Volume 7 ~ Issue 5,~Version 1,~May - 2017


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pioglitazone versus metformin in Egyptian non diabetic patients with Non Alcholic Fatty Liver Disease: A randomized controlled trial

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Sahar K. Hgazy ||, Mamdouh A. Gabr ||, Nahla E. El-Ashmawy ||, Maha A. Younis

Page No.

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01-08

Paper Index
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XXXX
NAFLD is estimated to be the most common cause of chronic liver disease and there are increasing rates of NASH-related liver transplantation. This study evaluates the effect of two different insulin sensitizers, pioglitazone and metformin, on liver fat content, lipolysis and insulin sensitivity in Egyptian patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease. Forty Egyptian patients with fatty liver were enrolled in a six-month prospective study. The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics of Department of Internal Medicine, Tanta University Hospitals with ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver. The patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group I (pioglitazone group) was treated by 45 mg pioglitazone/day and Group II (metformin group) was treated by metformin 20mg/kg/day. A third group of healthy subjects served as control group.The study indicated that both antihyperglycemic drugs decreased homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (p<0.01), plasma free fatty acids (p<0.01) and liver fat content(p<0.01) associated with improvement of hyperechogenicity in liver ultrasound in both the pioglitazone group (p<0.001) and the metformin group (p=0.47). Both treatments also improved serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (p<0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.01), high density lipoprotein–cholesterol (p<0.01) and adiponectin (p<0.01).The insulin sensitizers pioglitazone and metformin exhibited a beneficial role in management of NAFLD. Meanwhile, pioglitazone was superior to metformin in improving liver stestosis and could provide a therapeutic option to guard against disease complications.
[1] Ahmed M. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2015. World J Hepatol 2015;7:1450-1459
[2] Hashimoto E, Tokushige K, Ludwig J. Diagnosis and classification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Current concepts and remaining challenges. Hepatol Res2015;45:20–28
[3] Streba LAM, Vere CC, Rogoveanu I et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic risk factors, and hepatocellular carcinoma: An open question. World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:4103-4110
[4] Takahashi Y, Sugimoto K, Inui H et al. Current pharmacological therapies for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/ nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol 2015;21:3777-3785
[5] Schwenger KJP, Allard JP. Clinical approaches to non alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:1712-1723

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Devolution of Public Health care Services in Kenya and its Implication on Universal Health Coverage

Country

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Africa

Authors

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Timothy C. Okech, PhD

Page No.

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09-23

Paper Index
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XXXX
Quality and affordable health services at a health facility and access toward the same by those who need continue to be pursued by Kenya government as progress towards achieving Universal health coverage. The government has over the years endeavored to provide a strong, efficient and a well-run health system with sufficient capacity of well-trained, motivated health workers and a system for financing health services. This is evidenced in the various policies and strategies including devolution of public health care to county governance units. In the paper, an empirical analysis is undertaken to provide situational analysis on how these initiatives particularly has impacted on universal health coverage in terms of health equity concerns of access, quality of care, distribution of health resources including health workers, finance and infrastructure, among others. To accomplish this, both primary and secondary data were collected. Whereas secondary data was collected from published documents and reports, primary data was collected through in-depth interviews with key stakeholders
[1] Bernard F. C., (2012) ―Decentralisation and Governance in the Ghana Health Sector‖,. The International Bank for Reconstruction, The World Bank, Washington
[2] Bultman, Jan (2014): Kenya. Health Financing Strategy Development. Options for Reform and choices to be made
[3] GoK (1999), Kenya National Health Sector Strategic Plan (KHSSP) I, Government Printers, Nairobi
[4] GoK (2007), Kenya Vision 2030, Government Printers, Nairobi
[5] GoK (2010a), The Constitution, Government Printers, Nairobi

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The study of "budget impact" of antiglaucoma medicines, recommended for inclusion in formulary and insurance lists

Country

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Ukraine

Authors

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Makarenko O. V. ||, Kryvoviaz O. V. ||, Kryvoviaz S. O.

Page No.

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24-27

Paper Index
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XXXX
As a pathology that requires lifelong treatment, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) causes significant increase in direct (pharmacotherapy) and indirect costs (associated with partial or complete disability of patients with POAG). The work presents the results of pharmacoeconomic "budget impact" analysis of antiglaucoma medicines (AGMs), recommended for inclusion in the formulary (FL) and insurance (IL) lists of pharmaceutical servicing patients with POAG on the basis of results obtained from previous studies. The "budget impact" analysis is an important part of integrated pharmacoeconomic evaluation of the health care system with the results needed by public funding bodies, namely for compensation of costs for pharmacotherapy to patients and approval of documents for refunding. The results of pharmacoeconomic study of POAG treatment with medications, recommended for inclusion in FL and IL, allowed to indicate the POAG treatment regimens, which help not only save costs in context of perspective of budget impact, but also provide significant advantage in achievement of target intraocular pressure (IOP) (characterized by the lowest "cost-efficacy" rate); POAG pharmacotherapy regimens is considered cost-effective, which, requiring additional costs nevertheless provides greater efficacy in lowering IOP; dominant schemes, switching to which requires additional costs.
[1] Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness: action plan 2006–2011, Available at: http://www.who.int /blindness/Vision2020_report.pdf
[2] S. V. Zbitneva, Zahvoruvanist' naselennia Ukrainy na hvoroby oka ta iiogo prydatkovoho aparatu, Visnyk social'noii hihieny ta organizacii ohorony zdoroviia Ukraiiny, 3, 2010, 14-18.
[3] O. V. Kryvoviaz, Farmakoterapiia hlaukomy: suchasnyi stan problemy, Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia, 4–5 (35), 2013, 3–13.
[4] Primary open-angle glaucoma. Adapted clinical guidelines based on evidence (2011). Available at: http://www.dec.gov.ua/mtd/dodatki/816/816dod4_2.doc.
[5] O. Kryvoviaz, Antiglaucoma pharmacotherapy: analysis of treatment regimens and efficacy indicators, Science Rise, 3/4 (20), 2016, 46–50.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Hydrated Solid Forms of Theophylline and Caffeine Obtained by Mechanochemistry

Country

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México

Authors

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Juan Saulo González-González ||, Oscar Zúñiga-Lemus ||, María del Carmen Hernández-Galindo

Page No.

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28-30

Paper Index
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XXXX
Caffeine and theophylline are methyl-xantine drugs, which are affected by water leading to their hydrated forms. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrated forms of caffeine and theophylline by mechanochemistry. The obtained products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The infrared spectra and diffractograms of the ground products were similar to the reported for caffeine and theophylline hydrates.
[1] N. Schultheiss, and A. Newman, Pharmaceutical Cocrystals and Their Physicochemical Properties, Crystal Growth & Design, 9(6), 2009, 2950-2967.
[2] M.E. Aulton, Pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design (Edinburgh, NY: Churchill Livingstone, 2002).
[3] F. Tian, H. Qu, A. Zimmermann, T. Munk, A.C. Jorgensen, J. Rantanen, Factors affecting crystallization of hydrates, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 62, 2010, 1534-1546.
[4] A.V. Yadav, A.S. Shete, A.P. Dabke, P.V. Kulkarni, S.S. Sakhare, Co-crystals: A novel approach to modify physicochemical properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients, Indian Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71(4), 2009, 359-370.
[5] K. Izutsu, T. Koide, N. Takata. Y. Ikeda, M. Ono, M. Inoue, T. Fukami, E. Yonemochi, Characterization and Quality Control of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 64(10), 2016, 1421-1430.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Malignancy-associated Hypercalcemia: role of Denosumab

Country

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Italy

Authors

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Angelo Michele Carella ||, Teresa Marinelli ||, Armando Melfitano ||, Angelo Benvenuto

Page No.

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31-33

Paper Index
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XXXX
Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic disorder in patients with malignant diseases; it is primarily associated with multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancy, but hypercalcemia is also found in advanced solid cancers, particularly squamous cell cancer as lung cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, kidney and prostate cancer [1]. Frequent clinical manifestations of malignancy-related hypercalcemia are: nausea, vomiting, ileus, anorexia, dehydration, renal failure, muscle weakness, psychosis, lethargy, coma, and cardiac abnormalities as short QT interval and atrial or ventricular arrhythmia [2]. At least two main mechanisms can be responsible for hypercalc

1] Stewart AF. Clinical practice. Hypercalcemia associated with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:373-379.
[2] Inzucchi SE. Understanding hypercalcemia. Its metabolic basis, signs, and symptoms. Postgrad Med. 2004;115(4):69–70, 73–6.
[3] Clines GA. Mechanisms and treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011;18:339-346.
[4] Burtis WJ, Brady TG, Orloff JJ, et al. Immunochemical characterization of circulating parathyroid hormone-related protein in patients with humoral hypercalcemia of cancer. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(16):1106–1112.

[5] Seymour JF, Gagel RF. Calcitriol: the major humoral mediator of hypercalcemia in Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Blood. 1993;82(5):1383–1394.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Assessment of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Saudi Arabia

Country

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USA

Authors

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Bander Balkhi ||, Ahmad Alghamdi ||, Nasser Alshehri ||, Abdulrahman Alshehri

Page No.

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34-40

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background: Job dissatisfaction at work has been associated with low productivity, absenteeism, high turnover, and workers reducing their hours. Little is known about job satisfaction among pharmacists in Saudi Arabia and why they are leaving their profession. This study aims to assess job satisfaction status among Saudi pharmacists working in different practice sites in Saudi Arabia and to explore factors associated with job satisfaction among pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pharmacists working in government and private hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Results: A total of 122 pharmacists answered the survey, of which 42.98% were satisfied with the size of their work place and stated it was large enough to perform their job, and 47.11% were satisfied regarding having access to computer resources such as Internet and pharmaceutical references. The main factors for job satisfaction were salary, workload, work environment, training and education opportunities, promotion, and incentives.
[1] Cooper, C.L., Rout, U., Faragher, B., 1989. Mental health, job satisfaction, and job stress among general practitioners. BMJ 298, 366–70.
[2] Faragher, E.B., Cass, M., Cooper, C.L., 2005. The relationship between job satisfaction and health: a meta-analysis. Occup. Environ. Med. 62, 105–12.
[3] Clegg, C.W., 1993. Psychology of employee lateness, absence and turnover. J. Appl. Psychol. 68, 88–101.
[4] Freeman, R.B., 1978. Job satisfaction as an economic variable. Am. Econ. Rev. 93, 135–41.
[5] Lichenstein, R.L., 1998. The job satisfaction and retention of physicians in organized settings: a literature review. Med. Care 41, 139–179.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Patterns of Routine Antenatal Laboratory Test Results at Booking in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Innocent IgwebuezeOkafor ||, Boniface UwaezuokeOdugu ||, EdmundOnyemaechiNdibuagu

Page No.

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41-48

Paper Index
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XXXX
Objectives: To determine the patterns of routine antenatal care laboratory test results at booking in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH), Enugu, and to review the literature on the subject. Methods: The registers for the results of routine laboratory tests at booking in ESUTH, Enugu were reviewed from April 1, 2014 to August 31, 2016. Data on age, blood group, rhesus status, hemoglobin genotype, packed cell volume; human immunodeficiency virus screening (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) tests at booking were collected and analyzed with Excel 2007 software. The results were presented in tables, percentages and graphs.

[1]. Lassiet al (2014). Essential interventions for maternal, newborn and child health: background and methodology. Reproductive Health 2014,11(Suppl 1):S1 http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/11/S1/S1
[2]. Tunçalp Ö, Were WM, MacLennan C, Oladapo OT, Gülmezoglu AM, Bahl R et al. Quality of care for pregnant women and newborns-the WHO vision. BJOG. 2015;122(8):1045–9.doi:10.1111/1471-0528.13451.
[3]. Alkema L, Chou D, Hogan D, Zhang S, Moller A-B, Gemmill A et al.; United Nations Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group collaborators and technical advisory group. Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group. Lancet. 2016;387(10017):462–74. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00838-7.

[4]. Maternal mortality. Fact sheet No. 348; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014 (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/index.html, accessed 22 June 2014).
[5]. Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth (IMPAC). In: Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health [WHO web page]. Geneva: World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/maternal/impac/en/,
accessed 17 October 2016).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Samples Collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Fardos Bokhari ||, Magda Aly ||, , Amany Al Kelany ||, And Samar Rabah

Page No.

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49-52

Paper Index
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XXXX
Although rumen flora protects dairy animals against exposure to mycotoxins, various mycotoxins can pass this barrier to the animal milk. The major metabolite excreted with milk in dairy sheep, cows and other ruminants is Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). In this connection, 160 milk samples of camel, cow milk, goat, sheep and pasteurized milk samples were collected from different farms and supermarkets of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. For mycotoxins detection, all milk samples were screened for Aflatoxin M1 using immunoaffinity columns coupled with a Fluorometer. Out of 160 tested milk samples, 74 (47%) were contaminated with AFM1and the contamination level was less than 0.5 ppm. The less milk contaminated samples with AFM1 were camel milk samples< pasteurized milk< goat milk< sheep milk< cow milk. Out of 32 camel milk samples, 10(31%) were contaminated with AFM1. The quantity of AFM1 detected in camel milk was ranged from 0.017 -0. 140 ppb with mean value of 0.046 ppb which is lower than that of USA recommended limit (0.5 ppb). Statistical analysis showed that camel milk samples were significantly less contaminated compared to other milk samples. On conclusion, all examined milk samples collected from Jeddah were contaminated with AFM1 and the contamination levels were not exceed the USA limit, thus milk is a save food for consummation by human and infants. Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, milk, cow, camel, mycotoxins, immunoaffinity
[1]. Atanda O., A. Oguntubo, O. Adejumo, J. Ikeorah, I. Akpan. 2007. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda, local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Chemosphere 68(8):1455-1458.
[2]. Battacone G., A. Nudda, M. Palomba, M. Pascale, P. Nicolussi, G. Pulina. 2005. Transfer of aflatoxin B1 from feed to milk and from milk to curd and whey in dairy sheep fed artificially contaminated concentrates. J Dairy Sci 88:3063–3069.
[3]. Bellio A., D.M. Bianchi, M. Gramaglia, A. Loria, D. Nucera, S. Gallina, M. Gili and L. Decastelli. 2016. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow's Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy. Toxins 8, 57; doi:10.3390/toxins8030057.
[4]. Bilandzic N., I. Varenina and B. Solomun. 2010. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in Croatia. Food Control 21:1279–1281.
[5]. Boudra J., S. Barnouin, L. Dragacci and D.P. Morgavi. 2007. Aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw bulk milk from French dairy herds. J Dairy Sci 90:3197-3201.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparative Evaluation of Crude Extract Fractions of the Whole Plant of Taxillus heyneanus and Dalechampia indica for Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content

Country

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India

Authors

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S.Sindhura ||, Dr. M. Chinna Eswaraiah

Page No.

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53-60

Paper Index
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XXXX
This study was aimed to investigate the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant potential of ethanolic fraction (ETH&EDI) and chloroform fraction (CTH & CDI) of crude extracts of the whole plant of Taxillus heyneanus (TH) and Dalechampia indica (DI).To achieve this, several parameters such as scavenging activity (DPPH, Hydrogen peroxide and Nitric oxide), Reducing power assay, total flavonoids (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) using ascorbic acid and gallic acid as standard were examined. All the four extract fractions (ETH, CTH. EDI & CDI) exhibited antioxidant activity. However, the ethanolic fraction of T.heyneanus (ETH) presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge all the tested reactive species (DPPH, Hydrogen peroxide, Nitric oxide) with low IC50 values (38.75 ±0.83, 62.67±5.23, 80.89±0.47μg ⁄ ml). It also showed the highest TPC (125.40±5.24 mg GAE/g dry extract) and TFC (89.41 ±1.21 mg RE/g dry extract). The chloroform fraction of D.indica (CDI) showed low TPC (35.29±4.36 mg GAE/g dry extract), TFC (28.52±0.52 mg RE/g dry extract) and scavenging activity with high IC50 values(477.61±0.69, 404.0±1.27 & 505.52±4.83 μg ⁄ml) values for the DPPH, Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. Ethanolic fractions of both plants (ETH & EDI) exhibited significant scavenging activities with good amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compared to its chloroform fractions (CTH & CDI).The results of the study show that ethanolic fraction of Taxillus heyneanus possesses better antioxidant activity compared to the ethanolic fraction of D.indica which could be attributed to the presence of high amount of phenolic and flavonoids. Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Dalechampia indica, Taxillus heyneanus, whole plant
[1]. H. Ahsan, A. Ali, and R. Ali, Oxygen free radicals and systemic autoimmunity, Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 131(3), 2003, 398-404.
[2]. LA. Pham-Huy, H. He, and C. Pham-Huy, Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health, Int J Biomed Sci,, 4(2),2008,89-96.
[3]. P. Pietta, P. Simonetti, and P. Mauri, Antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(11), 1998, 4487- 4490.
[4]. I. Abdul Rahman, H. Tijani, B. Mohammed, H. Saidu, H. Yusuf, M. Jibrin Ndejiko, and S. Mohammed, An overview of natural plant antioxidants, Analysis and evaluation, Advances in Biochemistry, 1(4), 2013, 64-72.
[5]. M. Valko, D. Leibfritz, J. Moncol, MT. Cronin, M. Mazur, and J. Telser, Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease, Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 39(1), 2007,44–84.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Technical Sheet of Valorization of Cashew Apple Juice (Anacardium Occidentale L.) By Association with Passion Fruit Juice (Paciflora Edulis)

Country

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Abidjan

Authors

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Adou Marc || Kouadio Kouadio Olivier|| Kouadio Degbeu Claver

Page No.

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61-64

Paper Index
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XXXX

The sensory analysis of blend juice from cashew apple juice (Anacardium Occidentale L.) and passion juice (Paciflora Edulis) was conducted. Of the three proportions of mixture (v/v), the mixture C (90/10) seems best appreciated by the panelists. This study shows that cashew apple can be valued in juice with better acceptance if mixed with exotic fruit juices such as passion fruit.

Keywords: Cashew apple, juice, panelists, passion fruit, sensory analysis

[1] T.O. Akinwale,. "Cashew apple juice: its use in fortifying the nutritional quality of some tropical fruits," European Food Research and Technology, 211, 2000, 205–207.

[2] S.H. Azam-Ali and E.C. Judge, Small-Scale Cashew Nut Processing. ITDG Schumacher Center for Technology and Development Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby, Warwickhire, UK, 2001, 110p.

[3] J.O. Lawal, O.O. Oduwolé, T.R. Shittu and A.A. Muyiwa, Profitability of value addition to cashew farming households in Nigeria, African Crop Science Journal, 1, 2011, 49-54.

[4] M. Adou, F.A. Tetchi, M. Gbané, K.N Kouassi and N.G. Amani. Physico-chemical characterization of cashew apple juice (Anacardiumoccidentale, L.) from yamoussoukro (Côte d'Ivoire), Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology, 11, 2012, 32 – 43.

[5] M. Adou, D. A. Kouassi, F. A. Tetchi and N. G. Amani,. Phenolic profile of cashew apple juice (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) from Yamoussoukro and Korhogo (Côte d'Ivoire), Journal of Applied Biosciences, 49, 2012, 3331- 3338.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Ochratoxinogenic fungi And Ochratoxin A contamination Of Cocoa Beans

Country

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COTE D'IVOIRE

Authors

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Pierre Manda || Jean V. Ngbé || Aholia J.B. Adepo || Zroh J. Gouet || Bi B.D.H. Youan || Djédjé S. Dano1

Page No.

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65-71

Paper Index
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XXXX
Introduction:Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicilliumfungi. It is a food contaminant found in cereals, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to identify potentially ochratoxinogenic fungi and OTA contamination depending on pod quality and post-harvest operations of cocoa beans.
Methodology: Collected and sorted cocoa pods were divided into four categories depending on their quality (intact, pricked, rotten, and injured). Cocoa bean samples were taken at different steps of production: pod-opening, fermentation, and drying. The molds were identified after growing them on Malt Extract Agar medium. The ochratoxin A was extracted from samples using a mixture of methanol/3% sodium hydrogen carbonate in water (50/50), followed by purification using an immunoaffinity column and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

[1] M. Suarez-Quiroz, O. Gonzalez-Rios, M. Barel, B. Guyot, S. Schorr-Galindo, J. Guiraud,Effect of the post-harvest processing procedure on OTA occurrence in artificially contaminated coffee. International Journal of Food Microbiology103, 2005,339– 345.

[2] K. Jorgensen, Survey of pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses for Ochratoxin A. Food Additives and Contaminants, 15, 1998, 550–554.

[3] B. Sangare-Tigori, S. Moukha, JH. Kouadio, DS. Dano, AM. Betbeder, A. Achour, EE. Creppy,Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côted'Ivoire. Toxicon, 47,2006,894 – 900

[4] E. Chiavaro, A. Lepiani, F. Colla, P. Bettoni, E. Pari, E. Spotti,Ochratoxin A determination in ham by immunoafïinitty clean up and quick fluorimetric method. Food Additives and Contammants, 19, 2002, 575-581