Volume 8 ~ Issue 4,~Version 1,~April - 2018


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Photocatalytic purification of textile wastewater using P-25 TiO2 and Merck ZnO metaloxide nanoparticles

Country

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India

Authors

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Manjusha Kulkarni

Page No.

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01-08

Paper Index
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XXXX

The domestic use and industrial activity, especially in developing countries, produce large amount of wastewater. This wastewater when disposed into natural channels may lead to high pollution risk. The main objective of the present study is to find out effective method which can brings out complete mineralization and degradation of non-biodegradable and toxic organic compounds which are present in real textile effluents. There are different methods for wastewater treatment. Currently chemical methods such as advance oxidation processes (AOPs) appear to be more promising for the treatment of textile industrial effluents. The present work has been concentrated on the degradation of real textile industrial effluent2 (ARV). The said effluent was subjected to photocatalytic treatment using different photo catalysts. The effluent 2(ARV) was analyzed before and after the treatment for their physiochemical parameters, COD, TOC and presence of inorganic ions. Throughout the study it was observed that, Degussa P-25 TiO2 nanoparticles effectively brings out the degradation of effluent 2(ARV) than Merck ZnO nanoparticles. Hence, the photocatalytic degradation was found to be fruitful treatment for degradation of real textile industrial effluent.

 

Keywords: AOPs, Photocatalyst, Degussa P-25, Merck ZnO, Effluent.

[1]. R.Andreozzi, V. Caprio, A. Insola and R. Marotta, Catal. Today, 1999, 53, 51–59.
[2]. Franson H, Standards methods for the examination water and waste water 17 th edition ,American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Stand. Methods, 1999, 541.
[3]. J. R. Domínguez, J. Beltrán and O. Rodríguez, Catal. Today, 2005, 101, 389–395.
[4]. W. Z. Tang, Z. Zhang, M. O. Quintana and D. F. Torres, Environ. Technol., 1997, 18, 1–12.
[5]. H. Y. Chen, O. Zahraa, M. Bouchy, F. Thomas and J. Y. Bottero, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 1995, 85, 179–186.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The evolution of anti tuberculosis treatment in newly diagnosis pulmonary tuberculosis patients

Country

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India

Authors

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Akash Khobragade || Pranali Dinesh Shinde || Sadiq Patel

Page No.

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09-15

Paper Index
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XXXX

Tuberculosis (TB), which is one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans and is likely to have existed in prehominids, is a major cause of death worldwide. This disease is caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and usually affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one third of cases. If properly treated, TB caused by drugsusceptible strains is curable in virtually all cases. If untreated, the disease may be fatal within 5 years in 50 -65% of cases. Transmission usually takes place through the airborne spread of droplet nuclei produced by patients with infectious pulmonary TB. With a population of about 1252 million, India is the largest country in the Region...........

 

Keywords: Tuberculosis, calcium, vitamin D, Protein, albumin.

[1]. India TB burden [Internet]. [cited 2015 Nov 24]. Available from: http://www.searo.who.int/tb/annual-tb-report-2015.pdf [2]. World Health Organization, ―Global tuberculosis control: surveillance, planning and financing,‖ WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009. View at Google Scholar [3]. C. D. Wells, J. P. Cegielski, L. J. Nelson et al., ―HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis—the perfect storm,‖ Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. S86–S107, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus [4]. WHO TB Global report 2015 [Internet]. [cited 2015 Nov 24]. Available from:http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/191102/1/9789241565059_eng.pdf?ua=1 [5]. T. R. Frieden, T. R. Sterling, S. S. Munsiff, C. J. Watt, and C. Dye, ―Tuberculosis,‖ The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9387, pp. 887–899, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Study on Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activity

Country

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India

Authors

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Neelam begum || Prof .A.Prameela Rani

Page No.

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16-22

Paper Index
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XXXX

In recent years much attention was paid on role of polysaccharides isolated from natural sources.This study was carried out to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracted from the green seaweed Cladophora indica Marten (Ci-ps) on collagen induced arthritis. To investigate these effects of Ci-ps of 2 varying test doses (test-200mg/kg , test-400mg/kg ) in comparision to standard dexamethasone ( 0.1 mg/kg/day/po) ,assessment of various parameters such as body weight changes, arthritis index, paw volume and haematological parameters were performed. The body weight was fallen for all the arthritis induced groups, but. Ci-ps of Test -400mg/kg treated group had shown steady increase in bwt throughout the study period................

 

Keywords: Anti-rheumatoid, seaweeds, Green algae, Collagen induced arthritis and polysaccharides

[1]. Ajay D.Kshirsagar,et al.,‖anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of anthraquinone derivatives in rodent‖, International Journal Of inflammation.,volume pp-1-12,2014.
[2]. .Pal, A., Kamthania, M.C. and Kumar, A. ―Bioactive Compounds and Properties of Seaweeds—A Review. Open Access Library Journal, vol 1,N0.4,pp-1-17,2014
[3]. .Kumar, C.S, et al., ―Seaweeds as a Source of Nutritionally Beneficial Compounds—A Review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol.45, 1-13,2008.
[4]. V.K.dhargalkar.,Devanand Kavelkar.,Seaweed aField Manual‖,National institute of oceanography,Donga paula, first edition,2004.
[5]. Hye-Jeong Hwang, et al.,‖ The effect of polysaccharide extracted from the marine algae Capsosiphon fulvescens on ethanol administration‖,Food and Chemical toxicology,vol.46,2653-2657,2008.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antilithiatic Potential Of Herbo-Mineral Formulations Sindhuvallathy Mezhugu(Svm) And Kalladaippu Kudineer (Kk) Against Ethylene Glycol Induced Nephrolithiasis

Country

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India

Authors

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Rajalakshmi K || Jeeva Gladys R || Sukumar R || Logamanian M || Geetha lakshmi S

Page No.

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23-30

Paper Index
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XXXX

Kidney stones are hard masses formed at anywhere in the urinary system, leads to blood in the urine, urinary iritation and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin by multiple causes like concentrated urine, excessive excretion of stone forming agents etc by improper food and lifestyle. Urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal stones, kalladaippu are different terminologies used to mention this multifactorial disorder which has been tormenting mankind from the dawn of civilization. Present day conventional medications and measures for this disease remain unfriendly to mediocre population as they are highly expensive and not free from side effects. The Siddha system of medicine uniquely stands as an ancient heritage of south India and offers enormous herbal and herbo-mineral formulations for the prevention and management of kalladaippu.................

 

Keywords: Siddha, urolithiasis, , kidney stones, nephrolithiasis, kalladaippu. Herbs, Traditional medicine.

[1]. A. Makasana et al.,Evaluation for the anti-urolithiatic activity of Launaea procumbens against ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi inratsAtul Toxicology Reports 1 (2014) 46–52.
[2]. Moe OW.Kidney stones: Pathophysiology and medical management.Lancet.2006; 367:333-44.
[3]. Rana Gopal singh, Litholiptic property of kulatta (Dolichous biflorus) Vs Potassium citrate in renal calculus disease: A comparative study, Journal of association of physicians of India, vol58, may2010.
[4]. Sutherland JW, Parks JH, Coe FL.Recurrence after a single renal stone in a community practice MinerElectrolyte Metab, 1985;11(4):267-9.
[5]. Anderson D.A.Environmental factors in the etiology of Urolithiasis. In urinary calculi: proceedings of international Symposium of Renal stone research, 1972: 139-144.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A case study on prevalence of cancer cases in Wayanad District, Kerala, South India

Country

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India

Authors

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Josna George || SharannyaMohan || Kannika Parameswari || Dinesh M.D || Amal Marcus

Page No.

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31-34

Paper Index
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XXXX

Cancer a multifactorial life-threatening disease among the humans in world wide. Lack of knowledge, awareness and early detection of cancer be able to widely spread throughout in India. Lack of cancer treatments in the hospitals and increasing number of cancer patients will provide unexpected ramble in the prevalence of cancer patience's. In our present study we investigate and collect the cancer reported cases and death in and around Wayanad District. The present study shows year wise increase in the cancer related diseases in different parts of Wayanad District.

 

Keywords: Cancer, prevalence

[1]. Kotnis, A., Sarin, R., Mulherkar, R. (2005). Genotype, phenotype and cancer: role of low penetrance genes and environment in tumour susceptibility. J Biosci. 30:93–102. [2]. Jemel, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Murray,T., Xu, J. and Thun, M.J. (2007). Cancer statistics. CA cancer journal of clinical. 57; 43-66. [3]. Brayand, F., Moller, B. (2006). Predicting the future of burden of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 6; 63-74.
[4]. Nandakumar, A. National Cancer Registry Program, Indian Council of Medical Research, Consolidated report of the population based cancer registries, New Delhi, India: 1990-96. [5]. Wynder, E.L and Bross, I.J. (1974). A study of etiological factors in cancer of the oesophagus. Cancer. 14; 389 – 413.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of Anthocephalus cadamba, Butea monosperma, Diospyrous melanoxylon and Ficus glomerata bark extract against certain bacteria

Country

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India

Authors

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Sonu Jain || Asha Arora

Page No.

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35-40

Paper Index
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XXXX

Anthocephalus cadamba, Butea monosperma, Diospyrous melanoxylon and Ficus glomerata bark are used for the preparation of ethnic skin ointments. This ointment in turn is deployed over wounds for healing purposes and to check abscess formation. To access their anti microbial efficacy these plants were evaluated in vitro against five test bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi. Zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration and MBC/MIC ratio for methanolic and aqueous extract was studied as chief antibacterial parameters. Butea monosperma was found to be nullified inhibitory for all the test bacteria while Anthocephalus cadamba and Ficus glomerata inhibited partially and results when compared to reference antibiotic were not statistically significant. Diospyrous melanoxylon showed significantly inhibition for Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. None of the experimented plant was inhibitory to Proteus vulgaris.

 

Keywords: Anthocephalus cadamba, Butea monosperma, Diospyrous melanoxylon and Ficus glomerata, MBC/MIC ratio

[1]. Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL and Jain A. Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 92(1), 2004, 41-46.
[2]. Arora A. Ethnobotanical studies on the wild plants from Aravalli hills of Rajasthan. Ph.D thesis.Mohan lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur (Raj.),1997.

[3]. Arora A and Matiya J. Quantitative ethno-medicinal studies of wound healing plants with reference to their hypoglycemic potential. Advances in Pharmacology and Toxicology, 18(2), 2017, 43-47.

[4]. Ashutosh B, Khan MR, Jain NK, Dhariwal A, Jain S and Jain P. Study of antimicrobial activity in leaf extract of Diospyros melanoxylon. Int. Journal of Drug Discovery and Med. Res., 2, 2013, 129-30.

[5]. Umachigi SP, Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN and Dhanapal R. Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities of Anthocephalus cadamba. African J. of Trad., Compl. and Alt. Med., 4(4), 2007, 481-87.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Isolation, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Bacteriocin Producing Bacteria From Dairy Effluents

Country

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India

Authors

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Y Evangelin || K Kasturi

Page No.

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41-47

Paper Index
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XXXX

The intent of study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of bacteria producing bacteriocin isolated from dairy effluents .Several bacterial isolates were picked from the samples by growing on selective media(MRS Agar media).Bacteriocin producing organisms were screened by agar spot assay test.Six isolates are able to produce bacteriocin whose antibacterial activity was analysed by Agar well diffusion assay test against indicator organisms which are pathogenic.Bacillus cereusATCC1178,Staphylococcus aureus MTCC87 were more sensitive to the isolates than Salmonella typhi MTCC734 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC424. The antibacterial protein bacteriocin was characterized based on different pHvalues(lactic acid production), catalase test. By biochemical and molecular characterization the best bacteriocin producing strain was identified as Paenibacillus lactis.............

 

Keywords: Dairy effluents , MRS Agar, Bacteriocins , Characterization,Antibacterial activity, Paenibacillus lactis.

[1]. Ash, C., Priest, F. G. & Collins, M. D. (1993). Molecular identification of rRNA group 3 bacilli (Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Collins) using a PCR probe test. Proposal for the creation of a new g Paenibacillus. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64, 253–260.
[2]. Claus, D. & Berkeley, R. C. W. (1986). Genus Bacillus Cohn 1872, 174AL. In Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, pp. 1105–1139. Edited by P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe & J. G. Holt. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins
[3]. Klaenhammer, T.R. (1988) Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Biochimie 70, 337–349.
[4]. Klaenhammer, T.R. (1993) Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 12, 39–86.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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In vivo antiplasmodial activity of crude extracts of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae) against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Country

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Ghana

Authors

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Seydou SOURABIE || Aboubakar SOMA || Serges R. YERBANGA || Léa N. BONKIAN || Benjamin K. KOAMA || Mamoudou CISSE || Gordon A. AWANDARE || Noufou OUEDRAOGO || Jean-Baptiste NIKIEMA

Page No.

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48-53

Paper Index
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XXXX

Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against antimalarial drugs constitutes a veritable obstacle to malarial control in the world and particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nowadays the artemisinin resistance was observed in the South-east Asian region. Several investigations were made on the medicinal plants species coming from Asteraceae family above all Vernonia cinerea Less and were showed that the plant own several pharmacology activities tested in pre-clinical trials. The plant material was collected in Banfora (Burkina Faso). The antiplasmodial activity of the 80% methanolic extract, 50/50 % hydro-methanolic and aqueous extract have been tested against Plasmodium berghei in mice by using the Peter's 4-day suppressive test was conducted..................

 

Keywords: Antimalarial activity, Malaria, NMRI mice, Plasmodium berghei, Vernonia cinerea Less

[1]. WHO, "World Malaria Report.," Geneva, 2014.
[2]. A. M. Dondorp, F. Nosten, P. Yi, D. Das, W. Hanpithakpong, S. J. Lee, P. Ringwald, M. Imwong, K. Chotivanich, and P. Lim, "Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria," N Engl J Med, vol. 361, no. 5, pp. 455–467, 2012.
[3]. C. A. Judith Straimer, Nina F. Gnädig, Benoit Witkowski and D. A. F. Valentine Duru, Arba Pramundita Ramadani, Mélanie Dacheux, Nimol Khim, Lei Zhang, Stephen Lam, Philip D. Gregory, Fyodor D. Urnov, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Rick M. Fairhurst, Didier Ménard, "K13-propeller mutations confer artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates," Science (80-. )., vol. 347, no. 6220, pp. 428–31, 2015.
[4]. P. Pratheeshkumar and G. Kuttan, "Modulation of immune response by Vernonia cinerea L. inhibits the proinflammatory cytokine profile, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages," Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 73–83, 2011.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Study on Management of Comorbidity and Complications In Liver Cirrhosis Patients

Country

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India

Authors

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Venkateshwarlu K || K. Kowshik || K.Anusha || S.Sourab || A. Ram Rushi

Page No.

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54-59

Paper Index
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XXXX

Objectives: The main objective is to study on management of comorbidity and complications in liver cirrhosis patients, to study the severity of liver cirrhosis at the time of admission and to identify the risk factors and complications of liver cirrhosis in various populations. Methods: A prospective observational study has been done in limited period of 1 year in inpatient department of gastroenterology and general medicine. We have excluded the patients who are non-cooperative and receiving less than 24hrs of emergency care. We have included the patients who are admitted in inpatient department of gastroenterology and general medicine and the cases with demographic details and with or without social habits.................

 

Keywords: Liver cirrhosis, Portal hypertension, Ascites, Prescribing Daily Dose(PDD), Defined Daily Dose(DDD).

[1]. Arey LB, Burrows W, Greenhill, Hewitt RM editors board Dorlands illustrated medical dictionary 23rd edition Philadlphia, Press of W.B Saunders company 1962:286.

[2]. Duffin JM Why does cirrhosis belong to Laennec? CMAJ 1987; 393-6.

[3]. Anthomy PP, Ishek KG, Nayak NC. The morphology of cirrhosis, recommendations of definition,nomenclature and classification by working group sponsored by WHO 1978;31:395-414.

[4]. Conn HO Cirrhosis. In diseases of liver 4th edition edited by Schiff L Philadalphia: J.B.Lippincott company 1975;833.

[5]. Iredale JP, Guha IN. The evolution of cirrhosis in textbook of hepatology from basic science to clinical practice 3rd edition. Edited byRodes.J, Blei A, Rizzetto M Oxford, Blackwell publishing 2007; 583-9.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmaceutical Market and Regulatory Contents for Export of Pharmaceutical Products to Latin American Countries

Country

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India

Authors

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Sayan Basak

Page No.

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60-72

Paper Index
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XXXX

Indian Pharmaceutical industry is one of the world's largest and most developed, ranking fourth in terms of volume and thirteenth in terms of value. The country accounts for an estimated 10% of global production and 2% of world markets in pharmaceuticals. The regulatory process to obtain marketing authorizations (MAs) for drugs in Latin American (LATAM) countries, despite regional harmonization efforts, is highly country-specific. Complex and evolving ad-hoc requests from reviewers must be proactively addressed to avoid costly delays or show-stoppers to pharmaceutical products import from India. The comforts and confronts faced by pharmacy companies in India................

 

Keywords: Latin American (LATAM) Countries, Marketing Authorization (MA), Pharmaceutical Market.

[1]. Policy Landscape Reforms for Strengthening Indian Pharmaceutical Industry.
[2]. Opportunities and Challenges of Indian Pharmaceutical Sector: An overview By Umesh Chandra
[3]. World Health Organisation (WHO). ‗WHO policy perspectives on medicines - Effective medicines regulation: ensuring safety, efficacy and quality', 2003. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2003/WHO_EDM_2003.2.pdf (accessed 3 April 2013).
[4]. http://latintrade.com/latin-america%E2%80%99s-booming-pharma-industry-is-a-local-affair/
[5]. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 13, Issue 3 (Jul. - Aug. 2013), PP 51-66 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.Iosrjournals.Org

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Purification and Characterization of Amylase Inhibitors from the Seeds of Senna Alata

Country

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India

Authors

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K S Chandrashekharaiah

Page No.

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73-77

Paper Index
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XXXX

An α-Amylase inhibitor was isolated and purified employing ammonium sulphate fractionation, Sephadex G-10, sephadex G-50 chromatography and HPLC from the seeds of Senna alata. The molecular weight determined by SDS – PAGE and Sephadex G-100 chromatography was found to be 10 – 11 kDa. The inhibitor was retained 40% and 65% at pH 2.0 and 10.0 respectively, indicated its stability in a broad pH range. The purified inhibitor was stable in a temperature range from 4˚C to 65˚C. Purified inhibitor also inhibited the human salivary amylase which suggests that the amylase inhibitor of Senna alata can be used to treat nutrition related problems.

 

Keywords: Amylase inhibitors, Isolation, Characterization, Senna alata seeds

[1]. Konarev AV. Interaction of insect digestive enzymes with plant protein inhibitors and host parasite co-evolution. Euphytica. 92:84–89 (1996).
[2]. Franco OL, Rigden DJ, Melo FR, Grossi-de-Sa MF. Plant α- amylase inhibitors and their interaction with insect α-amylases. Eur. J. Biochem. 269:397–412 (2002).
[3]. Mridu Gupta, Pratima Sharma, Amarjit K Nath. Purification of a novel α-amylase inhibitor from local Himalayan bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds with activity towards bruchid pests and human salivary amylase. J. Food. Sci. Technol. 51(7):1286–1293 (2014).
[4]. Kokiladevi E, Manickam A, Thayumanavan B. Characterization of alpha-amylase inhibitor in Vigna sublobata. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica. 46:189–196 (2005).
[5]. Iulek J, Franco OL, Silva M, Slivinski CT, Bloch JC, Rigden DJ, Grossi-desa MF. Purification, biochemical characterization and partial primary structure of a new α-amylase inhibitor from Secale cereale (rye). Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 32:1195– 1204 (2000).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical Evaluation And Pharmacological Screening Of Antiparkinson's And Laxative Activities Of Hylocereus Undatus (White Pitaya) In Rodents

Country

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India

Authors

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P. Kanchana || S.K.S.V.Devi || P.Pushpa latha || N.Spurthi

Page No.

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78-92

Paper Index
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XXXX

Objective: To evaluate the antiparkinson‟s and constipation activity of Hylocereus undatus Haw. fruit extract in haloperidol induced parkinson‟s disease and loperamide induced constipation in mice. Method: Parkinson‟s disease was induced by administering haloperidol daily for a week. The mice were divided into five groups (n=6).Group I received 0.9% Normal saline (10ml per kg), Group II received Haloperidol (2 mg/kg i.p), Group III received combination of Levodopa and Carbidopa (100mg + 10mg per kg i.p along with haloperidol) and Group IV and Group V received ethanolic extract of Hylocereus undatus (200 and 400mg/kg p.o), respectively for 7 days along with haloperidol..................

 

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Constipation, Hylocereus undatus, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Haloperidol, Bisacodyl, Loperamide.

[1]. Deepa B, Anu E joy, and Shyamjith manikkoth, Effect of phyllanthu samarus on haloperidol induced catalepsy in experimental animal models, IJABPT, 6(3), (2015), 199-203.
[2]. Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rub, U., de Vos, R. A., Jansen Steur, E. N. and Braak, E. (2003) Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging, 24, 197-211.
[3]. Fact sheet of National digestive diseases clearing house, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Publication No. 04–2754 October 2003. [4]. Kotnis Ms, Patel P, Menon SN, Sane RT. Renoprotective effect of Hemidesmus indicus, a herbal drug used in gentamicin-induced renal toxicity, Nephrology (Cariton), 2004 Jun 9(3): 142-52.
[5]. P. Kanchana1*, M. Lakshmi Santha2 , K. Dilip Raja3, A REVIEW ON GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR. (SOYBEAN), Volume 5, Issue 1, 356-371 Review Article ISSN 2278 – 4357, Revised on 20 Nov 2015, Accepted on 10 Dec 2015.