Volume 7 ~ Issue 2,~Version 1,~February - 2017


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility ofCandida Species Isolated from Clinical Specimens at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

Country

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Africa

Authors

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Kelvin L. Sarenje ||, Chileshe Lukwesa-Musyani ||, James C. L. Mwansa ||, Mulemba T. Samutela ||, Annie Kalonda ||, Trevor Kaile ||, John Mwaba ||, Geoffrey Kwenda

Page No.

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01-09

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:Candida species have emerged as successful pathogens worldwide and are associated with immunocompromised patients. Additionally, there is increasing resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents, and this has greatly contributed to the high morbidity and mortality amongst affected patients. In Zambia, little is known about the distribution of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility patterns. Speciation of Candida species is important as knowledge of the infecting species is important for guiding therapy. The objective of this study was, therefore, to characterise Candida species isolated from different clinical specimens at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka.
[1] Van de Veerdonk, F. L., Netea, M. G., Jooten, W. M. and Kullberg. Novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of Candida infection. Federation of European Microbiologicalsocieties.2010;34: 1063-1075.
[2] Kumamoto, C. A., Bruzual, I. and Pierce, J. C.Immunosensing during colonisation by Candida albicans. Journal of Trends in Microbiology.2011;19: 263-267.
[3] Ruhnke, M., Paiva, J., Grigos, I., Miller, P., Marcek, T. and Kantechi, M. (2011).Anidulation for candidaemia in non-neutropenic intensive care unit patients.Journal of Critical Care, 15: 240.
[4] Udayalaxmi, Shani, J. and Diney, D. Comparison between virulence factors of Candidaalbicans and non-albicans species of Candida isolated from genitourinary tract. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research.2014;8: 15-17.
[5] Williams, D. W., Kuriyama, T., Silva, S. and Micheal, A. Candida biofilm and oral candidiasis: treatment and prevention. Journal of Periodontology.2011;55: 250-265.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A review on Dodonaea viscosa: A potential medicinal plant

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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10-21

Paper Index
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XXXX
The chemical analysis of Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae), revealed that the plant contained alkaloids, flavonoids, fixed oil and fat, steroids, phenolics, saponins, tannins, gums, mucillages, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, glycosides and trace elements. The pharmacological studies showed that Dodonaea viscosa possessed antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antifertility, wound, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcer, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal and detoxification effects. This review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dodonaea viscosa. Keywords: chemical, constituents, pharmacology, Dodonaea viscosa
[1] Orhan IE . Biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites. Bentham ebook 2012: 107.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 257-270.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antidiabetic effects (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 218-229.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The pharmacology and medical importance of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus)- A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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22-30

Paper Index
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XXXX
The phytochemical analysis of Dolichos lablab showed that it contained sugar, alcohols, phenols, steroids, essential oils, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, terpenoids, pigments, glycosides, anthnanoids, wide range of minerals and many other metabolites. The preliminary pharmacological studies revealed that Dolichos lablab possessed antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective, antilithiatic, antispasmodic effects and also used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Dolichos lablab. Keywords: chemical, constituents, pharmacology, Dolichos lablab, Lablab purpureus
[1] Davidson-Hunt I. Ecological ethnobotany: stumbling toward new practices and paradigms. MASA J 2000; 16: 1–13. [2] Al-Snafi AE. A review of medicinal plants with broncho-dilatory effect-Part 1. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy, 2015; 5(7): 297-304.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with central nervous effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(8): 52-75.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Adonis aestivalis: pharmacological and toxicological activities- A revew. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2016; 6(2): 96-102.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and therapeutic importance of Cressa cretica- A review . IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(6): 39-46.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The pharmacology of Equisetum arvense- A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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31-42

Paper Index
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XXXX
The previous studies revealed that Equisetum arvense contained alkaloids, carbohydrate, proteins and amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, sterols, ascorbic acid, silicic acid, phenol , tannin, flavonoids, triterpenoids, volatile oils and many other biological active constituents. The pharmacological studies showed that it possessed antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, smooth muscle relaxant effects of the vessels and ileum, anticonvulsant, sedative, anti-anxiety, dermatological immunological, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, diuretic, inhibition of platelet aggregation, promotion of osteoblastic response, anti-leishmanial, and many other effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Equisetum arvense. Keywords: constituents, chemical, pharmacology, Equisetum arvense
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with anticancer effects (part 2)- plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(5): 175-193.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity of medicinal plants (part 2) – plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(6): 194-207.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with antidiabetic effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(7): 49-61.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(7): 62-82.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Medical importance of Datura fastuosa (syn: Datura metel) and Datura stramonium - A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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43-58

Paper Index
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XXXX
The preliminary phytochemical investigation was performed on methanolic and hydroalcoholic extract of Datura fastuosa (syn: Datura metel) revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and phenolic compounds, while, phytochemical analysis of Datura stramonium showed that it contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides. The previous pharmacological studies of Datura fastuosa showed that it possessed antimicrobial insecticidal, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, neurological, wound healing, reproductive and antispasmodic, while Datura stramonium exerted Antiepileptic, Anti-asthmatic, analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal, repellent and organophosphate protective effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Datura fastuosa and Datura stramonium. Keywords: chemical constituents, pharmacology, Datura fastuosa, Datura metel, Datura stramonium
[1] Davidson-Hunt I. Ecological ethnobotany: stumbling toward new practices and paradigms. MASA J 2000; 16: 1–13.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 257-270. http://www.ajpst.com/File_Folder/257-270(ajpst).pdf
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284. http://www.ajpst.com/File_Folder/271-284(ajpst).pdf
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248. http://www.ijpsrjournal.com/File_Folder/240-248.pdf
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232. http://www.ijpsrjournal.com/File_Folder/220-232(ijpsr).pdf

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dalbergia sissoo - A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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59-71

Paper Index
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XXXX
Previous studies showed that Dalbergia sissoo exerted antimicrobial, neural, cardiac, antioxidant, antiparasitic,antidiabetic,anti-inflammatory,analgesic, Osteogenic, dermatological, gastrointestinal, reproductive and many other effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dalbergia sissoo. Keywords:- chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, Dalbergia sissoo
[1] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248. http://www.ijpsrjournal.com/File_Folder/240-248.pdf
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with antidiabetic effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(7): 49-61. http://www.iosrphr.org/papers/v6i7V2/F06724961.pdf
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy 2016; 6(7): 62-82. http://www.iosrphr.org/papers/v6i7V2/G06726282.pdf [4] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with antimicrobial activities (part 2): Plant based review. Sch Acad J Pharm 2016; 5(6): 208-239. http://saspublisher.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/SAJP-56208-239.pdf [5] Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants with cardiovascular effects (part 2): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(7): 43-62. http://www.iosrphr.org/papers/v6i7V3/E067034362.pdf

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Nutritional and therapeutic importance of Daucus carota- A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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72-88

Paper Index
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XXXX
Phytochemical analysis showed that the root of Daucus carota contained alkaloids, carbohydrates, chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, phenols, essential oil, terpenoid and coumarin. The nutritional analysis of carrot juice showed that the juice contained: protein 1.067 ± 0.058%, crude fat 0.367 ± 0.089%, crude fibre 1.167 ± 0.153%, carbohydrates 6.100 ± 0.346%, many vitamins and minerals. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant possessed cytotoxic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, smooth muscle relaxant, hypotensive effect and decrease intraocular pressure, gastro-protective, nephro-protective, hepato-protective, cardio-protective antidepressant memory enhancement, anti-inflammatory, reproductive, wound healing and hear induction and many other effects. The current review highlights the chemical constituents, nutritional and pharmacological effects of Daucus carota. Keywords: constituents, nutritional, therapeutic, pharmacology Daucus carota.
[1] Davidson-Hunt I. Ecological ethnobotany: stumbling toward new practices and paradigms. MASA J 2000; 16: 1–13.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Nutritional value and pharmacological importance of citrus species grown in Iraq. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(8): 76-108. http://www.iosrphr.org/papers/v6i8V1/H0680176108.pdf
[3] Al-Snafi AE. The nutritional and therapeutic importance of Avena sativa - An Overview. International Journal of Phytotherapy 2015; 5(1): 48-56. http://www.phytotherapyjournal.com/File_Folder/48-56(phytothearpy).pdf
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 257-270. http://www.ajpst.com/File_Folder/257-270(ajpst).pdf
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284. http://www.ajpst.com/File_Folder/271-284(ajpst).pdf

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Primary Care Physicians Regarding Common Dermatological Disorders in Abha City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Dr Mohammed Abdullah A Al-Zahrani ||, Professor Shamsun Nahar ||, Dr Sami Abdullah Al-Zahrani ||, Dr Ramzy Ahmed Al-Zahrni

Page No.

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89-110

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:-Majorityof skin diseases are not life threatening, but the psychological effects of relativelyminor skin abnormalities can often cause more distress to the patients than other more serious medical disorders. As medical knowledge expands, family physicians face an ever-increasing challenge in diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders. Objectives:To assess knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) among primary health care providers (PHCP) in Abha City regarding Common dermatological problems and correlate their level of knowledge and practice gap with their background characteristics.
[1] Rea JN, Nehouse ML, Halil T. Skin disease in Lambeth: a community study of prevalence and use of medical care. Br J PrevSoc Med. 1976; 30:107–14.
[2] Diepgen TL, Mahler V. The epidemiology of skin cancer, Br J Dermatol. 2002; 146(suppl.):1–6.
[3] Ryan TJ. Disability in dermatology. Br J Hosp Med. 1991;46:33–6.
[4] Fritsch P, Burgdorf W, Murphy G, RING J. Skin diseases in Europe. Eur J Dermatol 2006; 16 (2): 209-18
[5] Williams H, Svensson A, Diepgen Th, Naldi L, Coenraads PJ, Elsner P, et al. Epidemiology of skin diseases in Europe. European Journal of Dermatology. 2006; 16(2):209-14,

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development and validation of a LC-UV Method Applied to the
Quality Control of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Raw Material and
Pharmaceutical Formulations

Country

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Argentina

Authors

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Oriana Boscolo ||, Sabrina Flor ||, Cecilia Dobrecky ||, Leandro Salvo ||, Valeria
Tripodi ||, Silvia Lucangioli

Page No.

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111-116

Paper Index
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XXXX
A simple, fast, and sensitive HPLC method with UV detection has been developed for the quantitation
of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in raw material and pharmaceutical formulation (suspension). Cromatographic
conditions were: Symmetry-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, id; particle size 5 μm), 40 ˚C, 100 μL injection
volume and UV detection at 200 nm. The flow rate was 1 ml/min using acetonitrile - phosphoric acid (pH 3.0;
0.15mM) (48:52) as mobile phase. The method was validated according to international guidelines (ICH
guidelines) for specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The HPLC-UV method
was found to be suitable for the quality control of UDCA raw material and pharmaceutical formulation.
Keywords: ursodeoxycholic acid, HPLC-UV, quality control, pharmaceutical formulation, raw material

[1] A Roda, A Giocchini, A Manetta, C Cerré, M Montagnani, and A Fini, Bile acids: physico-chemical properties, function and activityNo Title, J. Gastroenterol., 27, (6), 1995, 327–331.

[2] SE Lucangioli, CN Carducci, VP Tripodi, and E Kenndler, Retention of bile salts in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: Relation of capacity factor to octanol-water partition coefficient and critical micellar concentration, Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 765, (2), 2001, 113–120.

[3] A Hofmann, Pharmacology of ursodeoxycholic acid, an enterohepatic drug., Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement, 204, 1994, 1–15.

[4] J Reardon et al., Ursodeoxycholic acid in treatment of non-cholestatic liver diseases: A systematic review, Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology, 4, 2016, 192–205.

[5] United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Monographs Ursodiol, The United States Pharmacopeia, 37th Edition, 2014, 5095–5097.