June - 2019 (Volume-9 ~ Issue-6 ~ Series-2)

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Development and Validation of HPLC Method for Estimation of Clozapine inBulk drugs and Formulations

Country

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India

Authors

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Shailesh B. Patil || Dr. R. Y. Chaudhari

Page No.

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01-08

A new, simple, and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Clozapine. The sample was analyzed by Agilent, HPLC instrument. Using Nucleosil 100-5 C18 (250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5 μm) and HiQSiL C18 Column (250 xmm, 5μm) column as stationary phase and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate: acetonitrile (65:35 v/v) as mobile phase at 1.0 ml/min flow rate. UV detector was used for the detection at 259 nm wavelength. The retention time for Clozapine was found about 4.5 minute. The linearity for the drug was obtained for the concentration of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30μg/ml. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation because no significant interferences from tablet excipient were found. The method retained its accuracy and precision when certain variations in method parameters wereapplied.

 

Keywords: CLZ (Clozapine), HPLC, ACN (Acetonitrile), Methanol, Bulk drug, Formulations

[1]. Gandhi N. K., Shah D.B., Maheshwari D. G., Aripiprazole and Clozapine: A Review of Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Method, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & Innovation, 2017, 05 (22), 27 – 39.
[2]. Dhaval S. R., Sevak A. D., Sevak M.R., Vyas P.J, Analytical Method Development and Validation for Clozapine tablet (psychoactive drug) using HPLC Instrument, Pharma Science Monitor, 2017, 08(3),297-304.
[3]. UdayasreeKonikuru, Rajavel P., Vijitha S. Bioequivalence studies of marketed Clozapine tablets by using optimized Validated liquid chromatographic method, International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 2018,10( 3),47-51.
[4]. ChokchaiWongsinsup, WandeeTaesotikul, SayamKaewvichit, SirilukSangsrijan and SaowaruneeSangsrijan, Determination of Clozapine in Human Plasma by High – Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV – VIS Detector, Journal of Natural Science, 2010, 9 (1),29-37.
[5]. Zahid Z., Mazhar F., Dhaneshwar S.R., Stability-indicating High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Determination of Clozapine in Tablet Dosage Form, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2009, 1(4),158-166.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytosomes: Enhancing Bioavailability of Phytomedicine

Country

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India

Authors

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Bijal D. Gharia || R. Krishnamurthy || I. Rajashekhar

Page No.

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09-15

Several plant extracts and phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bio-activity in vitro but provide less or no in vivo actions as they poorly dissolve in lipid and have large molecular size, which results in poor absorption and low bioavailability. Such plant extracts when complexed with phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine forms a new drug delivery system called Phytosome (or Herbosome). Compared to conventional herbal extracts Phytosome exhibit better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. The Phytosome vesicles have ability to effectively deliver the drug by topical and oral route. This technique have enhanced the bioavailability of various phytomedicine present in milk thristle, ngrape seed, green tea, olive oil, turmeric, etc. The objective of this review is to describe the advancement in phytosome technology and its application.

 

Keywords: Phytosomes, phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, phytoconstituent, bioavailability, drug, therapeutic application.

[1]. Anjana, R., S., Kumar, H., Sharma, and R.K., Khar (2017). Phytosomes Drug Delivery of Natural Products: A Promising Technique for Enhancing Bioavaibility. International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, Vol 7(3), 157-165.

[2]. Bhattacharya, S., and A., Gosh (2008). Phytosomes: The Emerging Technology for Enhancement of Bioavailability of Botonicals and Nutraceutical. The International Journal of Asthetatic and Antiaging Medicine, Vol 2, Number 1.

[3]. Demir, B., F.B., Barlas, E., Guler, P.Z., Gumus, M., Can, M., Yavuz, H., Coskunol, and S., Timur (2012). Gold nanoparticle Loaded Phytosomal Systems: Synthesis, Characterization and in vitro Investigations. Journal of The Royal Society of Chemistry.

[4]. Dhase, A. S., and S. S., Saboo (2015). Preparation and Evaluation of Phytosome Containing Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Aegle Marmelos (Bael). International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol. 8(6), 231-240.

[5]. Freag, M.S., W.M., Saleh, and O.Y., Abdallah (2017). Self-assembled phospolipid- based phytosomal nanocarriers as promising platforms for improving oral bioavailability of the anticancer celastrol. International Journal of Pharmaceutics

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The in Vitro Antifungal Activity of some Nigeria Medicinal Plants against Cryptococcus gattii

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Nnadi, Nnaemeka Emmanuel || Anukam, Nwamaka Chinenye || Ayika, Philomena Dan || Rotdung, kikshak || Gokum, Swarji Samuel || Ayanbimpe, Grace Mebi || Nvau, John || Enweani, Ifeoma

Page No.

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16-24

The rise in resistance to the few available antifungals has led to increased serach for more antifungals from plant sources. In this study, the leaves of Swietenia mahogani, Senna siamea, Cassia alata and the root and bark of Smilax kraussiana were extracted using four different extracting solvents of varying polarity (hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol) and susceptibility tested against species of Cryptococcus. Dichloromethane extract of C. alata was the highest with 264mg from 15g of powdered samples. Antifungal activity of these plants extracts were determined using microtitre dilution assay, acetone extract of C.alata had the best antifungal activity against Cryptococcus gattii with MIC of 0.016mg/ml and total activity of 1042ml/g .Methanol extract of C.alata and root of S. kraussiana showed consistency in MIC 0.032mg/ml after 24hours and 48hour incubation with moderate total activity value of 500ml/g and 354ml/g respectively. Hence, were also selected for further study.

 

Keywords: Antifungal activity, total activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fingerprinting, bioautography, phytochemical analysis.

[1]. Akowuah, G. A., Ismail, Z., Norhayati, I., & Sadikun, A. (2005). The effects of different extraction solvents of varying polarities on polyphenols of Orthosiphon stamineus and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity. Food Chemistry, 93(2), 311-317.
[2]. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (2005) Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry: Wiley-Blackwell.

[3]. Byrnes, E. J., Li, W., Lewit, Y., Ma, H., Voelz, K., Ren, P., et al. (2010). Emergence and Pathogenicity of Highly Virulent Cryptococcus gattii Genotypes in the Northwest United States. PLoS Pathog, 6(4), e1000850.
[4]. Chowdhary, A., Prakash, A., Randhawa, H. S., Kathuria, S., Hagen, F., Klaassen, C. H., et al. (2013). First environmental isolation of Cryptococcus gattii , genotype AFLP5, from India and a global review. Mycoses, 56(3), 222-228.
[5]. De Lucca, A., Boue, S., Palmgren, M., Maskos, K., & Cleveland, T. (2006). Fungicidal properties of two saponins from Capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity. Canadian journal of microbiology, 52(4), 336-342.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Formulation, Development and Characterization of Modified Chitosan based Matrix Diffusion Transdermal System

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Patil Manisha Vyankatrao || Ahire pallavi Arun || Yadav Adhikrao Vyankatrao || Gharge Varsha Gajanan || Jadhav Rahul Laxman

Page No.

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25-35

Transdermal medication avoids significant presystemic metabolism (degradation in the gastrointestinal tract or by the liver and the need, therefore, for a lower daily dose of a drug. Drug levels can be maintained in the systemic circulation, within the therapeutic window, for a prolonged period of time. Drug loaded matrix type transdermal delivery of Gliclazide were prepared by using solvent casting method. In- Vitro drug release studies for transdermal patch formulations showed that drug release increases with increase in DMSO concentration and HPMC K4M ratio. The formulation F7 showed maximum drug release 98.41% having maximum DMSO concentration 25% and maximum.........

 

Keywords: Transdermal delivery, Gliclazide, Modified chitosan.

[1]. S. P. Vyas and R. K. Khar, Controlled Drug Delivery: Concepts and Advances. First edition, Vallabh Prakashan, 2002: 411-447.
[2]. N. K. Jain, Controlled and novel drug delivery. First edition, CBS Publishers and distributors, 1997: 100- 129.
[3]. H. Shaik, et.al. Transdermal Drug Delivery System - Simplified Medication Regimen - A Review
RJPBCS, 2(4) 2011; 223-238.
[4]. S. Deshwal and N. Verma, Optimization Techniques in Transdermal Drug Delivery System. IJPSR, 3(8): 2012; 2362-2370.
[5]. H. Patel, et.al. Transdermal Drug Delivery System as Prominent Dosage Forms for the Highly Lipophilic Drugs. IJPRBS, Volume 1(3) 2012; 42- 65.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review on Lagerstroemia Indica: A Potential Medicinal Plant

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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36-42

Lagerstroemia indica contained alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, sterols, triterpenes, anthraquinones, reducing compounds, flavonoids (flavanones/ dihydroflavonols and chalcones) and phenolic glycosides (strosides A–C). Lagerstroemia indica showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer's, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and antithrombin effects. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lagerstroemia indica.

 

Keywords: Lagerstroemia indica, pharmacology, constituents

[1]. Orhan IE. Biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites. Bentham ebook, 2012: 107.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE, Talab TA and Majid WJ. Medicinal plants with central nervous activity - An overview (Part 1). IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019, 9(3): 52-102.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases - A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 103-163.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants possessed antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 3)- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 48-62.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants affected female fertility- plant based review (part 1). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(7): 46-62.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Pharmacological and Therapeutic Effects of Lallemantia Royleana- A Review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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43-50

The chemical analysis of Lallemantia royleana seed showed that the seeds contained: protein 25.60%, fat 18.27%, fiber 1.29%, alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, pholobtannin tannins, volatile oils, mixed fatty acids and terpenoids. It exerted many pharmacological effects included antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, sedative, antiemetic, hypolipidemic, protective and many other pharmacological effects. The current review discussed the Lallemantia royleana as a beneficial medicinal plant.

 

Keywords: Lallemantia royleana, constituents, pharmacology

[1]. Al-Snafi AE, Talab TA and Majid WJ. Medicinal plants with central nervous activity - An overview (Part 1). IOSR Journal of pharmacy 2019, 9(3): 52-102.

[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases - A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 103-163.

[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Medicinal plants possessed antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects (part 3)- A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(4): 48-62.

[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants affected female fertility- plant based review (part 1). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(7): 46-62.

[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Arabian medicinal plants affected male fertility- plant based review (part 1). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2018; 8(7): 63-76.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Lathyrus sativus – A Review

Country

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Iraq

Authors

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Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

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51-58

Lathyrus sativus contained starch, cane sugar, leguminvicilin, legumelin, fixed oil, gum resin, oleo-resin, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, phenols, tannins, vitamin C, riboflavin, carotenoids, beta-carotene, proteins and amino acids. It possessed many pharmacological effects included antioxidant, nervous, antidiabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and cardioprotective effects. The current review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lathyrus sativus.

 

Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Lathyrus sativus, toxicity

[1]. Al-Snafi AE. Fumaria parviflora- A review. Indo Am J P Sc 2018; 5(3): 1728-1738.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. The Pharmacological importance of Bauhinia variegata. A Review. Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research 2013; 4(12): 160-164.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and medical importance of Galium aparine - A review. Indo Am J P Sc 2018; 5(3): 1739-1744.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Galium verum -A review. Indo Am J P Sc 2018; 5 (4): 2142-2149.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of Heliotropium undulatum (H. bacciferum) and Heliotropium europaeum- A review. Indo Am J P Sc 2018; 5 (4): 2150-2158.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Robotics: A New Approach for Surgery

Country

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India

Authors

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Ruchi Shukla || Kusum Sharma || Ankita Srivastava || Hitesh Jain || D. B. Meshram

Page No.

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59-62

Robotic surgery is a new innovation in healthcare technology towards improved clinical outcomes. Robotic technology is enhancing surgery through improved precision, stability and capability. There are five generations of robotic surgical platforms including stereotactic, endoscopic, bioinspired, microbots and the future development of autonomous systems. Recently robotic system is a way into the operating room as surgical assistants and surgical planners, in order to answer various demands to overcome the surgical limitations and to avoid various problems. Surgical robots are controlled by the methods of remote control and voice activation. In image-guided procedures, robots use magnetic resonance and computed tomography image data to guide instruments to the treatment site..........

[1]. B. Davies, R. Hibberd, Prostatic resection; an example of safe robotic surgery, Robotica, 11, 1993, 561– 566.
[2]. B. Davies, Robotic Surgery – A Personal View of the Past, Present and Future, International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems,2015, 1-5.
[3]. H. Abboudi, et.al., Current status of validation for robotic surgery simulators – a systematic review, BJU International, 111, 2012, 194-205.

[4]. D. Robert, Robotics for Surgery, Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 01, 1999,211–240.
[5]. A. Elkak, Robotic Surgery, Is It the Future? Tumor Res, 3(1), 2017, 117.