Volume 6 ~ Issue 8,~Version 1,~August - 2016


Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory activities of Rothmannia Longiflora Salisb In Mice And Rats

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Danjuma Mallam ||, Joseph A,Anuka ||, Abdulkadir U,Zezi, ||, Mohammed G,Magaji ||, Ben A,Chindo ||, Mohammed B,Sani

Page No.

::

01-07

Paper Index
::
XXXX
In this study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Rothmannialongiflora were investigated. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant at the doses of 250, 500, and 1000mg/kg orally was evaluated for analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. The methanolic leaf extract exhibited significant dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects comparable to piroxicam (20mg/kg body weight orally), which is a standard analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of Rothmannialongiflora revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids/terpanoids, and carbohydrates. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract in mice and rats were found to be greater than 5000mg/kg, suggesting that the methanolic leaf extract of Rothmannialongiflora is non-toxic. The present findings suggest that the methanolic leaf extract of the plant possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and supports the ethno medical claims of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. Keywords:Acetic acid, anti-inflammatory, formalin test, medicinal plants, RothmannialongifloraSalisb

[1] Almeida, R. N., Navarro, D. S and Barbosa, Filho. J. M. Plants with central analgesic activity.Phytomedicine.2001; 8: 310-322.
[2] Akah. P. A .Nwambie, A.I. Evaluation of Nigerian traditional medicines: plants used for rheumatic disorder. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.1994; 42: 179-182.

[3] Amos, S., Kolawole, E., Akah, P., Wambebe, C.andGamaniel, K.Behavioural effects of the aqueous extract of Guierasenegalensis in mice and rats.Phytomedicine. 2001; 8(5):356-361
[4] Tjolsen, A., Berge, O., Huskaar, S., Rosland, J.H. and Hole, K. The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain.1992; 52:5-17.
[5] Irvine F.R. Woody Plants of Ghana 1st ed. Oxford University Press London. 1961, pp 487

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Enhancement of Dissolution rate of Naproxen by Solid Dispersions with cyclodextrin Complex's

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Dr.Rohini Pilli ||, SDVSKiran Kadali ||, M.V.Nagabhushanam

Page No.

::

08-25

Paper Index
::
XXXX

Naproxen is an anti-inflammatory drug that is poorly soluble in water. This paper describes an approach to improve the dissolution rate of Naproxen by using solid dispersions (SDs) in hydrophilic polymers The solid dispersions prepared with a Co-evaporation, kneaded method & Physical Mixture method using different concentrations of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). The release of Naproxen from various solid dispersions was determined from dissolution studies by use of USP dissolution apparatus.The dissolution study results revealed that there was a considerable increase in solubility of all solid dispersions as compared to pure drug. Prepared Solid dispersions were characterized by DSC, PXRD, IR and SEM images were evaluated for drug content, saturation solubility. Physicochemical characterization of solid dispersions suggests a reduction in drug crystallinity following dissolution enhancement. Results indicate that present %DE 30 of drug was improved from 36.34 to75.04 by the use of Naproxen α-CD-HPMC (1:2:0.3) Kneaded complex.

 

Keywords:Naproxen Solid dispersions, hydrophilic polymers

[1] Chawla A, Sharma P, PawarP,Eudragit S-100 coated sodium alginate microspheres of naproxen sodium: Formulation, optimization and in vitro evaluation,Acta Pharm. 2012 Dec 1;62(4):529-45
[2] Zhu Q, Toth SJ, Simpson GJ, Hsu HY, Taylor LS,Crystallization and dissolution behavior of naproxen/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions.Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2013 Feb 7;117(5):1494-500. [3] Guo Z, Liu XM, Ma L, Li J, Zhang H , Effects of particle morphology, pore size and surface coating of mesoporous silica on Naproxen dissolution rateenhancement.ColloidsSurfaceBiointerfaces. 2013 Jan 1;101:228-35.
[4] Hsu HY, Toth SJ, Simpson GJ, Taylor LS, Harris MT, Effect of substrates on naproxen-polyvinylpyrrolidone solid dispersions formed via the drop printing technique..JournalofPharmaceutical Sciences. 2013 Feb;102(2):638-48. [5] Raijada D, Bond AD, Larsen FH, Cornett C, Qu H,Exploring the solid-form landscape of pharmaceutical hydrates: transformation pathways of the sodium naproxenanhydrate-hydrate system. Journal of Pharma Research. 2013 Jan;30(1):280-9.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Blindness and ocular posterior segment involvement in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease: a mini-review

Country

::

Japan

Authors

::

Toshimasa Nakada

Page No.

::

26-29

Paper Index
::
XXXX

Ocular involvement in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease typically involves the anterior segment of the eye, and its associated treatment outcomes are generally excellent. However, there are rare reports of posterior segment involvement, and these are associated with poorer outcomes. This study reviewed six patients with recently reported blindness and/or ocular posterior segment involvement in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. The median age of these patients was 8.5 years old (range: 6–12 years old). The ocular symptoms were photophobia, reduction of vision, blindness, and ocular pain. Five patients exhibited optic disc involvement and three patients showed retinal vessel involvement. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and two patients received systemic corticosteroid administration. The visual acuity outcomes of treatment were excellent in five of the patients. However, in one patient there was still no light perception in the affected eye at two months after the initial onset of the disease. This was associated with the possible obstruction of the ophthalmic artery due to vasculitis. Older children may have a higher associated risk of blindness and ocular posterior segment involvement in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease.

 

Keywords - Kawasaki disease, Blindness, Ocular complications, Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, Older children

[1] Burns JC, Glod é MP. Kawasaki syndrome, Lancet, 364, 2004, 364:533–544.
[2] Choi HS, Lee SB, Kwon JH, Kim HS, Sohn S, Hong YM. Uveitis as an important ocular sign to help early diagnosis in Kawasaki disease, Korean J Pediatr, 58 (10), 2015, 374–379.
[3] Anand S, Tang YC. Optic disc changes in Kawasaki disease, J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, 41 (3), 2004, 177–179.
[4] Nakada T. Blindness in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease: a case report and review of the literature, Japanese Journal of Pediatrics, 69 (6), 2016, 1045–1050.
[5] Farvardin M, Kashef S, Aleyasin S, Nabavizadeh SH, Sajjadi M, Safari M. Sudden unilateral blindness in a girl with Kawasaki disease, J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus, 44, 2007, 303–304.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Review of current trends in enhancing bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs by liposomal interventions

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Stephen Olaribigbe Majekodunmi

Page No.

::

30-39

Paper Index
::
XXXX
One of the several ways of enhancing the solubility of poorly soluble drugs is liposomes formulations. Research on liposomes formulations has progressed from that of conventional vesicles to new generation liposomes, such as cationic liposomes, temperature sensitive liposomes, and virosomes, by modulating the formulation techniques and lipid composition. Thermosensitive liposomes are also a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. This review is to compare the therapeutic effect of current clinically approved liposome-based drugs with free drugs and summarize the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging is also discussed. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristics of this nanotechnology approach in medicine. Keywords: Temperature sensitive liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, hyperthermia, drug targeting, virosomes
[1] L. Shargel, A. B. Yu, Applied biopharmaceutics & pharmacokinetics (4th edition) New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-0278-4, 1999.
[2] S. I. F. Badawy, M. M. Ghorab, C. M. Adeyeye, Characterization and bioavailability of danazolhydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin coprecipitates. Int. J. Pharm., Vol. 128, No. 1- 2, 1999, 45-54.
[3] A. Arien, C. Goigoux, C. Baquey, B. Dupuy, Study of in vitro and in vivo stability of liposomes loaded with calcitonin or indium in the gastrointestinal tract. Life Sci. 53, 1279–1290, 1993.
[4] A. Arien, N. Henry-Toulmé, B. Dupuy, Calcitonin-loaded liposomes: stability under acidic conditions and bile salts-induced disruption resulting in calcitonin–phospholipid complex formation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1193, 1994, 93–100.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Different subgroups regarding the absence of rescue therapy in intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease

Country

::

Japan

Authors

::

Toshimasa Nakada

Page No.

::

40-47

Paper Index
::
XXXX
The objective of this study is the description of clinical outcomes regarding the absence of rescue therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease. I investigated the clinical outcomes of 33 IVIG-resistant patients who received the initial single IVIG therapy with the delayed use of anti-inflammatory drugs (DUA). These patients were divided into two groups: 11 patients who received rescue therapies (rescue group) and 22 patients who did not receive rescue therapy (non-rescue group). One patient of rescue group developed coronary artery lesions (CAL). None of the patients of non-rescue group developed CAL. The prevalence of persistent fever between rescue and non-rescue groups at 3 days and 4 days after initial IVIG therapy was 100% vs. 77% ( P = 0.144 ) and 100% vs. 18% ( P < 0.001 ), respectively. The C-reactive protein value, neutrophil counts, serum albumin levels, and sodium levels were significantly different between two groups at median 3 days after initial IVIG therapy. Two-thirds of the IVIG-resistant patients diagnosed at 24 h after completion of the initial IVIG therapy with DUA did not develop CAL after 30 days of illness without rescue therapies. The rescue therapy at this time may lead to overtreatment. Keywords - Kawasaki disease, Coronary artery lesions, Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, Immunoglobulin-resistance, C-reactive protein
[1] Burns JC, Glod é MP. Kawasaki syndrome, Lancet, 364, 2004, 533–544.
[2] Research committee of the Japanese Scociety of Pediatric Cardiology; Cardiac Surgery committee for development of guidelines for medical treatment of acute Kawasaki disease. Guidelines for medical treatment of acute Kawasaki disease: report of the Research committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (2012 revised version), Pediatr Int, 56, 2014, 135–158.
[3] Jaggi P, Wang W, Dvorchik I, et al. Patterns of fever in children after primary treatment for Kawasaki disease, Pediatr Infect Dis J, 34, 2015, 1315–1318.
[4] Nakagama Y, Inuzuka R, Taiyu H, et al. Fever pattern and C-reactive protein predict response to rescue therapy in Kawasaki disease, Pediatr Int, 58, 2016, 180–184.
[5] Nakada T. Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, Pediatr Cardiol, 36, 2015, 335–339.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Characterization of Enterococcus species in a tertiary care hospital

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Nautiyal S ||, Jauhari S ||, Joshi G ||, Kataria V.K.

Page No.

::

48-51

Paper Index
::
XXXX

Enterococci are a part of normal intestinal flora of humans and animals but are increasingly being recognized as important human pathogens. Although they cause only a few clinical infections in human beings since the beginning of antibiotic era, they have posed major therapeutic challenges to humans. Material & methods: Various samples coming to Microbiology division of central laboratory such as blood, pus, urine etc. were included in the study. All the essential biochemical reactions needed to establish the identity of Enterococci spp. were put followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: In our study we found the predominance of Enterococcus faecalis followed by E. faecium and E.columbae.44.4 % isolates were recovered from surgery ward predominantly from urine samples. Discussion: The present study was undertaken for phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. Majority of cases belonged to surgery probably due to catheterization, surgical procedures and prolonged hospitalization.

Keywords: Enterococci, VRE, Hospital infection control,

[1]. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA and Yolken RH. Manual of Clinical Microbiology; 8th edt: vol(1).
[2]. Schleifer KH and Kilpper-Balz R.Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the Genus Enterococcus norn. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb. nov. and Enterococcus faecium comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.1984; 34(1): 31-34.
[3]. Schleifer KH and Kilpper-Balz R. Molecular and chemotaxonomic approaches to the classification of Streptococci, Enterococci and Lactococci: A Review. System. Appl. Microbiol. 1987; 10(1): 1-19.
[4]. Mundy LM, Sahm DF and Gilmore M. Relationships between Enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2000; 13(4): 513–522.

[5]. Clewell DB. Movable genetic elements and antibiotic resistance in Enterococci. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect Dis. 1990; 9(2): 90-102.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medicinal plants with central nervous effects (part 2): plant based review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

52-75

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Previous reviews revealed that many medicinal plants affected central nervous functions and can be utilize for therapeutic purposes as antiepileptic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, sedative, anti-Parkinson, antipsychotic, neuroprotective and many other effects. This review will highlight the central nervous effects of medicinal plants as a second part of our previous review. Keywords: medicinal plants, herbs, CNS, antiepileptic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, sedative, anti-Parkinson, antipsychotic, neuroprotective
[1]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of medicinal plants with central nervous effects (part 1). Int J of Pharmacology & Toxicology 2015; 5(3): 177-192.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Encyclopedia of the constituents and pharmacological effects of Iraqi medicinal plants. Vol 1, Rigi Publication, India 2015.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Clinically tested medicinal plant: A review (Part 1). SMU Medical Journal 2016; 3(1): 99-128.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Encyclopedia of the constituents and pharmacological effects of Iraqi medicinal plants. Vol 3, Rigi Publication, India 2016.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Alhagi maurorum as a potential medicinal herb: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review and Research 2015; 5(2):130-136.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Nutritional value and pharmacological importance of citrus species grown in Iraq

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

76-108

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Citrus fruits contained many phytochemicals including essential oils, alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, psoralens, carotenoids with a wide range of nutritional components including vitamins, minerals and trace elements. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that citrus fruits possessed antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insect repellent, antioxidant, anticancer, cardiovascular, central nervous, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, reproductive, gastrointestinal, immunological, respiratory and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents, nutritional value and pharmacological activities of citrus fruits. Keywords: constituents, nutritiona, pharmacology, citrus fruits, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus medica, Citrus medica var. limetta, Citrus sinensis
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with anticancer effects (part 2)- plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(5): 175-193.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity of medicinal plants (part 2) – plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(6): 194-207.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antifungal activity (part 1). Int J of Pharm Rev & Res 2015; 5(3):321-327.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their dermatological effects (part 1). Int J of Pharm Rev & Res 2015; 5(4):328-337.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with anticancer activity (part 1). Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(3): 104-124.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 8,~Version 2,~August - 2016

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk in
Patients with Diabetes: Fact or Fiction?

Country

::

Qatar

Authors

::

Omaima Mahmood ||, Saeed AG Mahmood ||, Zahraa Mohammed

Page No.

::

01-07

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin, or when body
cells cannot use the produced insulin sufficiently (insulin resistance) which consequently causes an elevation of
blood glucose (1).Diabetes affects large population worldwide. According to American Diabetes Association
(ADA), diabetes considered the 7th leading cause of death in US and it accounts for 8.3% of the cases (2). In
addition, It has been reported that there are around 3.5 million people who have been diagnosed with diabetes in
UK in 2015 (3). Diabetes can lead to several complications including macrovascular (neuropathy, nephropathy
and retinopathy) and macrovascular complications (cardiovascular disease, stroke, coronary artery

[1] Jane Kelly. Diabetes. Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDP)[Online]. [Cited 2016 Feb 8]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/media/presskits/aahd/diabetes.pdf
[2] American Diabetes Association. 2014 [cited 2016 Feb 8]. Available from: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/?referrer=https://www.google.com/

[3] Diabetes UK. Diabetes prevalence 2015. Nov 2015 [cited 2016 Feb 8]. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/About_us/What-we-say/Statistics/2015-as-published-2016/
[4] American Diabetes Association. Diabetes complications. 2012 [cited 2016 Feb 8]. Available from:http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications
[5] American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):1-93

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Statistical optimization of bioactive metabolite production from Bacillus cereus NSD 10072 by using low cost substrate

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Namita Singh ||, Rajneesh Jaryal ||, Shweta ||, Anita Devi ||, Suryakant Panchal ||, Pallavi Thakur

Page No.

::

08-15

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Natural bioactive compounds are better than synthesised chemical compound. As the overuse & misuse of certain antibiotics have led to adverse environmental effects and raised public concerns. Bacteria are considered as the most common source of natural bioactive compounds. In the present study isolated bacterial strain Bacillus cereus NSD 10072 had been used. Bacterial strain has antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which act as common human pathogens. Different low cost substrate was used and best growth of the bacterium was found in animal feed supplemented with minimal media. Total organic carbon, Protein and total solid content of substrate used were found 0.0340%, 13.363μg/ml and 0.0466% respectively. Metal ions Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu were found in the substrate by using atomic absorption spectrum. For the isolated strain growth conditions were optimised using response surface methodology. Maximum growth and antibacterial activity was obtained by bacterial strain at 34°C after 54 hrs and at 160 rpm. Hence, the isolated strain is a potent source of antimicrobial activity and can be used in the field of food, feed, cosmetic and preservative industries. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Bacillus, RSM, Pathogen, bioactive compound
[1] K.D. Tripathi, Antimicrobial Drugs: General Considerations. Essential of Medical Pharmacology 6th Edition 2008, 49- 667.
[2] P.M. Finglas, A.J. Wright, C.A. Wolfe, D.J. Hart, D.M. Wright, J.R. Dainty, Is there more to folates than neural-tube defects? ProcNutrSoc62, 2003, 591–598.
[3] J. Berdy, Bioactive microbial metabolites. A personal view.JAntibiot 58, 2005, 1–26. [4] H. Singh, and V.K. Kapoor, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 2nd edition. 2005, Delhi, India: VallabhPrakashan. [5] S. Galdiero, A.Falanga, R. Berisio, P. Grieco, G. Morelli, and M. Galdiero, Antimicrobial peptides as an opportunity against bacterial diseases. Curr. Med. Chem 22(14), 2015, 1665-1677.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Assessment of Anti Hypertensive Drugs In Ckd Patients

Country

::

India

Authors

::

N.Kanaka Durga Devi ||, M.Priyanka ||, A.Swathi ||, Jasti.Krishna Sai ||, K.Naveen Babu

Page No.

::

16-21

Paper Index
::
XXXX

Hypertension is common in hemodialysis patients and can often be difficult to control. Considering the high cardiovascular burden in hemodialysis patients, control of blood pressure is important to improve outcomes. This study is conducted to assess the anti hypertensive drugs treatment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This is a prospective observational study and includes information regarding CKD patients with co-morbidities like T2DM and HTN and it is conducted among 15 patients which were of both males and females of above 20 yrs of age upto 80 yrs. For these 15 patients e GFR is calculated and stage of severity of CKD was found. Patients with T2DM and Hypertensive are mostly diagnosed with CKD. Loop diuretic (Furosemide)+ calcium channel blocker (Amlodipine) this combination is prescribed more which is found to be safe for CKD patients as for this combination dosage adjustment is not required. In our study among 15 CKD patients 7 dialysis patients were included, majority of the patients have controlled SBP with the anti- hypertensive combinations.

Key-words:- Hypertension, CKD patients, T2DM, Hemodialysis, Amlodipine

[1] Semin Dial. Jula K. Inrig. Antihypertensive Agents in Hemodialysis Patients: A Current Perspective. PMC, 201O. 23(3): 290–297.
[2] Knauf H, Cawello W, Schmidt G, Mutschler E. The saluretic effect of the thiazide diuretic bemetizide in relation to the glomerular filtration rate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol1994; 46: 9–13.
[3] Akbari A, Knoll G, Ferguson D, McCormick B, Davis A, Biyani M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in peritoneal dialysis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Peritoneal Dialysis International, 2009, 29(5), 554–561.
[4] Kaissling B, Stanton BA. Adaptation of distal tubule and collecting duct to increased sodium delivery. I. Ultrastructure. Am J Physiol 1988; 255: F1256–F1268.
[5] Hebert LA, Wilmer WA, Falkenhain ME, Ladson-Wofford SE, Nahman NS, Rovin BH. Renoprotection: one or many therapies. Kidney Int 2001; 59: 1211–1226.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluation of patient's knowledge and perceptions regarding generic medicines – pilot study in Saragossa (Spain)

Country

::

Spain

Authors

::

Mar Gimeno ||, Isabel San Gil ||, Dr. Manuel Gómez ||, Laura Lomba

Page No.

::

22-32

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Objective The aim is to review the actual knowledge and perception of generic medicines in Spain to see if more training and information for the patients is necessary. Method Self-administered questionnaires were used to survey the patient's knowledge and perceptions of generic medicines. The questionnaires were built with an expert panel. The pilot was conducted in Saragossa province (Spain). Results Patients with a low educational level and those older than 51 years had a worse attitude to generics regarding their equivalence, quality and efficacy. Also showed the general non-acceptance of the substitution policy switching from branded to generic medicines. Conclusions More educational actions and campaigns directed to patients were shown to be necessary in order to improve the knowledge of generic drugs, specially focused on groups with negative perceptions. Practice implications Educational activities, direct and individual about security and efficacy of generic medicines increase its acceptance and appreciation. Health professionals (doctors, pharmacists and nurses) are the ones in the best position to develop this educational work. There is a need of a bigger effort in the country on generics information, especially in the group of older than 50 years old and in the lower education group. KEY WORDS: generic medicine; perception; knowledge; patients; generic substitution.

[1] Strategic Research Center, EAE Business School. [Pharmacy spent in Spain 2013. International evolution and situation from a national point of view]
[2] IMS Health. [Generic medicines market evolution]. 2013.
[3] AESEG, Asociación Española de Medicamentos Genéricos, IMS Health. [Workshop journalists – Generic medicines market] 2010.
[4] IMS Institute. The Global Use of Medicines – Outlook through 2015. 2011.

[5] ARMANDO, P.D. 2007. [ Development and validation of satisfaction surveys of patients with the service of essential pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies] ISBN: 978-84-338-4422-4. Tesis Dr. Farm, Universidad de Granada. Fac. Farmacia.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Knowledge of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)and its Management: A Survey among Saudi People in Taif; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Country

::

Saudi Arabia

Authors

::

Abuabker Elbur ||, Abdulrahman Aljuaid ||, Nawaf Hasan Almalki

Page No.

::

33-39

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Assessment of the public general knowledge on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome is crucial to the development of health policies for containment of the disease. Objectives: To measure the level of public knowledge on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and to identify its predicators. Methods: A cross –sectional survey was conducted during October – November 2015,whereby adult (> 18 years old) Saudi people residing in Taif Area were recruited. Convenience method of sampling was adopted. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interview method was used to collect the data. Data was processed and analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21). Logistic regression analysis was performed. P value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
[1] Al-Tawfiq JA, Zumla A, Gautret P, Gray GC, Hui DS , Al-Rabeeah AA, Ziad A Memish ZA, Surveillance for emerging respiratory viruses The Lancet Infectious Diseases .2014; 14 : 992 – 1000.
[2] WHO. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Fact sheet N°401 June 2015. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/mers-cov/en/. Last accessed 24.Feb 2016.
[3] Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in SaudiArabia. N Engl J Med.2012; 367:1814-1820.
[4] Alghamdi IG, Hussain II, Almalki SS, Alghamdi MS, Alghamdi MM, El-Sheemy MA. The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health. Int J Gen Med. 2014; 7: 417–423.
[5] Saudi Ministry of Health Command and Control Center. http://www.moh.gov.sa/en/CCC/PressReleases/Pages/default.aspx. Last accessed 24.Feb 2016.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Human Body Fluid Ions In colchicine complexes ESI MS, MADLI MS, Spectroscopic, DFT Studies and Fungicidal Activity of colchicine complexes With Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and calcium carbonates and Sulphates

Country

::

Poland

Authors

::

Joanna Kurek ||, Grażyna Bartkowiak ||, Wojciech Jankowski ||, Patrycja
Kwaśniewska-Sip ||, Grzegorz Schroeder ||, Marcin Hoffmann ||, Grzegorz Cofta ||,
Piotr Barczyński

Page No.

::

40-55

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Colchicine is an alkaloid characterised by good water solubility. After administration of colchicine as
a medicine for example for the treatment of gout, colchicine probably forms some more or less stable structures
with cations and/or anions present in human body fluid. The colchicine complexes with Na+, K+ Mg2+ and Ca2+
cations of sulphates and carbonates have been synthesized and studied by ESI MS, MALDI MS, 1H and 13C
NMR, FT IR DFT calculations and also have been tested against fungicidal activity. Salts of good solubility in
water have been chosen, like Na2SO4, K2SO4, Na2CO3, K2CO3, MgSO4 and CaSO4. It has been shown that
colchicine forms stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry with monovalent and divalent metal cations. For K+ and
Na+ cations also formation of 2:1 stoichiometry complexes has been detected. Colchicine with sodium sulphate
forms much more complicated structures of 1:2:1 and 2:2:1 stoichiometry in which sulphate anion is involved.
Colchicine complexes have fungicidal activity.
Keywords - complexes of colchicine with monovalent and divalent metal cations, DFT, fungicidal activity of
colchicine complexes, spectroscopic studies (ESI MS, MALDI MS, NMR, FT IR)
[1] A. Brossi, H.J. Yeh, M. Chrzanowska, J. Wolff, E. Hamel, C.M. Lin, F .Quin, M. Suffness and J. Silverton, Colchicine and its analogues: Recent findings, Med. Res. Rev. 8, 1988, 77-87.
[2] M. Klintscher, C. Beham – Schmidt, H. Radner, G. Henning, P. Roll, Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects, Forensic Sci. Int. 106, 1999, 191-198.
[3] J.W. Cook, J.D. Loudon, The alkaloids vol. 2 (Academic Press, New York, 1952).
[4] M. Schonharting, G. Mende, G. Siebert, Hoppe – Seyler's Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie. 355, 1974, 1991-1999.
[5] F. Roubille, E. Kritikou, D. Busseuil, S. Barrère-Lemaire and J.C. Tardif, Colchicine: An Old Wine in a New Bottle? Anti-Inflam & Anti-Allergy. Agents Med. Chem. 12, 2013, 14-23.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern in Surgical PatientsAdmitted to Intensive Care Unit, Northwest Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Country

::

Saudi Arabia

Authors

::

Ibrahim Albalawi

Page No.

::

56-60

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Antimicrobial resistance is challenging for the health care professionals especially in intensive care unit. Most of the hospitals in developing countries yet to understand this phenomenon in order to succeed in antimicrobial therapy among the critically ill patients. The present study aimed to investigate the commonly available bacteria in ICU and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of those bacteria in King Khalid Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study has recruited 85 surgical patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and bacterial isolation was carried out from their blood samples. Over all, gram negative bacteria is most common isolated in the study site (54%). However, 42% staphylococcus was isolated from the blood culture of the study population. Gram negative bacteria divided into two categories as enterobacteriaceae species and non- enterobacteriaceaespecies. Staphylococcus species is the most common isolated bacteria found to have higher sensitive to ceftriaxone, aztreonam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, colisitin, amikacin, cefepime, nitrofurantoin;however, high resistance was evident tocarbapenemantimicrobials (meropenem, ertapenem, imipenem) and fluroquinolones.Acinetobacter second common isolated bacteria only sensitive to colistin and sulphamethoxazole + trimethoprim antimicrobials. Antimicrobials sensitivity pattern highly differs between enterobacteriaceae and non-enterobacteriaceae bacteria's. Hence, the careful selection of antimicrobials is recommended in order to succeed in antimicrobial therapy. Keywords: Antimicrobials, sensitivity, resistance.
[1] Jones MDE, Draghi DC, Thrornsberry C, Karlowsky JA, Sahm DF, Wenzel RP. Emerging resistance among bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit – a European and North American surveillance study (2000 – 2002). Ann ClinMicrobiolAntimicrob 2004;3:14.
[2] BronzwaerSl, Cars O, Buchholz U, Molstad S, Goettsch W, Veldhuijzen IK. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Emer Infect Dis 2002;8:278:278-282.
[3] Hadi U, Duerink DO, Lestari ES, Nagelkerke NJ, Keuter M, Huis Veld D. Audit of antimicrobials prescribing in two governmental teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Clin microbial Infect 2008;14:698-707.
[4] Vincent JL, Rello J, Marshall J, Silva E, Anzueto A, Martin CD. International study of the prevalence and outcomes of infection in intensive care units. JAMA 2009;302(21):2323-2329.
[5] Kollef MH, Fraser VJ. Antimicrobials resistance in intensive care unit setting. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 298-314.