Volume 8 ~ Issue 6,~Version 1, ~ June - 2018


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Glycyrrhiza glabra: A phytochemical and pharmacological review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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01-17

Paper Index
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XXXX

The phytochemical screening of the Glycyrrhiza glabra root revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, starches, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proteins, pectin, mucilage, saponins, lipids, tannins, sterols and steroids. It showed memory enhancement, antidepressant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, protective, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

 

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, chemical constituents, pharmacology.

[1]. Al-Snafi AE. Phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of Digitalis lanata and Digitalis purpurea - A review. Indo Am J P Sci 2017; 4(02): 225-234.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic and biological activities of Daphne mucronata - A review. Indo Am J P Sci 2017; 4(02): 235-240.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Erigeron canadensis (Syn: Conyza canadensis). Indo Am J P Sci 2017; 4(02): 248-256.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Eschscholzia californica: A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Indo Am J P Sci 2017; 4(02): 257-263.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Therapeutic importance of Hyoscyamus species grown in Iraq (Hyoscyamus albus, Hyoscyamus niger and Hyoscyamus reticulates)- A review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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18-32

Paper Index
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XXXX

Hyoscyamus is one of the most important and largest genera of the family Solanaceae comprising about 84 genera and more than 3000 species. All Hyoscyamus species are rich sources of tropane alkaloids, mainly hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The phytochemical analysis showed that Hyoscyamus species contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. They exerted many pharmacological effects included anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anticancer, insecticidal, antiasthmatic, antiallergic, antidiarrhoeal, antisecretory, Ca2+ channel-blocking, hypotensive, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antihyperuricemic, Anti- Parkinsonian, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, in addition to anticholinergic effects of tropane alkaloids. The current review discussed the chemical constituents, pharmacological and toxicological effects of Hyoscyamus species grown in Iraq.

 

Keywords: Hyoscyamus albus, Hyoscyamus niger, Hyoscyamus reticulates, chemical constituents, pharmacology, toxicology.

[1]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants possessed antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 3)- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 48-62.

[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Anticancer effects of Arabian medicinal plants (part 1) - A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 63-102.

[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases - A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 103-163.

[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Antimicrobial effects of medicinal plants (part 3): plant based review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(10): 67-92.

[5]. Al-Snafi AE. A review of medicinal plants with broncho-dilatory effect- Part 1. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy 2015; 5(7): 297-304.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Atazanavir

Country

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India

Authors

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Sahitya Lakshmi. K || Shireesh Kiran.R || Vishnu.P

Page No.

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33-53

Paper Index
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XXXX

The main aim of this research work on hydro-dynamical drug systems is to develop the Atazanavir controlled release tablets using floating technique to estimate the gastric retention time and the release kinetics with sustain release tablets and furthermore to keep up constant therapeutic effect of the drug for more than 12 hrs. The weight of atazanavir was settled as 400 mg and the aggregate weight of the tablet was considered as 600 mg. The polymers xanthan gum, karaya gum, guar gum, and carbopol were of 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg. From the dissolution studies conducted it was evident that the formulation (F14) showed better and desired drug release pattern i.e., 98.54 % in 12 hours. The drug followed zero order release kinetics with super case II mechanism.

 

Keywords: Atazanavir, Xanthan gum, guar gum, karaya gum, carbapol, floating tablets.

[1]. Gibert SB, Cristopher IR. Modern pharmaceutics 4th ed, 2005
[2]. Ray-Neng C, Hsiu-O H, Chiao-Ya Y, Ming-Thau S, Development of swelling/floating gastroretentive drug delivery system based on a combination of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for Losartan and its clinical relevance in healthy volunteers with CYP2C9 polymorphism. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010 Nov10 (39):82–89.
[3]. Brahma N. Singh, Kwon H. Kim. Floating drug delivery systems: an approach to oral controlled drug delivery via gastric retention Drug Delivery Systems. Journal of Controlled Release 2000 (63):235–259.
[4]. Gopalakrishnan S. and Chenthilnathan A. Floating Drug Delivery Systems: A Review India. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2011 3(2):548-554.
[5]. Debjit B, Chiranjib.B, Margret Chandira, Jayakar B, Sampath K. Floating Drug Delivery System-A Review. Scholars Research Library Der Pharmacia Lettre 2009 1(2):199-218.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Utilization of Potato peel and Curd whey as the Agro industrial substrates for Biosurfactant production using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS29

Country

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India

Authors

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P. Poonguzhali || S. Rajan || R. Parthasarathi

Page No.

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54-62

Paper Index
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XXXX

This study elicited the utilization of the cheapest agro-industrial waste as the major substrate for Biosurfactant production. The fermentation medium was formulated by supplementing the substrates, Homogenized Potato peel extract (HPPE) and Curd whey. The utilization of substrates and the biosurfactant activity were accessed. The utilization of the HPPE till 96hrs was found to be significant with the yield of 3.78 ± 0.4 (g/l) and Emulsification index of 60.07± 0.2 (%) respectively. The biosurfactant production was also optimized using the formulated Curd whey medium. The influence of various parameters such as C/P ratio, different metal ions with its synergistic effect, Concentration of Metal ions, Combined C/P ratio with metal ions were determined. The biosurfactant activity was observed to be satisfactory with the surface tension of the optimized Curd whey medium as 33.93 ± 0.3 (mN/m). Thus the formulated production medium using HPPE and Curd whey was suggested for the biosurfactant production using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS29.

 

Keywords: Biosurfactant, Homogenized potato peel extract, Curd whey, Surface tension, Emulsification index.

[1]. Banat IM, Satpute SK, Cameotra SS, Patil R and Nyayanit NV. Cost effective technologies and renewable substrates for biosurfactants' production. Front Microbiol 2014; 5: 1-18.
[2]. Clarke KG, Ballot F and Reid SJ. Enhanced rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under phosphate limitation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010; 26: 2179–2184. DOI 10.1007/s11274-010-0402-y
[3]. Cooper GD and Paddock AD. Production of a Biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 1984; 47: 173–176.
[4]. Das AJ and Kumar R. Utilization of agro-industrial waste for biosurfactant production under submerged fermentation and its application in oil recovery from sand matrix. Bioresource Technology 2018; 260: 233-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.093
[5]. Das SK and Mukherjee AK. Comparison of lipopeptide biosurfactants production by Bacillus subtilis strains in submerged and solid state fermentation systems using a cheap carbon source: Some industrial applications of biosurfactants. Process Biochem 2007; 42(8): 1191-1199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2007.05.011

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review on Current Trends of Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

Country

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India

Authors

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Bondar Ganesh H. || Nagoba S. N. || Pattewar Shraddha G. || Vijendra Swamy || Thonte S. S.

Page No.

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63-71

Paper Index
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XXXX

Targeted drug delivery is an advanced method of delivering drugs to the patients in such a targeted sequences that increases the concentration of delivered drug to the targeted body part of interest only (organs/tissues/ cells) which in turn improves efficacy of treatment by reducing side effects of drug administration. Basically, targeted drug delivery is to assist the drug molecule to reach preferably to the desired site. Thus, targeted delivery systems are urgently needed to achieve desire drug delivery efficiency, improve therapeutic efficacy in the targeted cells/tissues, and minimize toxic effects. Colloidal drug delivery vehicles have been studied in the laboratory for more than 30 years, but the few liposome based formulations already on the market are mainly concerned with reducing the side effects of the encapsulated drugs liposomes nanoparticles which show diminished phagocytosis have been developed and the range of sites which can be reached has been extended. In the past two decades there have been major advances in the development of niosomal drug delivery systems suitable for applications ranging from cancer chemotherapy to gene therapy. In general, an optimized system consists of niosomes with a range of 10-100 nm these formulation is more stable than liposomes.

 

Keywords: Nanotechnology; Targeting Methods, Niosomes.

[1]. Vyas SP, Khar RK; Basis of targeted Drug Delivery. In Targeted and controlled Drug Delivery, CBS Publishers and Distributors Reprint, 2008: 42-46, 74.
[2]. Allen TM, Cullis PR; Drug Delivery Systems: Entering the Mainstream. Science, 2004;303 (5665): 1818-1822.

[3]. Muller RH, Keck CM; Challenges and solutions for the delivery of biotech drugs-a review of drug nanocrystal technology and lipid nanoparticles. Journal of Biotechnology, 2004; 113 (1–3): 151-170.
[4]. Mark SW, Torchilin, Vladimir P; Drug delivery systems. AccessScience, McGrawHill Companies, 2011.
[5]. Allen TM, Cullis PR; Drug Delivery Systems: Entering the Mainstream. Science, 2004;303 (5665): 1818-1822.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Continuous production of Urocanic acid by immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa species

Country

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India

Authors

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Ragini G. Bodade || Prita S.Borkar

Page No.

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72-78

Paper Index
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XXXX

Urocanic acid (UA), an intermediate of L-histidine catabolism is commonly used as sun-screening agent in cosmetics and medicines. In the present work, an effort has been made to isolate the urocanic acid producing strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and optimized at varied culture conditions in submerged fermentation like pH, temperature, incubation period and substrate concentration. Effect of carbon source, nitrogen source and metal ions were also studied. The results revealed that maximum Urocanic acid production was attained at pH 7.5 and temperature 40 0C using 0.4 % of histidine after 96 h of incubation. Carbon source (Glucose 2%, 2.104 mg/ml), nitrogen source (yeast extract 0.5 %, 1.936 mg/ml and metal ions (Mg++ 0.1mM, 1.523 mg/ml) further enhances the Urocanic acid production...........

 

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa / Urocanic acid/Optimization / Immobilization.

[1]. Coote, J.G. and Hassall, H., 1973. The control of the enzymes degrading histidine and related imidazolyl derivatives in Pseudomonas testosteroni. Biochem J. 132, 423-433.
[2]. Torres,N., Martinez,L., Aleman, G., Bourges, H., Tovar, A.R., 1998. Histidase expression is regulated by dietary protein at the pretranslational level in rat liver. J. of Nutr. 128(5), 818-824.
[3]. Shibtani,T., Nishimura, N., Nabe,K., Kakimoto, T., and Chibata I., 1974. Enzymatic production of Urocanic acid by Achromobacter liquidum. App. Microbiol. Biotech. 27(4), 688-694.
[4]. Baranowski, J.D., 1985. Low-temperature production of Urocanic acid by spoilage bacteria isolated from Mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50(2), 546-547.
[5]. Wadud, S., Onodera, R., Or-Rashid, M. M. and Oshiro, S., 2001. In vitro catabolism of histidine by mixed rumen bacteria and protozoa. Curr. Microbiol. 42, 12-17.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Employment Generation by Industrial Estates of Jammu and Kashmir

Country

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India

Authors

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Mukhtyar Ahmed

Page No.

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79-82

Paper Index
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XXXX

Industrial development always remains a thrust area in the Government agenda. Government's endeavour is to provide efficient and cost effective infrastructure, skilled human resources, stable environment and good governance which are the pre-requisites for creating a proper investment environment for sustainable industrial growth. state govt, formulated a comprehensive set of incentives for the development of these industries in the state in tune with the central policy. As a part of the national policy the scheme of District Industries centres was launched throughout the state. Consequent upon the different policy initiatives taken during the fifth and sixth plan and in subsequent plans, some progress was made in the industrial development. The number of small scale units went to 35592 in 1994-95 from 2203 units in 1973-74 and the employment in Small Scale Industries, to 154692 from 16752 persons during the some period . There has been a sufficient growth in handicraft and handloom sector as well, however, in silk industry the state has lost its past glory.

 

Keywords: ..............

[1]. Hussain, Majid. Geography of Jammu and Kashmir. Rawat Publications Jaipur 2001 reprint 2010.
[2]. Hussain Majid. Geography of Jammu and Kashmir 1998.
[3]. Gulshan Rashid and Mohammed Yaseen Geography of Jammu and Kashmir 2000.
[4]. Singh Gopal Map work and Practical Geography, Vikas Publishing House, Noida 2008.
[5]. Singh Jasbir Economic geography of Jammu and Kashmir2011).