Volume 6 ~ Issue 7,~Version 1,~July - 2016


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Modes of Action of Potential Phyto-Pesticides from Tropical Plants in Plant Health Management

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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DN Enyiukwu CC. Ononuju ||, AN Awurum ||, JA Nwaneri

Page No.

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01-17

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06710117
Presence of toxic natural products in several higher tropical plant species which play roles in warding off pests and pathogenic attacks is well reported in the last couple of years. That these natural products ex situ, infringe metabolic processes and inhibit pests or pathogenic species in culture or field studies are also well documented. However, so far information on how they act against the susceptible species to bring these about, are scarcely available. With the exception of the pyrethrins, nicotine, rotenone and recently neem and its related flora, there is dearth of information on the modes of action of potential pesticides from tropical plants. Recent evidences suggest however, that several potential phytochemicals are enzymes antagonists and/or may interfere with cell membrane integrity, while extracts of Reynoutria spp. primes crops' defense systems against invading fungi. Proper understanding of the modes of action (MOA) of a pesticide will enable plant pathologist not to use phytochemicals with similar MOA sequentially or in combination, and thus delay pests or fungal resistance to the control agent(s). Herein, we present a review of the modes of action of potential plant-derived pesticides; the object being to enable plant health practitioners to maximize the benefits of the use these complementary or alternative pesticides in IPM programmes in order to delay, reduce or eliminate pests or fungal resistance build-up known to be a major drawback associated with use of synthetic chemicals in agricultural pests control.
[1] Adam, G. C., Parish, C. A., Wisnienski, D., Meng, J., Liu, M., Calati K., Stein, B. D., Athanasopoulos, J., Liberator, P., Roemer, T., Harris, G., and Chapman, K. T. (2008). Application of affinity selection/mass spectrometry to determine the structural isomer of parafungins responsible for binding polyadenosine polymerase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130: 16704-16710.
[2] Adegbeti, A. A. (2011). Effects of some indigenous plant extracts as inhibitors of egg hatch in root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2). Amer. J. Expt. Agric. 1(3): 96;-100.
[3] Allen, P. M. and Gottlieb, D. (1970). Mechanism of action of the fungicide Thiabendezole, 2-(4'-thiazolyl) benzamidasole. Appl. Microbiol. 20(6): 919-926.
[4] Amadioha A. C. and Obi VI 1999. Control of anthracnose disease of cowpea by Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 34 (1-2): 85-89.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Study Of Prevalence Of Pulmonary Hypertension In Chronic Kidney Disease And Its Co-Relation With Clinical & Biochemical Parameters

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr.Neelam Redkar ||, Dr.Nitin Sarate

Page No.

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18-22

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06711822
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this prospective observational study were to study (i) the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients who are on conservative management, haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, (ii) the co-relation of PH with variables such as A-V fistula, hypertension, diabetes Mellitus & duration for dialysis, and (iii) the co-relation of PH with biochemical parameters.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai over a period 12 months after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. 245 CKD patients, on conservative management, haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were enrolled in this study, taking into consideration the inclusion & exclusion criteria and appropriate informed consent after taking detailed history of every patient. All patients underwent routine investigations and 2D ECHO for pulmonary hypertension. RESULTS: Our study enrolled 245 patients in the age group of 20 to 85 years where 68.6% patients were male and 31.4% were females. 28.2% patients had CKD with PH while 71.8% had CKD without PH. The proportion of patients with PH having AV fistula was significantly more than those without AV fistula. Of the 28.2% patients with PH, 33.6% had hypertension and 22% were diabetic. Our study revealed a positive association between the duration of dialysis and the prevalence of PH along-with low levels of haemoglobin and serum bicarbonate, and high levels of uric acid, BUN and creatinine. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PH was found to be 28.2%. PH is positively correlated with chemical as well as biochemical parameters. Keywords: A-V fistula ,CKD with PH, hemodialysis, Prevalence study, pulmonary arterial pressure.
[1] Drey N, Roderick P, Mullee M, Rogerson M. A population-based study of the incidence and outcomes of diagnosed chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Oct;42(4):677-84.
[2] Muntner P, He J, Hamm L, Loria C, Whelton PK. Renal insufficiency and subsequent death resulting from cardiovascular disease in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Mar;13(3):745-53.
[3] Shlipak MG, Stehman-Breen C, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Varosy PD, Wenger NK, Furberg CD. Creatinine levels and cardiovascular events in women with heart disease: do small changes matter? Am J Kidney Dis. 2004 Jan;43(1):37-44.
[4] Collins AJ, Kasiske B, Herzog C, et al. Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 2006 Annual Data Report. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007 Jan;49(1 Suppl 1):A6-7, S1-296.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Traumatic Posterior Hip Dislocation In A 9 Year Child: A Case Report

Country

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India

Authors

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KHANDGE AV ||, SINGH HU

Page No.

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23-26

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06712326
Traumatic hip dislocation in children is a relatively rare injury. If gone unnoticed and reduced later than six hours after injury it can have complications like avascular necrosis of the femoral head. We present a case of paediatric posterior hip dislocation: A nine-year-old female child with a history of fall from height (5 feet) following which patient suffered a right-sided posterior hip dislocation which was reduced within four hours of injury under general anesthesia followed by immobilization in a Thomas splint. The patient followed up after eight months with a completely normal hip.Closed reduction as rapidly as possible following the trauma or an open relocation of the dislocated hip under general anesthesia is the treatment recommended. As pain sensitivity in children differs from that in adults the examiner must always do a hip examination following a trauma to the lower limb in children. Hence, it is imperative for the examiner to assess the child holistically and not to exclude any hip joint condition without proper examination and accompanying radiology. Keywords:- Traumatic; Children; Avascular Necrosis; General Anesthesia; Hip dislocation.
[1] Kutty S, Thornes B, Curtin WA, Gilmore MF. Traumatic posterior dislocation of hip in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2001;17:32-5. CrossRef
[2] Gürkan V, Dursun M, Orhun H, Sever GB, Kiliçkap C, Berkel T. Evalu- ation of pediatric patients with traumatic hip dislocation. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2006;40:392-5.
[3] Zrig M, Mnif H, Koubaa M, Abid A. Traumatic hip dislocation in chil- dren. Acta Orthop Belg 2009;75:328-33.
[4] Kural C, Bayraktar K, Ertürk A, Ertürk H. Çocuklarda travmatik kalça çıkığı: iki olgu sunumu. Joint Dis Rel Surg 2006;17:49-52
[5] Freeman GE Jr. Traumatic dislocation of the hip in children: A report of 7 cases and review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1961;43:401-6.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Amaryllidaceae Perspectives In Alzheimer´S Disease

Country

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Brazil

Authors

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Willian Orlando Castillo ||, Andres Felipe Aristizabal-Pachon ||, Catarina Satie Takahashi

Page No.

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27-33

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06712733
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is the most prominent type of dementia in elderly population. The etiology is multifactorial, and pathophysiology of disease is complex with slowly progressive and irreversible deterioration. Traditionally, AD researches have focused on the pathogenesis caused by Neuritic Plaques (NPs) and Neurofibrilary Tangles (NFTs), however, in the pathologic spectrum of disease, there are others independent pathways involved. Indeed, although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, both memory and AD seem to be influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors resulted of accumulate over time. The current therapeutic approaches for AD temporarily improve the symptoms; and despite intensive efforts, none of the treatments available today alter the course of disease. Nevertheless, one of the most promising approaches for treating it is to enhance acetylcholine level and decrease oxidative stress in brain of AD patients. In line with this, different studies indicate that the alkaloids belonging to Amaryllidaceae family exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Galantamine has become the most attractive of alkaloids for its use in the treatment of AD; however, Amaryllidaceaes contain other alkaloids which have high potential as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ACHEI) and antioxidant. Keywords – ACHEI, Alzheimer's Disease, Amaryllidaceae, Galantamine
[1] Mattson, M.P., Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer's disease. Nature. 430(7000) 2004, p. 631-639.
[2] Kumar, A. and A. Singh, A review on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: an update. Pharmacological Reports. 67(2) 2015, p. 195-203.
[3] Felsenstein, K.M., et al., Regenerative medicine in Alzheimer's disease. Translational Research. 163(4) 2014, p. 432-438.
[4] Ferri, C.P., et al., Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. The Lancet. 366(9503) 2006, p. 2112-2117.
[5] Brookmeyer, R., et al., Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia. 3(3) 2007, p. 186-191.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Herbal Medicines In The Treatment Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

Country

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Europe

Authors

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L. Vasileva ||, D. Getova

Page No.

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34-38

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06713438
There is an opinion that until 2020 depression will be the second highest in morbidity after cardiovascular diseases representing significant socioeconomic burden. The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is complicated and it seems that there are various overlapping biological factors [1]. In recent decades a fundamental prerequisite of the pathophysiology of MDD highlights monoamine impairment (dysfunction in the monoamine receptors expressionand activity), decreased monoamine production or secondary intermediary(eg.G proteins or cyclic AMP) [2]. Further attention is also given to the role of neuroendocrine abnormalities including excess cortisol and its hindering effects on neurogenesis by reducing the resultant of the brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as well as impaired endogenous opioid function, changes in GABA-ergic and / or glutamatergic transmission, in the production of cytokines or steroids, and abnormal circadian rhythm [2-4]

[1] Belmaker RH, Agam G. Major depressive disorder. N Engl J Med. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2008;358(1):55–68.
[2] Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB. Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety. 2000. p. 2–19.

[3] Antonijevic IA. Depressive disorders - Is it time to endorse different pathophysiologies? Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006. p. 1–15.
[4] Hindmarch I. Expanding the horizons of depression: Beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Human Psychopharmacology. 2001. p. 203–18.
[5] American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) [Internet]. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2013. 991 p.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Epidural Steroid Along With Tramadol For low Back Pain With Sciatica.(Original Article)

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Vasudha jadhav ||, Dr Ranjeetsinha jadhav ||, Dr Prashant Lomate

Page No.

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39-42

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06713942
Epidural steroid injection has equally good results in acuteCases than chronic cases .Duration of relief varied from 1wk to 4months .Low back pain continues to be a leading cause of disability .It is thecommonest complain of most of the patients presenting to the pain clinicand orthopaedic out patient department. The cost to society and thepatient in the form of time lost at work ,compensation and treatment isstaggering. Key words:- Epidural injection, metylprednisolone, Tramadol, xylocard
[1] Berman AT ,Garbarino JL ,FisherSM .Theeffectsofepiduralinjectionoflocal anaesthetics & corticosteroids onpatientswithlumbosacralpain.ClinOrthop1984;188:14451.g2.Cappio MSacralepiduraladministrationadministrationofhy drocortisoneintherapyoflumbagosciatica.Rheumatology1951;9:60.
[2] Lee HM , weenstein JW , Meller ST . The role of steroids and theireffects on phospholipase A2 . An animal model of radiculopathy.spine 1998;23:1191-96.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Development in diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease

Country

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India

Authors

::

Kumar Shivam ||, Amir Riyaz Khan ||, Pankaj Taneja

Page No.

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43-50

Paper Index
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10.9790/3013-06714350
The decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis can lead to development of Alzheimer disease (AD), yet various hypothesis suggest that AD patient have increased neurogenesis in the region 1 of hippocampus proper (CA1 region). Ammon‟s horn (the principle region of Alzheimer‟s pathology) has been found to be involved in neuronal loss however the exact nature of neurogenesis is unknown. Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 are associated with an increased risk of developing AD) stimulates neurogenesis to produce major change in hippocampal plasticity and seems to be involved in Alzheimer‟s pathology. Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid, aids in continued neurogenesis in the brain. Levels of allopregnanolone in the brain decline in old age and Alzheimer‟s disease Allopregnanolone acts by reversing neurogenesis impairment thus preventing cognitive deficitis of AD disease in various mouse models. Ephirin signaling pathway has been shown to regulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus and have been studied as potential target to treat some symptoms of AD. Molecule associated with the pathology of AD, including Apo lipoprotein (ApoE), presenilin genesPSI,PS2 and APP have also been found to impact adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Detection and diagnosis of AD is done by variety of neuro-psychatic and imaging techniques. Psychological, behavioral, cognitive, holistic and humanistic therapy approaches are used for its treatment. Keywords: Neurogenesis, Alzheimer, Neurodegenration, Aging, Adult neurons

[1] Scheltens P, Blennow K, Breteler MM, de Strooper B, Frisoni GB, Salloway S, Van der Flier WM . Alzheimer's disease. Lancet. 2016 S0140-6736(15)01124-1

[2] Mendez MF,Early-onset Alzheimer's disease: nonamnestic subtypes and type 2 AD. Archives of Medical Research, 43, 2012, 677-85.

[3] Whiteford HA, Ferrari AJ, Degenhardt L, Feigin V and VosT,The Global Burden of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study,PLoS One,10, 2010

[4] Murra CJ and Lopez AD, Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet349, 1997, 1407-86.

[5] Goldman JS, Genetic testing and counseling in the diagnosis and management of young-onset dementias, PsychiatrClin North Am, 38, 2015,295-308.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Influence of Various Process Variables and Formulation Excipients on the Engineering of Sertaconazole Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Country

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India

Authors

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Anagha Baviskar ||, Shivanand Hiremath ||, N. Devanna ||, Manoj akul

Page No.

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51-63

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06715163
The present research work focuses on the study of influence of various ingredients, concentration of ingredients and process parameters on the formulation of Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). The sertaconazole loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SERT-SLN) were prepared by simple, easily reproducible and novel modified solvent emulsification method. Lipid and surfactant solubilizing potential was determined by solubility study. To improve the properties of SLN some excipients were added like cosurfactant TPGS, organic solvent for nanodroplet structure in SLN and charge induction by stearyl amine. Further study was performed to determine the optimum concentration of components such as concentration of surfactant OLML, stearyl amine, TPGS and organic solvent. The process parameters like stirring rate and time, sonication time and cooling temperature also affect the formation of SLN. The formulations were evaluated for average particle size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP). The particle size, PDI and ZP of optimized formulation was observed to be 155.1 nm, 0.23 and 9.76 mV respectively. The TEM study confirms the nanometric size particles with particle size < 200 nm. The DSC and XRD study reveals the presence of amorphous nature of SLN. The SERT-SLN formulation was stable at refrigerator and 250C. SERT-SLN showed biphasic release pattern initiated with burst and then sustained release. Keywords: DMSO, Modified solvent emulsification technique, Natural lipid and surfactant, Solid lipid nanoparticles, TPGS.
[1] R. Muller, K. Mader And S. Gohla, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (Sln) For Controlled Drug Delivery–A Review Of The State Of The Art, Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 50, 2000, 161–177.
[2] E. Bseiso, M. Nasr, O. Sammour And N. Gawad, Recent Adavances In Topical Formulation Carriers Of Antifungal Agents, Indian J Dermatology, Venereology And Leprology, 81 (5), 2015, 457-463.
[3] O. Uchechi, D. John, N. Ogbonna And A. A. Attama, Nanoparticles For Dermal And Transdermal Drug Delivery In, A Sezer (Ed), Nanotechnology And Nanomaterials "Application Of Nanotechnology In Drug Delivery" (Intech Publisher, 2014)
[4] J. Aqut, C. Palacin, J. Salqado, E. Casas, A. Sacristan And J. Ortiz, Direct Membrane –Damaging Effect Of Sertaconazole On Candida Albicans As A Mechanism Of Its Fungicidal Activity, Arzneimittelforschung 42 (5a,)1992, 721-724.
[5] K. Shah, A. Date, M. Joshi And V. Patravale, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (Sln) Of Tretinoin: Potential In Topical Delivery, Int J Pharm, 345, 2007, 163–171.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 7,~Version 2,~July - 2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Acetaminophen in critically ill patients with fever

Country

::

Qatar

Authors

::

Omaima Mahmood ||, Saeed AG Mahmood

Page No.

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01-05

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06720105
Background: Acetaminophen is one of the most treatments used to reduce the temperature in ICU patients. However, it is still unclear whether the use of acetaminophen improves patients' survival and hospital length of stay. This study aims to analyze the main literatures which studied the use of acetaminophen in ICU patients with fever due to infections or other non-infectious insults. Methods:Severaldatabases including Cochrane library database, Academic Search Complete, and PubMed were searched for studies on acetaminophen in ICU patients. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, adult human critically ill patients, treatment with acetaminophen in one arm and no treatment (placebo) in the other arm. The outcomes assessed were the ICU and hospital length of stay, mortality rate, ICU-free days and changes in temperature. Results:Two randomized control trials and one cohort study covering 32,408 patients were included. There wereno differences in ICU and hospital length of stay between the group treated with acetaminophen and placebo. In addition, the mortality rate did not differ between the two groups in patients with fever due to infection; however, a difference was shown in patients with fever due to non-infectious insults. Finally, there was a significant reduction in temperature in acetaminophen group compared to placebo. Conclusion: The use of acetaminophen for fever in critically ill patients was not associated with better outcome in terms of ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality ratecompared to placebo especially when the fever is due to infections. Key words: Acetaminophen, ICU, infections, paracetamol

[1] G.Y. he Fever and Antipyretic in Critically Illness Evaluation Study (FACE). Japan-Korea Organization for Intensive Care Studies (JAKOICS). 2009
[2] Launey Y, Nesseler N, CousinA,et al. Effect of a fever control protocol-based strategy on ventilator-associated pneumonia in severely brain-injured patients. Critical Care .2014; 18 (6) :689

[3] Launey Y, Nesseler N, Malledant Y, Seguin P. Clinical review: Fever in septic ICU patients -friend or foe?Launey et al. Critical Care.2011; 15 (3):222
[4] Menkin V. Chemical basis of fever. Science. 1944;100(2598):337-8.
[5] Young P, Saxena M, Bellomo R, Freebairn R, et al. Acetaminophen for Fever in Critically Ill Patients with Suspected Infection.NEngl J Med. 2015;373(23):2215-24

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

IDENTIFICATION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYME OF Anguilla bicolor bicolor DURING SEED EEL PHASE IN CONTROLLED CONTAINER

Country

::

Indonesia

Authors

::

Isma Mulyani ||, Ridwan Affandi ||, Dyah Iswantini

Page No.

::

06-11

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06720611
The main constraint for Indonesian shortfin eel aquaculture is high mortality rate for glass eel to elver phase. This aim of study was to determine the activity pattern of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase) during seed eel to elver phase, i.e. day 1-71 of rearing period. Indonesian shortfin eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) during seed eel phase was reared in aquarium with aeration and filtration systems and fed with natural feeds (Artemia nauplii, Daphnia and silk worms). Enzyme activity samplings were carried out at day 1, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 71 of rearing period in aquarium. Measurement data were descriptive-quantitatively analyzed and presented in graphs. The study results indicated that 1) activities of protease, lipase and amylase were starting to be detected since day 1 with small-scaled activity for protease and large-scaled activity for lipase and amylase and 2) protease activity increased for 1-71 days-seed eel, amylase activity decreased at day 42 of rearing and re-increased at day 56 to 71 and lipase activity continuously decreased since day 1 to 71. The highest protease was detected at day 71, while the highest amylase and lipase activities were at day 1. Keywords – amylase, digestive enzymes, seed eel, lipase, protease
[1] Affandi R, Strategy on utilization of Eel (Anguilla sp.) resources in Indonesia. Journal of Iktiologi Indonesia. 5 (2): 77-81, 2005.
[2] Tabeta O, Ozawa T, Anguillid leptocephali from the eastern Indian Ocean, Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish. 45(9):1069-1073, 1979. [3] Haryono, The eel genus of Anguilla is potential for consume fish both local and export markets, Fauna Indonesia. 8 (1):22-26. 2008. [4] Kuroki M, Righton D, Walker AM, The importance of Anguillids: a cultural and bhistorical perspective introducing papers from the World Fisheries Congress. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 23: 2.2014.
[5] Setijanto, Yuwono E, Sulistyo I, Sukardi P, Study on feeding behaviour of eels and the larvae occurrence in Segara Anakan. Proc for Sumberdaya Perikanan Sidat Tropik, UPT Baruna Jaya, BPPT, 2003, 41-45.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Wide spectrum antibacterial activity of Nigella Sativa L. seeds

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Amir Riyaz Khan ||, Kirandeep Kour

Page No.

::

12-16

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06721216
Crude extracts of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) seeds were tested in varying dilutions against strains of Bacillus cereus 2156, B. subtilis 2920, Escherichia coli 2065, Staphylococcus epidermidis 2493, Klebsiella pneumoniae 2957, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5029, Salmonella typhmurium 2501, Enterobacter aerogens 5139 using agar well diffusion technique in swabbed Muellar Hinton agar plates under standard laboratory conditions. Extract in ethanol and n-hexane showed remarkable dose dependant antibacterial activity against the tested strains as evident from the zones of inhibition. No activity of the extract was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5029 and Enterobacter aerogens 5139. The most sensitive strain was S. epidermidis. No cross resistance was noticed with any of the tested antibiotics
[1] Diallo D, Hveem B, Mahmoud M.A, Berge G, Paulsen B.S, Maiga A,1999.: An ethnobotanical survey of herbal drugs of Gourma district, Mali. Pharmaceutical Biology,37:80-91.
[2] 2. Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebre BO (2005). Phytochemical constituent of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants. Afr.J. Biotechnol. vol. 4 (7):685-688
[3] Rojas JJ, Ochoa VJ, Ocampo SA, Muñoz JF (2006). Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of nonnosocomial infections. BMC Complementary Altern. Med., 6: 2-12.
[4] Khan MR. Chemical composition and medicinal properties of Nigella sativa Linn.
[5] Inflammopharmacology. 1999; 7: 13-35.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cynodon dactylon- A Review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

17-31

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06721731
The phytochemical analysis showed that Cynodon dactylon contained flavanoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, triterpenoids steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, phytosterols, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, volatile oils and fixed oils. Previous studies showed that Cynodon dactylon possessed central nervous, cardiovascular, antidiabetic, gastrointestinal, antioxidant, immunological, antiallergic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anticancer, dermatological, diuretic, protective, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, insecticidal and repellent. This review will highlight the chemical constituents, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Cynodon dactylon. Keywords:- pharmacology, pharmacognosy, medicinal plants, constituents, Cynodon dactylon
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 257-270.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on
reproductive systems ( part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

A review on Cyperus rotundus A potential medicinal plant

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

32-48

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06723248
Many previous studies showed Cyperus rotundus contained flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, alkaloids saponins, terpenoids, essential oils, starch, carbohydrates, protein, separated amino acids and many other secondary metabolites. The previous works also showed that the plant exerted antiparasitic, insecticidal, repellent, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, central nervous, neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, hypolipidemic, weight control, antiplatelet, gastrointestinal, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, anti-dysmenorrhea, dermatological and many other effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cyperus rotundus. Keywords:- pharmacology, pharmacognosy, medicinal plants, constituents, Cyperus rotundus
[1] Fransworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD and Guo Z. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1985; 63 (6): 965-981.
[2] Fransworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD and Guo Z. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1985; 63 (6): 965-981.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Aloe vera- A review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research 2015; 6(1) : 28-33.
[4] .Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Citrullus colocynthis - A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 57-67.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Medical importance of Cichorium intybus – A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 41-56.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medicinal plants with antidiabetic effects (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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49-61

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06724961
Many previous reviews showed that medicinal plants possessed antidiabetic effects. These plants included: Achillea santolina, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Agrimony eupatoria, Agropyron repens, Allium species, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Althaea officinalis, Anchusa strigosa, Anthemis nobelis, Arctium lappa, Artemisia campestris, Asparagus officinalis, Avena sativa, Ballota nigra, Benincasa hispida, Brassica species, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caesalpinia crista, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Capsicum species, Carthamus tinctorius, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis and Casuarina equisetifolia. This review was designed to highlight the antidiabetic effects of these medicinal plants as a second part of our previous review. Keywords:- antidiabetic, hypoglycemic, glucose, insulin, medicinal plant, herbs
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antidiabetic effects (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 218-229.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Clinically tested medicinal plant: A review (Part 1). SMU Medical Journal 2016; 3(1): 99-128.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Milfoil (Achillea santolina) - A Review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013, 5(3): 1373-1377.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris - A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 106-111.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Agrimonia eupatoria- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 112-117.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medicinal plants with antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

62-82

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06726282
Previous studies showed that a wide range of medicinal plants exerted antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. These plants included: Achillea santolina, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Agrimonia eupatoria, Ailanthus altissima, Alhagi maurorum, Allium cepa, Allium porrum, Allium sativum, Allium schoenoprasum, Alpinia galangal, Althaea officinalis, Ammannia baccifera, Ammi visnaga, Anchusa italica, Anchusa strigosa, Anethum graveolens, Antirrhinum majus, Arachis hypogaea, Arctium lappa, Artemisia campestris, Asparagus officinalis, Astragalus hamosus, Avena sativa, Bacopa monniera, Ballota nigra, Bauhinia variegata, Bellis perenni, Bidens tripartite, Brassica rapa, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caesalpinia crista Calamintha graveolens, Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carthamus tinctorius, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Centaurea cyanus, Chenopodium album and Chrozophora tinctoria. This review was designed to highlight the antioxidant effects of medicinal plants as a second part of our previous review. Keywords: antioxidant, free radical scavenging, medicinal plant, herbs
[1] Orhan IE . Biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites. Bentham ebook, 2012: 107.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Milfoil (Achillea santolina) - A Review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013, 5(3): 1373-1377.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 106-111.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Agrimonia eupatoria- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 112-117.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Ailanthus altissima- Areview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review and Research 2015; 5(2): 121-129.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 7,~Version 3,~July - 2016

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Health-related quality of life of women with nausea and vomiting in pregnancy attending a maternal clinic in Nigeria

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Ahwinahwi Ufuoma Shalom ||, Odili Valentine Uche ||, Elumelu Sabina

Page No.

::

01-06

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067030106
Purpose: This study evaluated the health related quality of life of women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy attending a maternal clinic in Nigeria Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy(NVP) attending ante-natal clinic at a secondary health facility. The NVP-specific quality of life questionnaire developed for women within 12 weeks of pregnancy was used in this study with some modifications. . A total number of 119 women made up the study sample.Datawas analyzed using SPSS version 20.Mean scores were presented with standard deviations and domain scores were compared using the mean transformed scores.Results; One hundred and nineteen pregnant women who had NVP at the time of the study participated in the study The mean total quality of life score was 112.16±33.3 and 53.7% had an average quality of life.Domains on Limitation had a mean transformed score of 27.90 while domain on Fatigue had a mean transformed score of 50.94 depicting better and worse quality of life respectively.Conclusion: The findings showed that women in this locality were able to carry out their normal daily activity irrespective of the impact of nausea and vomiting on them.Members of the healthcare team should however work at improving the quality of life of women with NVP in this locality. Keywords: Health -related quality of life, Nausea, Pregnancy, Vomiting,
[1] O'Brien and Zhou Q.Variables related nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Birth 22, 1995,93-100
[2] Mazzotta P, Steward D, Atanaclovic G, Koren G, Magee LA. Psychosocial morbidity among women with nausea and vomiting: prevalence and association with antiemetic therapy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol 21 ,2000; 129-136
[3] Wodi C, Danborno B, Adebisi S.S, Eze UA. Incidence of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy among Nigerian women. Sch.J.App Med Sc 2(10) , 2014, 413-421
[4] Khanna D, Tsevat J. Health –related quality of life: An introduction . Am J Manag Care. 13, 2007, S218-S223
[5] Geigle r, jones SB. Outcomes measurement: A report from the front, Inquiry 27(1), 1990, 7-13

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Successful Removal of Metal Rings Causing Penile Strangulation

Country

::

USA

Authors

::

Stephanie Purnell ||, Patrick Lam ||, Christina Lipscombe ||, Dynell Pinder ||, Dr.Chiledum Ahaghotu ||, Dr.Pamela Coleman

Page No.

::

07-09

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067030709
While not a new phenomenon, genital incarceration or strangulation is an infrequent urological emergency. Incarceration occurs due to constriction of the genitals by a device such as a metal ring, rubber ring, or rubber band. Localized edema, superficial ulcers, and skin loss are the most common complications of strangulation, but with prompt attention to the injury, patients can have an excellent prognosis. While the technique used to remove the constriction device varies, the urologist should act swiftly but prudently to decompress the genitals. Our case report discusses the epidemiology and anatomy of genital incarceration by two metal cock rings, as well as a novel and safe approach, using the Midas Rex orthopedic drill, to remove the metal rings from the base of the patient's penis and scrotum. Keywords – Genital incarceration, urological emergency, constriction device, decompression, how-to-guide
[1]. Detweiler, M. Penile incarceration with metal objects a review of procedure choice based on penile trauma grade. Scand J Urol Nephr 2001, 35, 212-217. [2]. Katz, D, Chin, W, Appu, S, Harper, M, et al. Novel extraction technique to remove a penilconstriction device. J Sex Med (2012);9, 937-940. [3]. Cassidy, D, & Mador, D. Genital incarceration: an unusual case report. Canadian Urological Association Journal 2010;4(3), E76-E78. [4]. Lopes, R. L., Lopes, S. I., & Lopes, R. N. Chronic penile strangulation. International Braz J Urol 2003; 29(4), 327-329 [5]. Silberstein, J, Grabowski, J, Lakin, C., et al. Case reports: Penile constriction devices. J Sex Med 2008; 5(7), 1747-1757

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The Morphological and Immunohistochemical Features of a Pedunculated Vulvar Angiomyofibroblastoma: A Case with Review of Literature

Country

::

USA

Authors

::

Stephanie Purnell ||, Patrick Lam ||, Dynell Pinder ||, Sarah Mohamedaly ||, Christina Lipscombe ||, Dr. Tammey Naab ||, Dr. Bonnie Davis ||, Dr. Pamela Coleman

Page No.

::

10-16

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067031016
Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a rare and benign soft tissue tumor that presents in the vulvovaginal area in women. Numerous entities such as Bartholin's cysts, aggressive angiomyxoma, cellular angiofibroma, fibroepithelial stromal polyps, and superficial myofibroblastoma can also develop in the female genital region and mimic AMF; distinguishing between these lesions can be difficult due to their morphological similarities. Among the tumors mentioned, histological similarities add strain to AMF diagnosis. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical variability that exists within each discrete tumor category makes differentiation arduous. While challenging, it is necessary to diagnose these lesions accurately and hastily as the prognosis for each tumor differs and has influence on treatment measures.
Keywords - Angiomyofibroblastoma, benign mesenchymal tumor, immunohistochemistry, morphology, vulvar tumor
[1] Fletcher C, Tsang W, Fisher C, Lee K, Chan J. Angiomyofibroblastoma of the Vulva. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 1992;16(4):373-382.
[2] Magro, G, Salvatorelli, L, Vecchio, G, Caltabiano, R. Lipomatous angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: diagnostic and histogenetic considerations. Pathologica. 2014;106(4):322-6.
[3] Giannella, L., Costantini, M., Mfuta, K., Cavazza, A., Cerami, L., Gardini, G., & Boselli, F. Pedunculated Angiomyofibroblastoma of the Vulva: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Case Reports In Medicine. 2011;2011:1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/893261.
[4] Omori M, Toyoda H, Hirai T, Ogino T, Okada S. Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: a large pedunculated mass formation. Acta Medica Okayama. 2006;60(4):237-242.
[5] Kumarapeli A, Paczos T, Azabdaftari G. Morphological and Immunohistochemical Features of Angiomyofibroblastoma: A Case Report with Review of the Literature. N A J Med Sci. 2011;4(2):100.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

A review on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Coriandrum sativum

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

17-42

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067031742
The phytochemical screening of Coriandrum sativum showed that it contained essential oil, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acids, sterols and glycosides. It also contained high nutritional values including proteins, oils, carbohydrates, fibers and wide range of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that it possessed anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, memory enhancement, improvement of orofacial dyskinesia, neuroprotective, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antioxidant, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, mutagenic, antimutagenic, anticancer, gastrointestinal, deodorizing, dermatological, diuretic, reproductive, hepatoprotective, detoxification and many other pharmacological effects. The current review was designed to give an overview on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Coriandrum sativum. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Coriandrum sativum.
[1] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacology of Crocus sativus- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 8-38.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and therapeutic importance of Cressa cretica- A review . IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 39-46.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. The Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Cordia myxa- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 47-57.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. The contents and pharmacological importance of Corchorus capsularis- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 58-63.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Convolvulus arvensis and Convolvulus scammonia- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 64-75.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medicinal plants with cardiovascular effects (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

43-62

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067034362
Previous researches revealed that many medicinal plants affected cardiovascular function and can be utilize for therapeutic purposes. This review will highlight the cardiac, cardioprotective, vascular, hypolipidemic, fibrinolytic and anti platelet aggregating of medicinal plants as a second part of our previous review. Keywords: medicinal plants, herbs, cardiac, cardioprotective, vascular, hypolipidemic, fibrinolytic and anti platelet aggregating
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with cardiovascular effects (part 1). Int J of Pharmacology & Toxicology 2015; 5(3): 163-176.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Milfoil (Achillea santolina) - A Review. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2013, 5(3): 1373-1377.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Adonis aestivalis: pharmacological and toxicological activities- A revew. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2016; 6(2): 96-102.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Agrimonia eupatoria- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 112-117.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Detoxification capacity and protective effects of medicinal plants (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

63-84

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067036384
Modern research has shown that a wide range of plants can neutralize or detoxify toxins and protect the body from the toxic effects of drugs and chemicals. These plants included: Agrimonia eupatoria, Alhagi maurorum, Allium sativum, Alpinia galangal, Anchusa strigosa, Arctium lappa, Artemisia campestris, Asparagus officinalis, Astragalus hamosus, Bauhinia variegata, Benincasa hispida, Brassica nigra, Brassica rapa, Bryonia dioica, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caesalpinia crista, Calendula officinalis,Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum frutescens, Carthmus tinctorius, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Celosia cristata and Chenopodium album. This review will highlight the detoxification ability of the medicinal plants especially hepato- and nephro-protective effects of these medicinal plants. Keywords: detoxification, toxins, poisons, plants, herbs, hepatoprotective, renoprotective
[1]. Myo clinic, Nutrition and healthy eating, http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/detox-diets/faq-20058040
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Agrimonia eupatoria- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 112-117.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Alhagi maurorum as a potential medicinal herb: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review and Research 2015; 5(2):130-136.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological effects of Allium species grown in Iraq. An overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and health care Research 2013;1(4):132-147.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological activities of Alpinia galangal - A review. International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars 2014; 3(1-1): 607-614.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Beneficial medicinal plants in digestive system disorders (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

85-92

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067038592
Many plants possessed beneficial effects in gastric diseases especially peptic ulcer diseases and in intestinal disease especially diarrhea and ulcerative colitis, these plants included: Agrimonia eupatoria, Ailanthus altissima, Alhagi maurorum, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Ammannia baccifera, Anchusa italic and Anchusa strigosa, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Asparagus officinali, Asphodelus fistulosus, Avena sativa, Bacopa monnieri, Bauhinia variegate, Bellis perennis, Benincasa hispida, Bidens tripartite, Brassica nigra, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caesalpinia bonducella, Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens, Carthamus tinctorius, Carum carvi and Casuarina equisetifolia. This review was designed to highlight the pharmacological effects of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal diseases as a second part of our previous review. Keywords: herbs, plants, gastrointestinal, peptic ulcer, diarrhea, ulcerative colitis
[1]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Agrimonia eupatoria- A review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2015; 5(2): 112-117.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Ailanthus altissima- A review. International Journal of Pharmacy Review and Research 2015; 5(2):121-129
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Alhagi maurorum as a potential medicinal herb: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review and Research 2015; 5(2):130-136.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Aloe vera- A review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research 2015; 6(1) : 28-33.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological activities of Alpinia galangal - A review. International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars 2014; 3(1-1): 607-614.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Activity of Turbinaria Ornata (Turner) J. Agade Against Blue Tongue Virus (Btv)

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Poonam Sethi

Page No.

::

93-95

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-067039395
A sensitive and accurate method was developed to test the efficacy of the aqueous extract of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh against blue tongue virus using the 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide(MTT) method. The abundance of this algae on the shores during the month of November and no reports so far ,having antiviral activity in addition to this other solvent extracts were toxic to the cell line hence water was selected as the solvent for extraction. On the other hand dextran sulphate was used a positive control and the bioactive compounds efficacy was compared with it. The optical density of formazan was used to determine cell viability. The IC50 values of dextran sulphate and the extracts were found to be nearly similar to those obtained by the plaque reduction method. key words:- mtt, seaweed, bioactive, aqueous extract, formazan,IC50value ,dextran sulphate
[1] De Clercq E. Antiviral drugs in current clinical use. J Clin Virol (2004); 30: 115–133.
[2] Dejonghe, P. and Parkinson, B. Benefits and costs of Vaccination. Vaccine ; (1992) 10: 936.
[3] Hodinka, R. L. What clinicians need to know about antiviral drugs and viral resistance. Infect. Dis. Clin . North. Am.; (1997) 11(45): 945.
[4] Kodama, E., Shigeta, S., Suzuki, T. and De clercq, EApplication of a gastric cancer cell line (MKN –28) for anti-adenovirus screening using the XTT method. Antiviral Res. .; (1996) 1: 159 - 164.
[5] Desselberger, U. Medical virology: a practical approach. (1995) IRL Press, Oxford. NY : 148 – 155.
[6] Mc.Clure, M., Whitby, C., Goderham, A., Radshaw, R., Weber, D.,Cook, R., Keyness, R. and Weiss, R. Dextran sulphate and fucoidan are potent inhibitors of HIV infection in vitro . Antiviral Chem. (1991) ; 2: 149 – 156.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medication adherence and Its Correlates among Diabetic Patients in Central Hospital, warri, nigeria

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Aghoja OC ||, Avwenaghagha HO ||, Ogba ER

Page No.

::

96-103

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-0670396103
Adhering to medication in the course of the treatment of diabetes requires significant patient involvement to maintain appropriate glucose control. Glucose control is directly related to adherence to a variety of treatment regimes, of which medication adherence is one of the most significant, lack of knowledge about the complications of the disease following non adherence and the importance of adhering to the prescribed medication is a barrier to adherence behavior. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of adherence with medications by respondents and to ascertain the reasons for non-adherence. METHODS: A quantitative prospective survey of 300 diabetic patients that attended the Medical Outpatient Department of Central Hospital Warri was undertaken. RESULTS: The study revealed that the level of adherence to anti-diabetic medications was 59.7%. The major reasons for non-adherence were forgetfulness by the respondents to take their medications and high cost of medications. CONCLUSION: The level of adherence among diabetic patients in this study was 59.7% thus indicating the need for patients counseling and education. KEYWORDS: Adherence, diabetes, hospital medication, patients
[1] Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. (1996). Influence of intensive diabetes treatment on quality of life outcomes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care, 19, 195-203.
[2] King H, Aubert R E., Herman W H; Global burden of diabetes 1995-2025: Prevalence, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care; 21:1414-1431.
[3] World health organisation and the International Diabetes Federation: Regional Partners (1999). Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 77:954.
[4] Glasgow, R. E. McCaul, K. D., & Schafer, L. C. (1987). Self-care behaviours and glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 40, 399-412.
[5] American Diabetes Association (2000c). Standards of medial care for patients with diabetes mellitus (Position Statement). Diabetes Care, 23, S32-S42.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Tablets of Felodipine

Country

::

India

Authors

::

S. Sravani ||, Dr.P.Sailaja

Page No.

::

104-112

Paper Index
::
10.9790/3013-06703104112
About 40% of new chemical entities ( NCEs) are lipid soluble and are sparingly soluble in water. So inorder to increase their solubility, bioavailability and dispersibility of the drugs without affecting therapeutic activity of the drug the super disintegrants are used. Felodipine is a BCS class II drug with low solubility and high permeability for which the super disintegrant plantago ovata in the form of mucilage is used to enhance the disintegration,dispersibility and solubility.
[1] Blychert E. (1992). "Felodipine pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration vs effect relationships". Blood Press Suppl. 2: 1-30.
[2] Jawad Kiani, Sardar Z Imam (October 30 2007). "Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs". Nutr J. 6 (33): 33.. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
[3] Hinz B, Auge D, Rau T, Rietbrock _S, Brune K, Werner U. Simultaneous determination of felodipine and three of . its metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 2003;17:268-75. [PubMed]
[4] Legrand E. felodipine in the management of inflammatory pain. Exp Opin Pharmacother. 2004;5:1347-57.
[5] Yong CS, Oh YK, Lee KH, Park SM, Park YJ, Gil YS, et al. Trials of clear felodipine- loaded soft capsules with accelerated oral absorption in human subjects. Int J Pharm. 2005;302:78¬83. [PubMed]