serum Uric Acid and Lipid Profile in Gestational Hypertension, Int J Pharm Bio Sci, 4(2), 2013, 496-502.
[4] T. Sunita, K.Sameera and G. Umaramani, Study of Biochemical changes in Preeclamptic women, Int J Biol Med Res, 3(3), 2012,2025-2028.
[5] KatjaH.Lampinen, Mats Ronnback, Per-Henrik Groop and RistoJ.Kaaja, A Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Vasodilation in Women with a History of Preeclamptic Pregnancy,Hypertension, 52(2), 2008, 394-401.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Trisubstituted Purine
coupled with Phthalamide Derivative of Amino Acids at C2
position

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Ashok G. Awale ||, Sachin V. Pande

Page No.

::

45-50

Paper Index
::
XXXX
A novel series of trisubstituted purine compounds coupled with amino acids derivative at the C2
position was synthesized. The compounds were synthesized by coupling of 9-methyl-6-(piperidin-1-yl)-9H-purin-
2-amine with N-Phthaloyl or carboxamide derivatives of amino acids using phosphorous oxychloride in
pyridine. The synthesized compounds were characterized using IR, Mass, NMR and screened for their in vitro
antimicrobial activity against microorganism S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa S. typhimurium F. oxysporum
and A. alternata. All of these compounds showed moderate to good activity.
Keywords - Trisubstituted purine, carboxamide, antimicrobial activity, phosphorous oxychloride.
[1] Elgazwy AS, Ismail NS and Elzahabi HS., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 18, 2010, 7639-7650. [2] Havlicek L, Hanus J, Leclerc S, Meijer L, Shaw G and Strnad M ., J Med Chem., 40, 1997, 408-412. [3] Chang YT, Gray NS, Rosania GR, Sutherlin DP, Kwon S, Norman TC, Sarohia R, Leost M, Meijer L and Schultz PG., Chem Biol., 6(6), 1999, 361-375.
[4] Imbach P, Capraro HG, Furet P, Meyer T, and Zimmermann J. Bioorg Med Chem Lett.,9, 1999, 91-96.
[5] Chang YT, Wignall SM, Rosania GR, Gray NS, Hanson SR, Su AI, Merlie J Jr, Moon HS, Sangankar SB, Perez O, Heald R, and Schultz PG J Med Chem.,44, 2001, 4497-4500.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Antiparasitic effects of medicinal plants (part 1)- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

51-66

Paper Index
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XXXX
Many previous researches showed that many plants exerted antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal. These plants included: Achillea santolina, Ailanthus altissima, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Ammi majus, Anagyris foetida, Antirrhinum majus, Apium graveolens, Arachis hypogaea, Artemisia campestris,
Arundo donax, Asclepias curassavica, Ballota nigra, Bauhinia variegate, Betula alba, Bidens tripartite,
Brassica nigra, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caccinia crassifolia, Caesalpinia crista,Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis, Celosia cristata, Chenopodium album, Chorchorus capsularis, Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Cichorium intybus, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrus limetta, Citrus medica, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limonum, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus reticulate, Citrus vitis, Clerodendron inerme, Clitoria ternatea, Corchorus capsularis, Cordia myxa, Coriandrum sativum, Coronilla scorpioides, Coronilla varia, Crocus sativus, Cupressus sempervirens,
Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Cyminum cuminum, Cynodon dactylon, Dalbergia sissoo, Datura metel, Datura stramonium, Dianthus caryophyllum, Digitalis purpurea, Dodonaea viscose, Dolichos lablab, Echium italicum, Equisetum arvense, Eryngium creticum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eupatorium cannabinum, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus carica and Ficus religiosa. This review highlights the antiparasitic effects of these medicinal plants.
[1] Orhan IE. Biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites. Bentham ebook 2012: 107.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Encyclopedia of the constituents and pharmacological effects of Iraqi medicinal plants. Vol 1, Rigi Publication 2015.
[3] Farjou IB and Al-Snafi AE. A novel treatment for hepatic hydatid cysts, combination of therapy of praziquantel or methotrexate with albendazole. J Fac Med 2000; 42(3): 570-578 .
[4] Kadir MA and Al-Snafi AE. Epidemiology of scabies in Tuz district. J Fac Med 2000; 42(2): 321-329.
[5] Farjou IB and Al-Snafi AE. Some protoscolicidal alternatives to formalin for E. granulosus hydatid cysts in man. J Fac Med 2001; 43(1): 81-85.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Antimicrobial effects of medicinal plants (part 3): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

67-92

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Plants contained wide range of secondary metabolites, which were used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavours, fragrances, colours, biopesticides and food additives. The excessive use of antibiotics was contributed to the emergence and spread of antibiotic- resistant bacteria in communities. Medicinal plants were used as an antimicrobial agents to avoid the development of multi-drug resistant bacteria, they were acting by different mechanisms. This paper reviewed the medicinal plants possessed antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities. Keywords: Medicinal plants, herbs, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial
[1]. Zangana MM, Al-Dujaily AA and Al- Snafi AE. Evaluation of short course regimen treatment of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis in saladdin province. Med J Tikrit Univ 1998; 4: 13-17.
[2]. Al- Snafi AE, Al saadi AA and Al- Samarrai AM. Bacterial etiology of acute and chronic suppurative otitis media. Med J Tikrit Univ 1999; 5: 229-234.
[3]. Barakat SS, Al-Dujaily AA and Al-Snafi AE. Misuse of antimicrobial agents in urinary tract infection in Al-Samawa city. Med J Tikrit Univ 2000; 6: 91-95.
[4]. Al- Dujaily AA, Al-Snafi AE and Al-Shahwani SM. Antibiogram profile of neonatal septicemia in the-Qar province Med J Tikrit Univ 2000; 352-356.
[5]. Al-Dujaily AA, Al-Snafi AE and Al-Shahwani SM. Antibiogram profile of pharyngotonsillitis pathogens in Hilla City. Med J Tikrit Univ 2000; 6: 22-25.