Volume 6 ~ Issue 3, March - 2016

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Population pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporine in Egyptian hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: Dose individualization approach

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Abdel-Hameed I.M. Ebid ||, Mahmoud Ibrahim Mostafa ||, Ahmed A. Gomaa

Page No.

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01-14

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Aim:The objective of the study is to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for the Egyptian allo- HSCT patients that can be practically applied to adjust the dose of cyclosporine on individual basis and provide guidelines for dose adjustment in patients with special pharmacokinetic profiles, whose dose adjustment is extremely difficult and commonly found in the acute post-transplantation period. Patients and methods: A total of 295 patients undergone HSCT, of whom 207 were an index group to develop the model and 88 were the test population for external validation. Patients were treated with CsA given twice daily by intermittent intravenous infusions over 2 hours till oral administration is possible then shifted to oral route. Patients were routinely monitored for CsA steady state trough concentration obtained just before initiating the infusion three times weekly. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimation was performed using nonlinear mixed effect modelling implemented in the Monolix software. A one compartment model with first order disposition model was used as a structural model. The influence of demographic variables, medication Coadministration and pathological conditions on the individual estimates of clearance and distribution volume was tested. The final model was internally validated using PcVPC & cross validation and results of analysis from the test population was compared to those of the index group for seek of external validation of the model.

[1] ―The Role of Allogeneic-Cell Transplantation in Leukemia — NEJM.‖ .

[2] P. Ljungman, A. Urbano-Ispizua, M. Cavazzana-Calvo, T. Demirer, G. Dini, H. Einsele, A. Gratwohl, A. Madrigal, D. Niederwieser, J. Passweg, V. Rocha, R. Saccardi, H. Schouten, N. Schmitz, G. Socie, A. Sureda, and J. Apperley, ―Allogeneic and autologous transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: definitions and current practice in Europe,‖ Bone Marrow Transpl., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 439–449, Jan. 2006.

[3] B. Mohty and M. Mohty, ―Long-term complications and side effects after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an update.,‖ Blood Cancer J., vol. 1, no. 4, p. e16, Apr. 2011.

[4] N. Bleyzac, D. Cuzzubbo, C. Renard, N. Garnier, V. Dubois, C. Domenech, M.-P. Goutagny, A. Plesa, N. Grardel, S. Goutelle, A. Janoly-Dumenil, and Y. Bertrand, ―Improved outcome of children transplanted for high-risk leukemia by using a new strategy of cyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis,‖ Bone Marrow Transplant. Macmillan Publishers Limited, Jan-2016.

[5] M. Weiss, D. Steinbach, F. Zintl, J. Beck, and B. Gruhn, ―Superior outcome using cyclosporin A alone versus cyclosporin A plus methotrexate for post-transplant immunosuppression in children with acute leukemia undergoing sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,‖ J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., vol. 141, no. 6, pp. 1089–1094, 2014.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antinociceptive activity of the aqueous leaves of Pongamia pinnata in rats

Country

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Sri Lanka

Authors

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W.D. Ratnasooriya ||, S.A.Deraniyagala ||, S.Priyadharshini

Page No.

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15-22

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In Sri Lankan traditional medicine, the decoction of leaves of the plant Pongamia pinnata (L.) is claimed to possess antinociceptive activity. However, as yet, its antinociceptive potential has not been scientifically investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive potential of an aqueous leaf extraction (ALE) of P. pinnata in rats, using three algesiometric methods (hot-plate, tail-flick and formalin tests) and different doses (500, 1000, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, given orally). The result showed that the ALE possesses marked and significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive action when evaluated in hot-plate test and formalin tests (only the highest dose tested) but not in the tail-flick test. The antinociceptive action of ALE had a quick onset (within 1h) and a moderately long duration of action (up to 6h). The antinociceptive action of ALE was blocked by metoclopramide (D2 type dopamine receptor antagonist) and atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist) but not by nalaxone (an opioid receptor antagonist). Moreover, the ALE has no sedative (as judged by hole board test) activity. ALE contained a wide range of chemical constituents of which alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polyphenols which may have contributed to antinociceptive action of ALE. Collectively, these observations suggest that ALE-induced antinociception was mediated centrally, at supraspinal level, and peripherally. The antinociceptive action is likely to be mediated via dopaminergic and cholinoganic muscarinic mechanisms. The results also showed that ALE is effective against neurogenic and inflammatory pains. In conclusion, this study show, for the first time, that ALE of P. pinnata possesses moderately strong antinociceptive activity, justifying its therapetic claim in traditional medicine as a pain killer. Key word: Antinociceptive activity, dopaminergic mechanisms, muscarinic mechanisms, pain impairment, Pongamiapinnata, toxicology
[1]. D.M.A.Jayaweera, Medical Plant Used in Ceylon,3 (Colombo: National Science Foundation, 1982).
[2]. B. Meera, S. Kumar, and S.B. Kalidhar, A review of the chemistry and biological activity of Pongamia pinnata, J Med Aromatic Plant Sci, 25, 2003, 441-465.
[3]. S. Brijesh, P.G.Daswani, P.Tetali, S.R. Rojatkar, N.H.Antia, T.J.Birdi, Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves, Understanding the mechanism (s) of action in infectious diarrhea,J Zhejiang UnivSci B, 7, 2006, 665-674.
[4]. L. Ramanayaka, G. De Silva, D.L.Perera, Compendium of Medicinal Plants, A Sri Lankan Study, 3 (Colombo: Department of Ayurveda, 2003) 24-29.
[5]. S.A.Deraniyagala, W.D.Ratnasooriya, S. Priyadharshini, T.R.K.Perera, Lack of diuretic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Pongamia pinnatain rats, J Pharm Negative Results, 5, 2014, 19-21.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Piroxicam Loaded Alginate Microspheres (Colon Specific) Using Ionotropic Gelation Technique

Country

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India

Authors

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Kalla Madhavi ||, Dr S.Shobha Rani ||, Fathima Zahra

Page No.

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23-28

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The main aim of the present work was to develop colon specific piroxicam loaded alginate microspheres intended for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A multiparticulate system with a combined property of pH sensitive and biodegradability was developed. Piroxicam microspheres were prepared by using ionotropic gelation technique and coated by using coacervation phase separation method using different ratios of eudragit S100 which is a pH sensitive polymer. Both coated and uncoated piroxicam microspheres were evaluated for % yield, entrapment efficiency, particle size, flow property, in vitro percent drug release and release kinetics. Entrapment efficiency of the prepared microspheres was above 85%. Uncoated microspheres showed a delay drug release for about 10hr where as in case of eudragit S100 coated microspheres showed a delayed drug release for about 24hr in a pH medium mimicking the condition of GIT.

 

Keywords: Alginate microspheres, Coacervation phase separation, Colon specific microspheres, Ionotropic gelation technique, Piroxicam microspheres.

[1] A. Ahmed, Hussein, Mowafaq Mohammed Ghareeb, A.Renata and Abdul hussain, Preparation and characterization of piroxicam colon targeted coated tablets, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(1), 2013, 338-342.

[2] Amrita Chowdhury and Hariom singh, A Review: Different Approaches of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System, Am. J. PharmTech Res, 4(6), 2014, 105-117.

[3] Sateesh Kumar Vemula and Prabhakar Reddy, Different approaches to design and evaluation of colon specific drug delivery systems, Int.Journal of Pharmacy&Technology, 1(1), 2009, 1-35.

[4] E.Christina, Preparation of microspheres of diclofenac sodium by ionotropic gelation technique, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5 (1), 2009,228-231.

[5] Seema Badhana, Navneet Garud and Akanksha Garud, Colon specific drug delivery of mesalamine using eudragit S 100-coated chitosan microspheres for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, 2(3), 2013, 42-48.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The medical Importance of Cicer arietinum - A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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29-40

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The phytochemical analysis of Cicer arietinum seeds revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, fixed oils, phytosterols, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, amino acids, iron, phosphate, sulphate, and chloride. Cicer arietinum possessed aphrodisiac, estrogenic, antioxidant, ACE- inhibition, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolaemic, antidiarrhoeal antidiarrhoeal, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, diuretic, anti-nephrolithiasis and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cicer arietinum.

 

Keywords: Cicer arietinum, constituents, pharmacology

[1] Rossato SC, Leitao-Filho H and Gegossi A. Ethnobotany of Caicaras of the Atlantic forest coast (Brazil). Econ Bot 1999; 53: 387-395.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems ( part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248.

[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Medical importance of Cichorium intybus – A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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41-56

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Phytochemical analysis showed that the different parts Cichorium intybus contained sesquiterpene lactones (especially lactucin, lactucopicrin, 8-desoxy lactucin, guaianolid glycosides, including chicoroisides B and C, sonchuside C), caffeic acid derivatives (chiroric acid, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, dicaffeoyl tartaric acid), inulin, sugars, proteins, hydroxycoumarins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, oils, volatile compounds, coumarins, vitamins and polyynes. It possessed hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, cardiovascular, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anticancer, reproductive, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative, immunological, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, anti-protozoal, wound healing and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and medical importance of Cichorium intybus.

 

Keywords: Cichorium intybus, constituents, pharmacology, medical importance

1-Vickers A. and Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine herbal medicine.BMJ 1999; 319: 1050-1053.

2- Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Agropyron repens – A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015; 1 (2): 37-41.

3-Al–Snafi AE. Pharmacology and medicinal properties of Caesalpinia crista - An overview. International Journal of Pharmacy 2015; 5(2): 71-83.

4-Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Calendula officinalis - A review. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Research 2015; 5(3): 172-185.

5-Al-Snafi AE. The constituents and pharmacological properties of Calotropis procera - An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review & Research 2015; 5(3): 259-275.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Citrullus colocynthis - A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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57-67

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Citrullus colocynthis contained carbohydrate, protein, separated amino acid, tannins, saponins, phenolics, flavanoids, flavone glucosides, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthranol, steroids, cucurbitacins, saponarin, cardic glycoloids, trace elements and many other chemical groups. It possessed antioxidant, Antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflamatory, analgesic, gastrointestinal, reproductive, protective and many other pharmacological effects. This paper will highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Citrullus colocynthis.

 

Keywords: Citrullus colocynthis, pharmacology, constituent, pharmacognosy

1-Dyson A. Discovering indigenous healing plants of the herb and fragrance gardens at Kirstenbosch national botanical garden. Cape Town: National Botanical Institute Printing Press 1998: 268.

2-Chan K. Some aspects of toxic contaminats in herbal medicines.Chemosphere 2000; 52:1361-71.

3-Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 257-270.

4-Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.

5- Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems ( part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacological importance of Clitoria ternatea – A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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68-83

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Clitoria ternatea contained tannins, phlobatannin, carbohydrates, saponins, triterpenoids, phenols, flavanoids, flavonol glycosides, proteins, alkaloids, antharaquinone, anthocyanins, cardiac glycosides, Stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, volatile oils and steroids. The plant showed many pharmacological effects including antioxidant, hypolipidemic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, CNS, antimicrobial, gastro-intestinal antiparasitic, insecticidal and many other pharmacological effects. This Review will highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Clitoria ternatea.

 

Keywords: Clitoria ternatea, constituents, pharmacology, pharmacognosy

1-Vickers A. and Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine Herbal medicine. BMJ 1999; 319: 1050 - 1053.

2-Fikrat IA. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of Saffron(Crocus sativus L.). Experimental biology and medicine 2002;, 227: 20-25.

3- Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Agropyron repens – A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015; 1 (2): 37-41.

4-Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Calendula officinalis - A review. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Research 2015; 5(3): 172-185.

5-Al-Snafi AE. The constituents and pharmacological properties of Calotropis procera - An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review & Research 2015; 5(3): 259-275.