Volume 6 ~ Issue 2, February- 2016

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Susceptibility of Adult Aedes Aegypti And Anopheles Dirus To Bait Containing Bacillus Thurengiensis Israelensis

Country

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Virginia

Authors

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Alongkot Ponlawat ||, Boonsong Jaichapor ||, And Thomas M. Kollars, Jr.

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0620103 aned
A new minor ent-kaurane diterpene glycoside having five β-D-glucopyranosyl units with a rare
attachment of β-D-glucopyranosyl units at C-13 position has been isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The chemical structure of the new compound was characterized as 13-[(3- O-{6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl}-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive 1D (1H & 13C) and 2D NMR (TOCSY, HMQC, and HMBC), and High Resolution (HR) mass spectroscopic data as well as enzymatic and acid hydrolysis studies.
Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana; Diterpene glycoside; Isolation; Structure elucidation; Spectral data; Hydrolysis
studies.
[1]. Lewis, W.H. Early uses of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) leaves as a sweetener in Paraguay. Economic Botany, 1992, 46, 336-337.
[2]. Ceunen, S., Geuns, J.M.C. Steviol glycosides: Chemical diversity, metabolism, and function. Journal of Natural Products, 2013, 76, 1201-1228.
[3]. Brandle, J.E., Starrratt, A.N., Gijen, M. Stevia rebaudiana: its agricultural, biological and chemical properties. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1998, 78, 527-536.
[4]. Kinghorn, A.D. In stevia: the genus stevia (medicinal and aromatic plants-industrial profile); Taylor and Francis, 2002, 19, pp 1-17.
[5]. Chaturvedula, V.S.P., Zamora, J. Isolation and structural characterization of a new minor diterpene glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana. Natural Product Communications, 2014, 9, 1677-1679.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Experimental study for the effect of Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds extract on some biochemical and histo pathological study in induced diarrhea in mice by Klebsiella pneumoniae

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Rana H. Raheema

Page No.

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04-13

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0620413 aned

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds in induced diarrhea mice by Klebsiella pneumoniawhich isolated from diarrheal cases in children, besides investigation of its effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathological study. Thirty mice were divided in to three groups: Group I: mice were served as a control negative group. Group II: mice were infected with 1.5× 108 CFU of Klebsiella pneumonia orally for one week, two weeks, three weeks and four weeks. Group III: mice were infected and treated orally with 300 mg/kg .BW of alcoholic extract of fenugreek, the period of treatment were one week, two weeks, three weeks and four weeks, at the end of experiment of period, blood samples were taken from all groups and obtained blood serum to estimate the biochemical measurement such as Serum glucose level, serum cholesterol level, Creatinine, Serum uric acid and serum total proteins level. Mice were sacrificed to examine the histopathological changes .The results illustrated significant decrease (P < 0.05) in levels of serum blood glucose, serum cholesterol,creatinine and serum uric acid after treated orally with 300 mg/kg .BW of alcoholic extract of fenugreek .However, no significant changes in serum total protein level in infected and treated groups. Histopathology results of the intestine was showed surface mucosal superficial ulceration and damage with inflammatory cells inside the villi in mice infected with 1.5× 108 CFU of Klebsiella pneumonia orally while, Look-like near or normal structure appearance was reported in the intestine after treated orally with 300 mg/kg .BW of alcoholic extract of fenugreek .

 

Key words: Klebsiella pneumonia; histopathological; Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds

[1]. Alkizim, F. Matheka,D. and Muriithi,A .(2011)."Childhood Diarrhoea: Failing Conventional Measures, What Next?" Pan African Medical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 51, p. 47.

[2]. WHO - World Health Organization (2002). Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. The World Health Report
[3]. World Health Organization (2009)."Diarrhoea" http://www.who.int/ topics/ diarrhea. World Health Organization.
[4]. Lawlor,M.S,Hsu,J .Rick,P.D and Miller,V.L. (2005).Identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae virulence determinants using an intranasal infection model. Molecular Microbiology 58(4), 1054–1073

[5]. Keynan Y and Rubinstein E. (2007). The changing face of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in the community. Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:385–389.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Post market monitiring of Five Marketed Brands of Ciprofloxacin

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Ahmed M. A.Masaad ||, Majed Al robaian

Page No.

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14-19

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0621419 aned

This study aimed to make post market monitoring of five local marketed ciprofloxacin hydrochloride coated tablets. The samples were selected by different batches numbers randomly and the physicochemical experiments were done according to monographs and microbiological sensitivity test also was done on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonellapara typhi and Staphylococcus aureus). The effect of marketed brands were shown variation in microbiological response due to variation in their physicochemical properties.

 

Keywords: quality control tests, ciprofloxacin, dissolution, weight variation, hardness, friability and disintegration

[1]. Koletar, S. L. Concepts in Antimicrobial Therapy. In: Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology 2nd ed. Philadelphia London Toronto Montreal Sydney Tokyo. by W. B. Saunders Company; 2000, Pp1 53-04.
[2]. James. (1999). Measurement of Central Tendency, In: Basic Statics and Pharmaceutical Statistical Application, 1st ed., Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.
[3]. Cockburn R, Newton PN, Agyarko EK, Akunyili D, White N.J. The Global Threat of Counterfeit Drugs: Why Industry and Governments Must Communicate the Dangers. PLoS Med 2(4): e100. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020100, March 14, 2005
[4]. Nichols, W. K. Oral Solid Dosage Form. In: Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. 20th ed. Alfonso, R.G. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, 2000; Pp. 1538-39.
[5]. Skraanga, A.T.P. Tully, R.E. Oral liquid Antidepressant Solution. U.S. Patent 6,050,301, March 31, 2000.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections Among Blood Donated At Nyeri Satellite Transfusion Centre In Kenya

Country

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Kenya

Authors

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Kamande Magdaline Wairimu ||, Kibebe Herbert ||, and Mokua John

Page No.

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20-30

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0622030 aned
Transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) are a great concern of safety for patients. Since the starting of blood transfusion scientifically in the early 1940s, various transfusion associated problems have come to the forefront for the scientific community. It has been noted that numerous viral, bacterial and parasitic infectious agents are involved as hurdles in blood safety to patients.
There is a long list of viruses, parasites and bacteria, which can be transmitted through blood transfusions. Among them, important transfusion-transmitted viruses are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I/II), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis infection by spirochytes and transfusion associated malaria infection.
[1]. Bihl F., Castelli D., Marincola F., Dodd R. Y. & Brandes C (2007). Transfusion transmitted infections. J Transl Med.
[2]. Biswas R., Tabor E., Hsia C. C., Wright D. J., Laycock M. E., Feibig E. W., Peddada L., Smith R., Schreiber G. B., Epstein J. S., Nemo G. J. & Busch M. P (2003). Comparative sensitivity of HBV NAT and HBs Ag assays for detection of acute HBV infection
[3]. Blajchman MA, Goldman M, Baeza F: Improving the bacteriological safety of platelet transfusions. Transfus Med Rev 2004, 18(1):11-24
[4]. Colin JF, Cazals-Hatem D, Loriot MA, Martinot-Peignoux M, Pham BN, Auperin A, Degott C, Benhamou JP, Erlinger S, Valla D, Marcellin P, (1999). Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men.
[5]. Diarra A, Kouriba B, Baby M, Murphy E, Lefrere JJ (2009). HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors. Transfus Clin Biol 2009, 16:444-447. Pre-publication history.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Determination of Heavy Metals and Acute Toxicity Studies of Vat Dyes on Earthworm (Lumbricusterrestris) As Ecological Risk Indicators

Country

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Nigeria.

Authors

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Lawi Isa Abdullahi ||, Mardiyya A. Yakasai ||, Buhari Bello ||, Amir Riyaz Khan

Page No.

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31-36

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0623136 aned
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the heavy metal contents and the toxicity of three vat dyes (blue, green, and red dyes and their additives NAOH (caustic soda) and NAHSO4) commonly used by local dyers on earthworms (lumbricusterrestris) Method: 24-hour filter paper contact test was used to make five different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5mg/l) using warm distilled water and the lethal concentration LC50 was determined using probit analysis software. Heavy metals were also detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result: The heavy metals concentration using atomic spectrophotometer in each 0.1mg of the dye and their additives NaHSO4 and NaOH and all the dyes shows a significant amount of concentration of the metals such as Zn (zinc), Cd (cadmium), Mn (manganese), Pb (lead), Cr (Chromium), Fe (iron), and Cu (copper). The results indicate that the red vat dye is the most toxic to the earthworms with LC50 of 0.12 mg/L and 0.12 mg/l respectively with additives at 24-h of exposure. The LC50 of the blue vat dye is 0.129mg/l and 0.21 mg/l with additives and green dye is the least toxic when compared to the red with LC50 of 0.3 mg/l and 0.137mg/l. NAOH and NaHSO4 shows LC50 of 0.13 and 0.5 respectively which shows that the NaOH is most toxic between the two additives used. Conclusion: The Seven heavy metals detected were found to be present at 0.1g of each of the vat dye with their absorption and concentrations. The study concludes that all the vat dyes commonly used by the local dyers in Kano metropolis are highly toxic and can cause potential damage to the organisms in the soil ecosystem as well as possible carcinogenic effect. Key words: lethal concentration, vat dyes, Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), filter paper Contact test.
[1]. M. Balakrishnan, S. Arul Antony , S. Gunasekaran and R.K. Natarajan. Impact of dyeing industrial effluents on the groundwater quality in Kancheepuram (India). Indian Journal of Science and Technology 2008; 7: 1-8.
[2]. Rajagopalan S. Water pollution problems inTextile Industry and Control. In: PollutionManagement in Industries. Ed. R.K.Trivedy,Environmental Pollution, Karad, India 1990;21-45.
[3]. N. Mathur, P. Bhatnagar , P. Bakre. Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from pali (rajasthan) using ames bioassay.Applied ecology and environment research. PenkalaBt, Budapest, Hungary 2005;4(1): 111-118
[4]. Neppolian B, Sakthivel, S., Arbindo, B., Palanichamy, M. and Murugesan, V. Degradation of textile dye by solar light using TiO2 and ZnOphotocatalyst. J. Environ. Sci. health 1999; 34:1829-1838.
[5]. VandanaPartha, N.N. Murthya and Praveen Raj SaxenaAssessment of heavy metal contamination in soilaround hazardous waste disposal sites in Hyderabad city (India): natural and anthropogenic implications. E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management 2011;2:2141-7842.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Invitro Antioxidant Activity of Crinium Asiaticum And Pedalium Murax Leaf Extracts

Country

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India

Authors

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P. Vishnu Priya ||, Dr. A. Srinivasa Rao

Page No.

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37-43

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0623743 aned
Aim: The aim of this research is to assess the invitro antioxidant activity of various leaf extracts of Crinium asiaticum and Pedalium murax, with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of natural antioxidants. Methods: DPPH assay i.e., 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and Hydrogen peroxide assay was used for determination of free radical-scavenging activity of the ethanol, acetone and aqueous leaf extracts of Crinium asiaticum and Pedalium murax. Results: The ethanol and acetone leaf extract showed the highest amount of phenolic compounds (77.3mg/g and 82.2mg/g) when compared to aqueous extract (36.65mg/g). The phenolic concentration of the extracts was expressed as milligram of gallic acid equivalents per gram of extract. The antioxidant activity of Crinium asiaticum and Pedalium murax were evaluated using various antioxidant assays like DPPH radical scavenging and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay using Vitamin E as standard. In our study, the ethanol and acetone leaf extracts of Crinium asiaticum and Pedalium murax exhibited appreciable scavenging activity when compared with aqueous leaf extracts. Conclusion: Based on the result in the study, it was concluded that leaf extracts of Crinium asiaticum and Pedalium murax were found to be a good natural antioxidant. Further studies are required to identify specific active principles of these plants for the significant antioxidant effect. Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Crinium asiaticum, Pedalium murax, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Hydrogen peroxide assay, Vitamin E.
[1]. Aqil F, Ahmed I, Mehmood Z, Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, Turk J Biol 2006; 30: 177-183.
[2]. Devasagayam TPA, Tilak JC, Boloor KK et al. Review: Free radical and antioxidants in human health, Curr Stat Fut Pros JAPI 2004; 53: 794-804.
[3]. Imadia, K, Fukushima, S., Shirai, T., Ohtani, M., Nakanish, K., and Ito, N, Promoting activities of butylated hydroxytoluene on 2-stage urinary bladed carcinogenesis and inhibition of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive foci development in the liver of rats. Carcinogenesis, 1983; 4: 895 - 899.
[4]. Kim, B., Kim, J., Kim, H., Heo, M, Biological screening of 100 plants for cosmetic use (II): antioxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 1997; 19: 299 - 307.
[5]. Helle, L.M., Grete, B. Spices as antioxidants. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 1995; 6: 271 - 277.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Managing Project of Water Purification System

Country

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Sudan

Authors

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Dr. Abdrhman Gamil

Page No.

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44-56

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0624456 aned

Purified water is the minimum quality of water used in compounding medicines. Pharmacopoeias define the specifications of purified water. Drinking water is the required feed water to the purification system which should be subjected to pretreatment process to remove water hardness and particulate. Treatment system may require different technologies and should be designed to remove impurities and control the chemical and microbiological contamination. Regulatory authorities define cGMP for design, material of construction to be used and installation control parameters as well as control systems for operation. USP defines three stages for validation which consider consistent and extended production with alert level and action level. Particulate, conductivity, total organic carbon and microbial count are the key parameters for efficiency of the system. Risk analysis requires defining of critical control points and attributes to be assessed.

 

Key words: water purification systems, user requirement specifications for water treatment system, validation of purified water production, risk analysis of water purification system.

[1]. BP, 2016, volume 2, pp 1193 - 1200
[2]. USP- 35 General information (1231), water for pharmaceutical Purposes, (645), (643)
[3]. US FDA high purity water system 11.12.2014, guide to inspections of high purity water system.
[4]. WHO , PQ workshop, Abu Dhabi, October 2010, who technical report series No 929, 2005 Annex 3
[5]. Pharmaceutical engineering Guide for new and renovated Facilities ISPE, Volume 4, First edition 2001.Water and Steam Systems.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacoepidemiology

Country

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Turkey.

Authors

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Pinar Yalcin Balcik ||, Gulcan Kahraman

Page No.

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57-62

Paper Index
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ANED
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05.3013/0625762 aned

Pharmacoepidemiology is a branch of science that analyzes in a great number of people the usage, effects and costs of medication. Its most important aim is to define, describe medication treatments, estimate medication usage and effects by determining populations in a specific place and time. The importance of pharmacoepidemiology occurs when the pharmacological effects, adverse effects and interactions of the medications are ignored. The discipline, when not considered sufficiently, has a potential that could cause a high-level of increase in health expenses by creating conflict in the health systems of countries. In this study, it is aimed to define pharmacoepidemiology, to analyze its relation with other disciplines and to inform about pharmacoepidemiology usage areas.

 

Keywords - pharmacoepidemiology, epidemiology, drug utilization

[1] BL, Strom, SE Kimmel, S. Hennessy, Pharmacoepidemiology, 3. Edition, Wiley-Blackwell; 2000.
[2] D.H Lawson, Pharmacoepidemiology: A New Discipline, British Medical Journal, 289(6450), 1984, 940-941.

[3] M Etminan, A. Samii, Pharmacoepidemiology I: A Review of Pharmacoepidemiologic Study Designs. Pharmacotherapy, 24(8), 2004, 964–969.
[4] U Bergman, Pharmaco-epidemiological perspectives, Pharmaceutical Weekblad, 11(5), 1989, 151-4.
[5] AH Briggs, AR Levy, Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmacoepidemiology: Curious Bedfellows or a Match Made in Heaven?, Pharmacoeconomics, 24(11), 2006, 1079-1086.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Penile Erectile Properties And Elemental Analysis Of The Methanolic Seed Extract Of Garcinia kola (Heckel) In Some Experimental Animals

Country

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Nigeria.

Authors

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Bukata B, Bukar ||, Mary O. Uguru ||, John Daniel ||, Noel N. Wannang ||, Danlami W. Dayon ||, Simeon Omale ||, and Francis K, Okwuasaba

Page No.

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63-71

Paper Index
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XXXX
ANED
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05.3013/0626371 aned

The search for pharmacological agents that increase male virility which can address issues of erectile dysfunction remains novel because of their significance in healthy life span of the males. Plant-based pharmaceuticals are targets because of their availability and cost-effectiveness. The effects of the methanolic seed extract of Garcinia kola were investigated at different oral doses (125, 250 & 500 mg/kg body weight) and duration (20 & 60 days) in male wistar rats.The extract was also tested in vitro on phenylephrine pre-contracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscles of the rabbit. Elemental analysis of the extract was also carried out. Results of the findings showed that the extract at the dose of 250 mg/kg b. wt significantly increased the frequency of mount, intromission and ejaculation in both duration of administration compared to control (P<0.05). These effects were independently affected by dose and duration of treatments. Similarly, the mean number of litters per female rats paired with male rats treated with the extract was highest with that which received 250 mg/kg for both durations and lowest with 500 mg/kg. The extract caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of an isolated corpus cavernosum while the elemental analysis revealed the presence of Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, K and Na. The results in general support the traditional claim of the usefulness of Garcinia kola seeds in the management of erectile dysfunction. However, we suggest the moderation of such use against the findings that usage for longer durations and in high doses will not confer any advantage but deleterious effects.

 

Key Words: Erectile Dysfunction, Garcinia kola, Infertility, Reproductive Performance, Methanolic Extract.

[1] Toppari J, Larson JC, Christianson P, et al. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environ. Health Perspecti.,1996;104:741-803.

[2] Reiss HE. Reproductive medicine: from A to Z. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[3] Ikechebelu JI, Adinma JI, Orie EF et al. High prevalence of infertility in South-East Nigeria. J. Obstet. Gyneacol.2003; 23(6): 657-650.

[4] Annonymous. NIH consensus conference. Impotence, NIH consensus development panel on impotence. JAMA.1993; 270(5): 83-90.

[5] Fieldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG et al. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts male aging study.J. Urol.,1994; 151(1): 54-61.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of micropropagated Centella asiatica L.Urb.

Country

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India

Authors

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Sanjay R. Biradar ||, Bhagyashri D. Rachetti

Page No.

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72-76

Paper Index
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XXXX
ANED
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05.3013/0627276 aned

Present study deals with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ethanolic extract of root, stem & leaf of micropropagated Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. For micropropagation nodal explants inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BA 1.0, 1.5 mg/L, with combination of 0.5mg/L NAA gives maximum growth shoots. A qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography & a quantitative analysis by standard chemical protocol of secondary metabolites in the root, stem and leaf of micropropagated Centella asiatica L. (URB) have been studied. Using thin layer chromatography (TLC) different components like Alkaloids, Saponin, Flavonoids, Terpenoides, Phenol & Tannin are isolated & identified. The Rf values of the developed spots in the different solvent systems are noted. In the quantitative analysis, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids & flavonoids are extracted by using the standard chemical protocol. These results may be helpful for rationale use of this plant in the modern system of health care.

 

Keywords - Micropropagation, Nodal explants, Qualitative analysis, secondary metabolite, Thin layer chromatography

[1] Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49(11): 5165-5170.
[2] Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the Amaranthaceae. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(8): 2288-2294.
[3] Sala A, Recio MD, Giner RM, Manez S, Tournier H, Schinella G, Rios JL. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of Helichrysum italicum. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54(3): 365-371.
[4] Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. The relative activities of Plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid. Free radical Res 1995; 22: 375-383.
[5] Ashokkumar D, Mazumder UK, Gupta M, Senthilkumar GP, Selvan VT. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Oxystelma esculentum in various in vitro Models. J Comp Integ Med 2008; 5(1): 1-6. American Journal of Life Sciences 2013; 1(6): 243-247.