Volume 2 ~ Issue 3


S.No. TITLE P.No. Download
Immunogenicity of Biopharmaceuticals

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230345363  

ANED : 05.3013/023345363  

Modern biotechnology has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the production of new therapeutic agents using botanical sources. With nearly 500 biotechnology products approved or in development globally, and with production capacity limited, the need for efficient means of therapeutic protein production is apparent. Through genetic engineering, plants can now be used to produce pharmacologically active proteins, including mammalian antibodies, blood product substitutes, vaccines, hormones, cytokines, and a variety of other therapeutic agents. Efficient biopharmaceutical production in plants involves the proper selection of host plant and gene expression system, including a decision as to whether a food crop or a non-food crop is more appropriate. Product safety issues relevant to patients, pharmaceutical workers, and the general public must be addressed, and proper regulation and regulatory oversight must be in place prior to commercial plant-based biopharmaceutical production. Plant production of pharmaceuticals holds great potential, and may become an important production system for a variety of new biopharmaceutical products.
345-363 pdf


Patel A.,Patel N.,Patel M.,Lodha A.,Chaudhuri J.,Jadia P.,Joshi T.,Dalal J.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230364366  

ANED : 05.3013/023364366  


A simple Reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been also developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of Paracetamol and Lornoxicam in combination. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH adjusted to 7.3 with triethyl amine and acetonitrile 70:30(%v/v).The column was used Phenomex C18, 5 μm, (250x 4.6 mm) with flow rate 1.5ml/min using UV detection at 257nm. The described method was linear over concentration range 20 to 60 μg/ml & 0.2 to1.8μg/ml for assay of Paracetamol & Lornoxicam respectively. The retention time of Paracetamol & Lornoxicam were found to be 2.33 & 7.61 respectively. Result of analysis was validated statistically. The method show good reproducibility & recovery with % less than 1, all the tests of above mentioned studies were found to be in acceptance criteria.The method was found to be rapid, specific, precise & accurate and can be successfully applied for routine analysis of Paracetamol & Lornoxicam in bulk & combined dosage forms.

Keywords: Paracetamol, Lornoxicam, HPLC

364-366 pdf

Shift changes in various pulmonary function parameters in ginning mill workers

Dr Sujatha Talikoti.,Dr Anand.N.Patil., Dr Manjunatha.Aithala., Dr Sumangla .M. Patil.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230367368  

ANED : 05.3013/023367368  


Background In Northern part of Karnataka there are many ginning factories associated with processing with processing of cotton. However there is no evaluation of pulmonary function status of the workers working with these mills.

Objectives The present study therefore was planned to measure the over shift changes in lung functions in workers of g inning factory of Bijapur District.

Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 67 subjects who were workers of aginning factory in Bijapur. Tests were carried out on Monday. This was done to evaluate the problem on first day of week after a week end break as suggested in various other studies. The questionnaires interview was conducted early in the morning on Monday before starting of the shift. The pulmonary function tests [FVC, FEV1, FEV1% and PEFR] were performed twice on the same day [8am-10am after 5pm] to assess the over shift change in pulmonary function
Results Over shift changes in FVC, FEV1,FEV1 %and PEFR, There is a over shift decrease of 7.19% in FVC, 11.34% decrease in FEV1,4.68% decrease in FEV1% and 10.73% decrease PEFR.

Conclusion There was a significant change in values of pulmonary function parameters recorded at the end of shift from the values recorded at the beginning of the shift.

Keywords— Pulmonary function tests, over shift,

367-368 pdf

Integrated approach to training of medical students for chronic care of diabetes - an educational intervention project experience from MIMS, Mandya, Karnataka

Poornima S, Ramkrishna S, Shivakumar KM.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230369373  

ANED : 05.3013/023369373  


Back Ground: Nearly 51 million Indians are living with diabetes in India. With an estimated three fold rise in the prevalence of diabetes over the next 25 years, it is important that we plan ahead and make strategic changes, embarking seriously on capacity building of medical students for chronic care of diseases like diabetes. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an integrated training workshop for chronic care of diabetes among medical students of MIMS, Mandya.

Methodology: Three days intensive integrated training workshop was conducted for 30 randomly selected MBBS Phase III – Part I students with must know aspects of Diabetes using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Adult and adolescent Illnesses (IMAI) model of chronic care, based on 5A's (Assess, Advice, Agree, Assist and Arrange) and TEAM-P (Triage, Education, Assessment, Management and support for Positive living) approach. Written, structured pre-test, post test and feedback from the students was taken and the observations are being presented in this paper. Results: There was significant increase in the mean scores from 14.96 (S.D. = 4.66, 99% C.I = 12.62-17.30) to a post test score of 26.76(S.D. = 3.21, 99% C.I = 25.16-28.36), p<0.00001. 5A's and TEAM –P approaches were easy to remember and practice.

Conclusion: An integrated training workshop is effective in increasing the knowledge, understanding and confidence of medical students, and thus molding them in handling the patients of diabetes for continuum of care.
Keywords: Integrated training, Medical students, 5A's, Continuum of Care, Diabetes, Intensive workshop

369-373 pdf

Synthesis and Pharmacological Screening of Some Benzoxazole Derivatives as Anti-inflammatory Agents
Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman*,Rana Sohil D,Md. Abullais Md.
Usman,Shaikh TanverY,Sayad Imran wahab

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230374379  

ANED : 05.3013/023374379  

A series of some new 5-substituted benzoxazoles were synthesized and were characterized by different methods like IR,
1HNMR and MASS spectra. After conformation of structure assigned, these compounds were screened for its antiinflammatory

Keywords: Benzoxazole, Anti-inflammatory, Pharmacological, Derivatives, Phytochemical.
374-379 pdf

Anti-emetic activity of four species of Genus Cassia in chicks

Salman Ahmed,Affan Zahid,Safia Abidi,Sadia Meer.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230380384  

ANED : 05.3013/023380384  

The anti-emetic activity of the leaves methanolic extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Cassia holosericea Fresen., Cassia italica Miller. Lam. ex F.W. Ander and Cassia purpurea Roxb., was evaluated in young chicks. Emesis was induced by copper sulfate (50 mg / kg) and the extracts were tested at the dose of 150 mg / kg orally. All the extracts decreased significantly the number of retching (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) when compared with standard chlorpromazine.

Keywords: Anti-emetic activity, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia italica, Cassia purpurea, Chicks.
380-384 pdf
7 An approach to polymer degradation through microbes

Uttiya Dey, Naba Kumar Mondal, Kousik Das, Shampa Dutta.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230385388  

ANED : 05.3013/023385388  

: Inertness and indiscriminate uses as well as growing water and land pollution problems have lead to concern about plastics. Present paper investigates the possibility of plastic degradation by microbes isolated from forest soil and automobile wash-out sludge. The in-vivo degradation was studied by litter bag experiment by taking 1 g of each plastic and buried under forest soil and automobile wash-out sludge at a depth of 15 cm from the surface during the month of September to February, 2010-2011. An in-vitro experiment was started after collecting the plastic samples from the litter bag experiment and the microbes were isolated from the surface of the plastic. Then the isolated microbes inoculated in the Burk's medium without carbon source in two sets, one with plastic and the other with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Result showed that no variety of plastic comfortable degraded under burial condition during six months. But interesting result was recorded from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study. The preliminary screening of biodegradation capability was done by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy for surface changes. Again, degradation of PEG by microbes clearly indicates their existence in the said medium. Therefore it can be speculated that microbes has enough potential to degrade plastic with due course of time.
Keywords: Biodegradation, Plastics, Polyethylene glycol, Scanning electron microscope, Soil microbes
385-388 pdf

Evaluation of Anti Microbial Activity and Phytochemical analysis of Organic Solvent extracts of Calotropis gigantea

S.Senthil Kumar, Dr. P.Sivamani,C.Baskaran, Dr. M.Jamal Mohamed

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230389394  

ANED : 05.3013/023389394  

The leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea were screened for its anti microbial and phytochemical activities. The solvents used for the leaves extraction were Ethanol, Methanol, Chloroform and n-Hexane. The extract was tested against infectious diseases causing fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirablis, Escherichia coli and, Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the Agar well diffusion method. The Ethanol extract of Calotropis gigantea showed more activity against fungus like Candida albicans zone of diameter 15.06±0.11, Candida tropicalis zone of diameter 13.30±0.26 and bacteria like Proteus mirablis zone of diameter 12.16±0.15 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa zone of diameter 8.0±0.00 when compared to other solvent extracts. In the present study, both in bacteria and fungi Ethanol extract showed a varying degree of inhibition of the growth of tested organism than Methanol, Chloroform, and n-Hexane. The results confirmed that presence of Antifungal and Antibacterial activity in the shade dried extract of Calotropis gigantea against the human pathogenic organisms.

Keywords: Calotropis gigantea crude extract, phytochemicals, Antimicrobial activity.
389-394 pdf

Comparative anthelmintic activity of Aegle marmelos Linn leaves and pulp

Kishan Singh, Krishn Kumar Agrawal, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230395397  

ANED : 05.3013/023395397  

In the present work, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelmintic effects of different extracts of Aegle marmelos leaves and pulp on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) at 20mg/ml concentration. Results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate, pyrantal pamoate and albendazole were used as a standards and DMSO in distill water as a control group. The result revealed that leaves extracts of Aegle marmelos has better activity that pulp extracts but not better than the standards.

Keywords: Anthelmintic, Albendazole, Aegle marmelos, pyrantel pamoate

Pharmacological and Phytochemical Screening of Ethanol Extract of Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers.

Ali Ahmmad, Md. Torequl Islam, Irin Sultana, Ayesha Mahmood, Jasmin Akther Hossain, Zilly Homa, Mohammed Ibrahim and M. Mohi Uddin Chowdhury

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230398402  

ANED : 05.3013/023398402  

Present study was conducted by the ethanol extract of leaves of Litsea monopetala. Preliminary phytochemical screening with the crude extract demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. In-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated against 4 Gram positive and 7 Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and 7 fungi using ciprofloxacin and fluconazole respectively as standards. In disc diffusion antimicrobial assay, L. monopetala showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activities with zone of inhibition ranging from 10-12 mm and 12-14 mm for test bacteria and fungi respectively where the growth of Pityrosporum ovale and Cryptococcus neoformans were strongly inhibited. In the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by serial dilution method, a mild to strong MICs were observed for the test microorganisms. During the in-vitro clot lysis test, the crude extract exhibited percent lysis of clot significantly by 18.84% compared to the standard, SK (81.53%). Moreover, the extract produced inhibition of protein denaturation and haemolysis by 40% and 42.44% in the in-vitro anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilization test.

Keywords: Litsea monopetala, antimicrobial, MIC, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilization, anti-atherothrombosis.
398-402 pdf

Pharmacognostical study of the roots of the plants Ziziphus oenoplia Mill.

NabojyotiBhowal, K.L.Senthilkumar, T.Karthiyayini, M.Rajkumar

Aim of present study is to evaluate Ziziphus oenoplia Mill by itsPharmacognostically with different parameters in order to give possible scientific validation.The roots are astringent, bitter, antihelmintic,digestive, and antiseptic. They are useful for treating hyperacidity, ascaris infection, abdominal pain,and healing of wounds.A thick root was studied.The TranverseSection of the root was circular in outline. Outer cuticular layer or cork was followed by thin walled epidermal cells. Phellogen part was bilayered, Xylem around the well developed xylem calls. Biseriate, reddish orange coloured Medullary rays observed. vassals occupied the entire central portion and were traversed regularly by rows of medullary rays whose cells were lignified. The powder microscopy of the root powder reveals the presence of cork- about six layers, thin walled, tubular, polygonal cells.

Keywords: Ziziphus oenoplia Mill,xylem, Tranverse section
403-409 pdf

Protective effect of Dalbergia sisso bark on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats

Shiv Kumar Narware a,Dr. V.Maithili b,Dr. K.L SenthilKumar

The aqueous extract of Dalbergia sisso bark was screened for its hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities against paracetamol (300 mg/kg i.p) and CCl4 (1.0 ml/kg, i.p) induce liver and kidney damage in albino rats. The aqueous extract of Dalbergia sisso bark was significantly (**P0.01) decreased the serum enzyme alanine amino transferase (ALT), asparate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and significantly increased the total protein (TP) level and significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH, LPO, CAT. Silymarin (250 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective and nephroprotective drug used for comparison exhibited significant activity (**P0.01). The extract did not showed any mortality up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg.
Keywords: Dalbergia sisso Roxb; Carbon tetrachloride, Paracetamol; Hepatoprotective and Nephroprotective activities; Silymarin; Histopathology
410-428 pdf
13 Perceptions of pharmacy students regarding language of instruction in health education

Tabinda hasan, Khadyja abdalaziz

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230429433  

ANED : 05.3013/023429433  

The Arab world is a gateway between the West and the East and a land of ancient cultures and conflicts. Arabs are living in confusing times while attempting to build modern civilizations based on ancient traditions. Presently, Arab students stand at crossroads regarding the medium of instruction in health education (English-versus-Arabic). Federal policy pursues proficiency in English and accredits English authored text-books while native beneficiary population still faces considerable linguistic inertia and prefers Arabic. In countries like Saudi Arabia, where tutor population is majorly fractioned into Arabic and non-Arabic speakers, the perception of students is pivotal in assessing the role of language in achievement of learning objectives. This study explores Arab students linguistic preferences and attitudes in pharmacy education through administering a semi structured questionnaire. Survey based data suggests that a majority of Arab pharmacy students still prefer Arabic as the predominant medium of classroom instruction. The key underlining factor for such attitudes is the harmony between 'thinking and speaking' that is created with the use of 'familiar 'language.
Keywords - pharmacy, students, language, education
429-433 pdf

Acute pulmonary edema complicating triplet pregnancy-A Case report

Dr.V B Bangal, Dr.Pravin S Thorat, Dr.Nisarg H Patel, Dr.Amitabh L Sahoo

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230434437  

ANED : 05.3013/023434437  

The incidence of triplet pregnancies is on rise due to increase in the use of fertility enhancing drugs for assisted reproductive techniques .Triplet pregnancies are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome .There is many fold increase in the risk to the pregnant woman due to associated medical complications like anemia and hypertension. Acute pulmonary edema is rare but life threatening complication of triplet pregnancy. We report a case of primigravida with 32 weeks of triplet pregnancy, who developed acute pulmonary edema, secondary to pregnancy induced hypertension .She was delivered by emergency caesarean section after treatment of pulmonary edema. All three premature low birth weight babies survived after cesarean birth .Patient required admission in intensive care unit for three days after caesarean section .Patient was discharged on eighteenth postoperative day with three fully breastfed babies.
434-437 pdf
Jaqueline A. Machado,Marcia A.Rebelo,Laura I.L. Favaro, Marta M.D.C.Vila,Marli Gerenutti

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230438443  

ANED : 05.3013/023438443  

The use of vegetable preservatives as inputs in cosmetics has been increasing worldwide and the research with these herbal drugs are of great relevance. Thus, this study/research evaluated the antimicrobial potential of the combination/association of the lyophilized powder of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and the essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum L. as an alternative to the use of parabens in O/W emulsion. The antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity of the association of the lyophilized powder of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and the essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum L was determined by the diffusion disk technique method. The final result/obtained served/ as parameter for an incorporation of 5% of each vegetable drug in the emulsion as preservative system. The pharmaceutical preparation containing combination of herbal drugs was subjected to the "Challenge Test" against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Arpesgillus brasilienses which showed to be a powerful or leading preservative.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Challenge test, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Syzygium aromaticum L,Vegetable preservatives.
438-443 pdf
16 Efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol in second trimester medical termination of pregnancy
Dr.V B Bangal, Dr.Nisarg H Patel, Dr.Sai.K. Borawake

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230444447  

ANED : 05.3013/023444447  

Search for safe and effective method for second trimester termination of pregnancy continue from the time, when pregnancy termination was legalized through MTP act in India. With the knowledge about the potent uterotonic potential of misoprostol ,a synthetic prostaglandin analog , it is being (off label) used for second trimester termination of pregnancy with satisfactory results .Various dosage schedules and routes have been tried for this purpose .Present study was carried out to know the efficacy and safety of vaginal administration of misoprostol for second trimester of pregnancy .One hundred forty eight women seeking termination of pregnancy in second trimester, for various indications as per MTP act, over three years period at government approved MTP center, attached to Medical college hospital, were included in the study .Initial dose of 400 microgram of misoprostol by per vaginal route ,followed by 200 microgram was used for induction of abortion. Overall success rate was 92 percent and average induction abortion interval was 14 hours .There were no serious side effects or complications related to misoprostol .Average dose required for complete abortion was 1200 micrograms .Misoprostol was found to be safe and effective for second trimester medical termination of pregnancy.

Keywords - Vaginal misoprostol, Medical termination of pregnancy, Second trimester termination of pregnancy
444-447 pdf
17 Mothers' misconception and traditional practises towards infant teething' symptomsin Khartoum
Mona AwadKamil

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230448451  

ANED : 05.3013/023448451  

Background: Teething is a natural process which creates little discomfort. Mothers in Sudan, regardless of their educational levels have strong and deeply rooted believes that infant teething, causes many medical problems to infants; despite no evidence to support these belief and misconceptions. Some traditional practices for relieving teething's symptoms have caused serious harm and even death.
Objective: The aims of this study were to
(i) Investigate the mothers' beliefs about teething signs and symptoms in Sudan.
(ii) Investigate the mothers' practices used to alleviate teething troubles.
Methodology and Results:
A cross-sectional survey involved 300 mothers presented at primary health care paediatric unit in Khartoum, using questionnaire. More than 95% of the respondents thought that babies can experience medical problems as a result of teething. The commonest medical problems perceived to be associated with teething were diarrhoea (80.3%), fever (86.6%), and loss of appetite (75%) and drooling of saliva (96%) Conclusions: This study showed a common misconception and myths about teething among mothers. Mothers should be better educated about the teething process and the proper management of teething troubles by the dental health care providers.
448-451 pdf
18 Effect Of Gender Difference On Visual Reaction Time : A Study On Medical Students Of Bhavnagar Region
Dr.RiteshM.Karia, Dr.Tejas P.Ghuntla, Dr.Hemant B.Mehta , Dr.Pradnya A. Gokhale,
Dr. Chinmay J. Shah

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230452454  

ANED : 05.3013/023452454  

The measurement of visual reaction time has been used to evaluate the processing speed of Central Nervous System and the co-ordination between the sensory and motor systems. Reaction time is influenced by different factors. Effect of gender difference on visual reaction time has been observed in this study. Present study was carried out on 100 medical students of Bhavnagar medical college between the age of 17-20. Out of them 50 were boys and 50 were girls. Study was done under three module. In first module detail medical history of subject were taken, in second module visual reaction time of subjects was measured using reaction time instrument and in third module statical analysis was done by unpaired 't' test. From study it was concluded that reaction time is less in boys than girls.

Keywords: gender difference, medical students, visual reaction time
452-454 pdf
19 Phytochemical Screening of Solanum nigrum L and S.myriacanthus Dunal from Districts of Upper Assam, India.
Pronob Gogoi, M. Islam

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230455459  

ANED : 05.3013/023455459  

The present investigation designed to evaluate the phytochemical screening on leaf extract of Solanum nigrum L and S.myriacanthus Dunal from districts of Upper Assam. Three districts were selected such as Sivasagar,Dibrugarh and Lakhimpur etc.The phytochemical constituents like alkaloids,saponins,tannins, flavonoides and proteins of both species in dry and shady areas was investigated qualitatively.The results reveals that the protein is more abundant on Solanum nigrum L of shady areas than S. myriacanthus Dunal as comparatively of dry areas of three different districts of the same. Apart from protein, other phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids,saponins,tannins, flavonoides are more or less presence in both species of the study areas. The study scientifically validates the use of both species in traditional medicine.

Keywords: Phytochemicals, Solanum nigrum L, S.myriacanthus Dunal, Upper Assam.
455-459 pdf

Medical Utility of Cannabis Sativa

Dr. G.O. Ayenigbara

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230460463  

ANED : 05.3013/023460463  

Cannabis Sativa (Marijuana) is a crop which is grown all over the world. The plant is one of the most hated, maligned and detested any where in the world and huge sums of money and efforts are being expended to annihilate its production, distribution, marketing and consumption. Cannabis sativa is erroneously believed to cause deleterious health problems among other controversies. However, studies have shown that this plant, apart from being regarded as one of the five sacred crops, has a lot of medical, recreational, commercial and social uses. Evidences have also shown that marijuana is useful in the control and management of chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Cancer, Asthma, Glaucoma, Cachexia, Hypertension, Depression, etc. Nevertheless, further research is required to make this wonderful plant more useful to humanity.

Keywords: Marijuana, Cachexia, Glaucoma, Asthma, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Hysteria, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Canabis Sativa, Cancer
460-463 pdf

Endocrine Function with Aqueous Fruit Extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. In Albino Rats Chronically Administered Triton-X to Induce Hyperlipidemia

O. A. Sodipo, F.I. Abdulrahman, U.K. Sandabe, B. Wampana

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230464474  

ANED : 05.3013/023464474  

Studies were conducted on the effect of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. in chronic triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. The plant was Soxhlet-extracted with distilled water and the extract concentrated in vacuo with a yield of 15.34 % w/w. The extract was stored in a specimen bottle in a desiccator at room temperature until when required. The endocrine function parameters: thyroid hormones (thyroxine ie. T4, 3, 5, 3′ triiodothyronine i.e. T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone ie. TSH), testosterone, 17β – oestradiol and insulin were determined. The results showed that with increase in extract dose there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in TSH and T4 at 72 hrs whilst there was no change for T3 (p>0.05) throughout the period of study. Oestradiol levels increased significantly (p<0.05) at 24 hrs and 72 hrs when compared to the negative control (Group one), but the levels of the oestradiol level in the negative control was however higher than that of the rats not administered the extract (positive control or Group two). The positive control had an oestradiol level of (15.00±4.24) pg/ml, (12.00±1.49) pg/ml and (13.50±2.54) pg/ml at 24 hrs, 48hrs and 72 hrs respectively whilst the values of the oestradiol in the negative control rats (group one) are (36.50±2.12) pg/ml, (20.00±4.24) pg/mol and (24.50±2.12) pg/mol at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs respectively. The increase in the testosterone level with increase in extract dose was significant (p<0.05) at 48 hrs whilst the insulin levels increased significantly (p<0.05) at 48 hrs and 72 hrs when compared to the negative control. The aqueous fruit extract of S. macrocarpum by increasing the level of the thyroid homones, testosterone, 17β oestratdiol and insulin in hyperlipidemic rats in this study probably imply a lipid lowering effect.

Keywords: Solanum macrocarpum Linn, aqueous extract, triton–X endocrine function, chronic hyperlipidemic rats.
464-474 pdf
Bangal Vidyadhar B, Chandaliya Rajiv M, Pandit Hrishikesh A

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230475478  

ANED : 05.3013/023475478  

Background: - Occurrence of stillbirth pose difficult situation for the obstetrician and cause great psychological and emotional trauma to the couple and the family. It reflects the suboptimum quality of maternal and child health services. Stillbirth rates are unacceptably high in developing countries .Study was carried out to find out the causes of stillbirths and the socio demographic profile of women ,who had stillbirth. Material and Methods: - A clinical observational study was undertaken at tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 10 months from January 2011 to October 2011. Results:-Illiteracy, rural residence, lack of antenatal care ,low socioeconomic status were commonly associated with stillbirths. Pregnancy induced hypertension, ante partum hemorrhage ,cord related accidents and preterm labour were mainly responsible for stillbirths .Low birth weight and extreme prematurity were directly related to stillbirths. Conclusion:- High rate of ante partum stillbirths due to hypertension ,ante partum hemorrhage and preterm labour can be reduced by early recognition of the problem ,regular antenatal check ,color Doppler study to diagnose fetal growth restriction, and timely obstetric intervention .Ultrasonograpy to diagnose cord abnormalities ,use of intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring, partograph and prevention of prolongation of second stage of labour will help in reduction of stillbirths.
Keywords:- Perinatal mortality ,Perinatal deaths , Stillbirths
475-478 pdf

Dielectric and Spectroscopic Investigations of Amorphous Captopril

Sailaja Urpayil, M.Shahin Thayyil

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230479484  

ANED : 05.3013/023479484  

Captopril, an orally active dipeptide analogue was introduced in 1977 and used for the treatment of hypertension and in patients having ischaemic heart disease. Since the bioavailability of the drug is low, an alternative method is to increase its bioavailability and solubility is by changing the drug in to amorphous form. We used Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for studying the glass forming ability of the drug. The sample was found to be a very good glass former. Based on the DSC analysis we have used broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) for studying the drug in the super cooled and glassy state. BDS is an effective tool to probe the molecular dynamics in the super cooled and glassy state. Molecular mobility is found to be present even in the glassy state of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is responsible for the instability. The sample is highly unstable in the amorphous state and our aim is to study the factors responsible for instability of this API. Our FTIR study showed that hydrogen boding is stronger in the amorphous state than that of crystalline state of this API.
API Active pharmaceutical ingredient; BDS Broadband dielectric spectroscopy; ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme; DSC Differential scanning calorimetry; FTIR fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; VFTH Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman-Hesse. XRPD X-Ray Powder diffraction.
Keywords. Amorphous state, Bioavailability, Broadband dielectric spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry, Molecular dynamics.
479-484 pdf
24 A study on the job satisfaction levels of Pharmacists working in a community pharmacy set-up at northern part of Kerala.
Mr. Kiron.S.S, Dr. Premaletha.K, Mr. P.L.Rajagopal, Mrs. Saritha M

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230485490  

ANED : 05.3013/023485490  

Job satisfaction is a very important contributing factor for person's productivity and motivation. A Cross sectional survey was conducted in Kannur district. A multiple choice questionnaire was prepared and used to obtain the data. Of the 53 pharmacies, 78% of pharmacists working in these regions had D. Pharm qualification and 10% were B.Pharm graduates. 39.6% of the study population is under stress of the profession and they worries about the work issues even when they are at home. 60.3% receives support from their supervisors. 1.8% of the study population considers that the work activities are personally meaningless. A very few population still thinks that their job as a community pharmacist is not a professional position and they does not receive a professional value from other people of the society. In summary, the pharmacists were satisfied with their interpersonal relations as measured in the subscales, patient interaction, coworkers and supervision.
Keywords: work load, worry, professional value.
485-490 pdf


Suneel. I. Majagi*, S. S. Torgal, S. V. Hiremath

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230491492  

ANED : 05.3013/023491492  

491-492 pdf

Kinetics of Oxidation of Propranolol By Sodium – N – Chloro – p-Toluene Sulphonamide in NaOH medium. A Mechanistic Study

R. Ramachandrappaa, Diwyab, Pushpa Iyengar

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230493499  

ANED : 05.3013/023493499  

Propranolol is used for treating high blood pressure, heart pain, abnormal rhythms of the heart and some neurologic conditions. Kinetics and oxidation of Propranolol (PPL) ((RS)-1-(1-methylethylamino)-3-(1-naphthyloxy)propan-2-ol) by sodium -N- chloro - benzenesulphonamide (Chloramine – T or CAT) in NaOH medium at 298K have been studied. The rate was first order in [CAT]o, fractional order in [PPL] and zero order in [OH-]. Addition of p-toluenesulphonamide, NaCl and NaBr did not affect the rate of the reaction. Variation in ionic strength did not affect the rate of the reaction indicating that non – ionic species are involved in the rate limiting step. The dielectric effect of the medium shows positive effect. Rate increased with increase in temperature from 288K to 318K. From the linear Arrhenius plot, activation parameters were computed. Addition of reaction mixture to aqueous acrylonitrile solution did not initiate polymerization, showing the absence of free radicals species. Oxidation products were identified. TsNClNa, the reactive species oxidizes the substrate. Based on kinetic results, reaction stoichiometry and oxidation products, a suitable mechanism have been proposed.

Keywords: Alkaline medium, Chloramine – T, Kinetics, Mechanism, Oxidation, Propranolol
493-499 pdf
27 Assessment of Microbiological quality by coliform estimation in drinking water sources of Mathura region

Udit Jain, Basanti Bist1 and D.D. Lalwani

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230500503  

ANED : 05.3013/023500503  

A total of 100 water samples from various sources of drinking water namely municipal tap water (n = 20), packaged drinking water of different brands (n = 20), underground water (hand pump and submersible water) (n = 40) and stored water (Public places like hospitals, railway station & bus stand etc.)( n = 20) were collected from different areas of Mathura, Uttar Pradesh and estimation of coliform bacilli was carried out in a water supply by multiple tube technique. Of 100 water samples, 20 had no coliforms, whereas remaining 80 (80%) had coliforms ranging from 1 to >1600/100 ml of water. Most of the positive samples had coliform count ranging between 1-10 (21%), < 50 (18%) and > 1600 (28%). Only 13 (13%) of the samples had coliforms count ranging between 50-1600. The poor microbial quality of drinking water samples, as revealed in this study is a matter of public health concern.

Keywords: Assessment, Microbiological quality, Drinking water, Coliform, Enterobacteriaceae, Mathura
500-503 pdf

Scenario of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli in a rural medical college of Himachal Pradesh

Dr Anuradha Sood, Dr Lata R Chandel, Dr Smriti Chauhan, Dr Kamlesh Thakur,

Dr Subhash Jaryal.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230504508  

ANED : 05.3013/023504508  

Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) are beta-lactamases that hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins. They confer resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics with the exception of carbapenems. ESBL-producing organisms may appear susceptible to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing. The detection of ESBL's in 175 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli was done by a screening test, followed by comparison between two confirmatory tests i.e. double disc synergy test (DDST) and the Disc on disc (DOD) test. ESBL production was detected by DDST in 45% and by DOD in 23% of cases. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern by Kirby Bauer technique showed that 54% isolates were resistant to all the six first line antibiotics. Maximum drug resistance with ampicillin and no resistance with meropenem was seen. The results show that there is a high frequency of ESBL producing E.coli in our hospital . We recommend that an appropriate antibiotic policy should be framed in every hospital to check for indiscriminate use of drugs and that ESBL detection by DDST should be mandatory for every laboratory as it a easy and convenient way to detect drug resistance.

Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases, double disc synergy test , Disc on disc, Escherichia coli.
504-508 pdf
29 Oral microbial pathogens isolates in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients. A baseline survey of the sociale institute of health and hygiene of Dakar.
P.G.Sow, K.Toure, M. Coume, A.T. Dia P.D.Diallo, I.Traore

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230509511  

ANED : 05.3013/023509511  

The subjects were evaluated in correlation of the CD4 count, viral load and types of oral microbes isolated and the fungal infections in newly diagnosed patients with HIV infection prior to commencement of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Fifty – seven newly diagnosed HIV positive patients were included in this on going study. The CD4 count, viral load were obtained. Oral examination was carried out and Buccal swabs was taken for Microscopy, Culture and Sensitivity. Males were 14(24.6%) and 43(75.4%) were females. About 39% of the patients are within 30-39 years.The pattern of microbial pathogens isolated were: Pseudomonas spp 16.5% , Klebsiella spp. 15.3% , Proteus spp. 12.9% Staphylococcus aureus in 12.9% Escherichia coli 9.40%, Candida albican 7.1%, Streptococcus faecalis 2.4%, Non Haemolytic streptococcus 2.4% and Staphylococcus albus 21.2%. Concomitant tuberculosis infection was found in 3 patients .An inverse correlation was noted between the CD4 count and the viral load, which was statistically significant. The frequency of the oral lesions and the microbial isolates increased with high viral load. Seventy percent of the newly diagnosed HIV patients had CD4 counts less than 500 mm3. The reduction of the oral microbial load may decrease the incidence of opportunistic infection. Unmet oral health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS have been consistently documented and finding new strategies for meeting these needs is urgent.

Keywords: Viral load, CD4 count, Oral, Microbial isolates. HIV infection.
30 Immobilization of Vigna Radiata β amylase onto sodium nitrate treated and chlorinated woven Bombyx mori silk fabric
Kirti Rani, Krishna Jemamoni

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230512519  

ANED : 05.3013/023512519  

Vigna radiata β-amylase was immobilized onto activated woven Bombyx mori silk fabric with glutaraldehyde and amino groups enrichment made by chlorination and by treatment with sodium nitrate (NaNO3). The immobilization of enzyme onto sodium nitrate treated and chlorinated woven Bombyx mori silk fabric was excellent by having 90% of retention of enzyme activity after the immobilization. The optimum conditions of immobilized enzyme were studied such as time of incubation, pH, temperature, substrate concentration and CaCl2 concentration. Thermal stability of the enzyme was improved after immobilization which was 72°C as compared to free enzyme which was only 40°C. In addition, the immobilized enzyme has good storage stability and reusability by maintaining 60% of its activity up to 3-4 months.
Keywords: Vigna radiata , β-Amylase, glutaraldehyde, immobilization and Bombyx mori silk fabric.
512-519 pdf

Phytochemical Analysis of Hybanthus enneaspermus using UV, FTIR and GC- MS

T. Anand, K.Gokulakrishnan

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230520524  

ANED : 05.3013/023520524  

The present study was carried out to characterize the bioactive constituents present in ethanolic extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus using UV, FTIR and GC-MS. The crude extracts were scanned in the wavelength ranging from 300-1100 nm by using Perkin Elmer Spectrophotometer and the characteristic peaks were detected. For GC-MS analysis, 20 g sample is extracted with 50 ml ethanol, filtered in ash less filter paper with 4 g sodium sulphate and the extract is concentrated to 1 ml by bubbling nitrogen into the solution. The compound detection employed the NIST Ver. 2.0 - Year 2005 library. The biological activities are based on Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases by Dr. Jim Duke of the Agricultural Research Service/USDA. The UV profile showed different peaks ranging from 300-1100 nm with different absorption respectively. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of phenols, alcohols, alkanes, alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, aromatics, nitro compounds and amines in ethanolic extract. The results of the GC-MS analysis provide different peaks determining the presence of phytochemical compounds with different therapeutic activities. The major phytoconstituents were (5E,13E)-5,13-Docosadienoic acid (20.90%) and Cedran-diol, 8S, 14- (13.02) which are possessing many biological activities. hence this study creates a platform to screen many bioactive components to treat many diseases.

Keywords: FTIR , GC-MS, Hybanthus enneaspermus , Phytochemical, UV-spectrometry
520-524 pdf


Adebayo Adekunle Buraimoh, Samuel Adeniyi Ojo, Joseph Olajide Hambolu, Sunday Samuel Adebisi

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230525533  

ANED : 05.3013/023525533  

Aluminium is presents in many manufactured foods, medicines and is also added to drinking water for purification purposes. It presence has so heavily contaminated the environment that exposure to it is virtually inescapable. The liver is the largest gland of the body that processes blood and breaks down nutrients, drugs into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible effects that aluminium chloride exposure could have on the histology of the liver. Ten wistar rats were used and were divided into five groups; group I was the control, group II received 475mg kg-1, group III received 950mgkg-1, group IV received 1,425mg kg-1 and group V received 1,900mg kg-1 via oral intubation for duration of eight weeks. The liver tissues was fixed, processed, stained in H&E and slides viewed under light microscope. Our observations showed that aluminium chloride exposure was detrimental to the liver of wistar rats, as indicated by congested central vein and distorted sinusoids.

Keywords: Effects, Aluminium Chloride, Histology, Liver, Wistar Rats.
525-533 pdf
Bangal Vidyadhar B, Giri Purushottam A, Chandaliya Rajiv M

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230534536  

ANED : 05.3013/023534536  

Caesarean section is the most frequently performed major surgery in modern Obstetrics. The rate of caesarean section have shown significant rise in last three decades .This trend is seen all over the world .This has some serious implications on the risk of scar rupture and resultant rise in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality .This paper summarizes the changing trends and the reasons behind it. Obstetrician must keep in mind the possible threats of rise in caesarean section rates and must perform this procedure judiciously.

Keywords: Caesarean section, Scar rupture, Rupture uterus, maternal mortality
534-536 pdf

Polyclonal antibodies against isoflavones: fast screening method for Forage legume species

J. F.Farias, K. M. R. Duarte, L. H. Gomes, F.F.Pessoa, A. J. F. de Melo, J. A. P Savisky

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230537539  

ANED : 05.3013/023537539  

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked. The isolation of isoflavones are done from soybean and research one or more sources of isoflavones means biodiversity and sustainability, leaving soybean as a protein source for animal and human feeding. This study aimed to develop polyclonal antibodies to identify isoflavones in different leguminosae species, from a Tropical Forage Genebank, optimizing an immunoenzymatic assay. Our results indicate antibodies produced are highly sensitive and specific to isoflavones and can be used to screen plants with isoflavones in fast and easy method .

ELISA, isoflavones, leguminous species, polyclonal antibodies, vegetal biodiversity.

Sensitivity Enhancement of Multidrug Resistant Urinary Tract Escherichia Coli Isolate to Some Commonly Used Antibiotics after Treatment with Non-Toxic Laboratory Concentrations of Homodium Bromide


DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230540568  

ANED : 05.3013/023540568  

Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out invitro on fifteen pure culture strains of Escherichia coli labeled EC1 – EC15 isolated from male midstream urine samples obtained from the Medical Microbiology department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Eleven (73.3%) of the strains resisted 8(67.7%) of antibiotics used. EC8 strain was randomly selected for sensitivity enhancement by treatment with non-toxic laboratory concentrations of 0.25-1.05ug/ml homodium bromide and incubation done at 37oC for 6hours, 12hours, 18hours and 24hours separately. EC8 strain susceptibility profile was determined before treatment with HmBr. Before treatment, whereas EC8 strain was resistant to 8(72.8%) of antibiotics used, it was sensitive to only 3(27.2%) which included gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and streptomycin. Mean zones of inhibition recorded for the three antibiotics after 6, 12, 18 and 24hours incubation were 0.73mm, 0.87mm, 1.53mm and 2.07mm respectively. After treatment and 6hours incubation, 0.35, 0.45, 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml HmBr concentrations produced significant sensitivity enhancements of 2.83±1.58mm, 1.40±0.86mm, 2.53±0.29mm and 1.20±0.50mm respectively (P<0.05) of which sensitivity enhancements by 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml HmBr dilutions were highly significant (P<0.01). After treatment and 12hours incubation, 0.35, 0.45, 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml dilutions produced significant enhancements (P<0.05) with enhancements produced by 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml dilutions being highly significant (P<0.01). While there was no highly significant sensitivity enhancement (P<0.01) after 18hours incubation, only 0.35ug/ml dilution produced significant enhancement (P<0.05) of 2.40±1.49mm. There was no record of highly significant enhancements at all (P<0.01) after 24hours incubation. A four fold (2.5ug), two fold (5ug), two fold (5ug), four fold (2.5ug) and four fold (2.5ug) reductions in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin were produced by HmBr dilutions of 0.35, 0.45, 0.75, 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml respectively. Mean percentage sensitivity enhancements of multidrug resistant EC8 to gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and streptomycin at 6, 12, 18 and 24hours incubation after treatment were 171.7%, 138.9%, 57.4% and 50.8% respectively. Results suggest a general role for the use of 0.85 and 0.95ug/ml HmBr concentrations as enhancers of non-specific bacterial permeability to antimicrobial agents of which these dilutions may be incorporated into antibiotics during production for enhanced therapeutic performance when consumed in situ.

The Efficasy Of Music In Lowering Intra-Operative Sedation Requirement And Recall Of Intra Operative Processes
Vijay Sharma

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230569578  

ANED : 05.3013/023569578  

Background: It has been known for a long time that music has characteristic psychological and physiological effects in humans. It is a non-pharmacological technique that is inexpensive, non invasive and has no major side effects. Surgery with music is being increasingly reported at many of the today‟s modern hospitals, documenting music‟s powerful soothing, calming, sedating effects on subjects including a significant reduction in the amount of anesthesia needed.
Aims and Objectives: To find out whether patients undergoing elective surgery under regional anesthesia, who hear a pre-selected music during surgery through a headphone, need a lower dose of intra-operative sedatives and have a reduced recall of intra-operative processes.
Methods: 60 Patients undergoing elective orthopedic,gynaecological or urological Surgeries under regional anaesthesia between June to August 2009 were randomized into either listening to Music(group M,n=30),or not listening to music(group C,n=30). Midazolum was given for sedation in either of the groups to achieve a Observer‟s Assessment of Sedation/Alertness Score(OAS) of 3 or less.We compared the total dose of Midazolum required and OAS scores in both the groups. Post operative recall of Intraoperative processes by patient was assessed on answers to a 6 point Questionnaire and VAS score for pain,discomfort and dissatisfaction with the sedative method employed was sought.
Results:The Mean dose Of Midazolum to achieve Sedation was significantly lower (p<0.01) in the patients that listened to Music during their surgery.Desirable OAS score (<3) were significantly better in the Music group at 90 ant 120 min from start of the surgery .There was no significant differences in the VAS scores for pain ,discomfort or dissatisfcation with the sedation method employed in either groups(P>0.01). Intra operative instances of conversations between the doctors/nurses and other OR staff and Sounds of monitors, instruments,etc were more significantly recalled by those who did not listened to music during their surgery (P<0.01).
Conclusion: Our study concludes that patients undergoing elective surgery under regional anesthesia , who hear a pre-selected music during surgery through a head-phone, need lower dosage of intra-operative sedatives and have a reduced recall of intra-operative processes thus creating an effective,safe and cheap non pharmacological method of sedating conscious patients operated under regional anaesthesia.We recommend that Favourite Music via headphones should be provided to all the patients who are fond of music listening during the surgical procedures expected to last one and half hours or more .

Keywords: Music, Intraoperative sedation, Recall of intraoperative processes.

Rao, P.J, Kumari, R.S,Babji J.S, Naga Lakshmi, N.V.R and Raju, Ch.A.I.

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230579592  

ANED : 05.3013/023579592  


Water pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded the limits and causing health problems for living beings on earth. The present paper comprises the optimization and biosorption of lead from aqueous solution using Albizia saman leaf powder as biosorbent. Single Step Optimization was considered for preliminary runs with the variables agitation time, biosorbent size, pH of the solution, initial concentration of the aqueous solution, dosage of biosorbent and temperature. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was used for final runs optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Results indicated that the optimum agitation time for biosorption of lead is 50 min. The increase in mass of biosorbent lead to increase in lead (pb) ion biosorption due to the increase in the number of active biosorption sites. Maximum percentage biosorption is observed at a pH of 6 and with particle size of 53 μm. Experimental data were better described by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir equation followed by Freundlich and Temkin. Over and all, Albizia Saman leaf powder can be used as an effective natural biosorbent for the economic treatment of aqueous solutions containing lead.


Keywords - Albizia Saman, biosorption, optimization, isotherms, kinetics

38 Correlation of anthropometric parameters on blood pressure in normotensive males.
Sunitha P, Satyanarayana N

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230593598  

ANED : 05.3013/023593598  

Hypertension is most common disorder worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing. In the present study an attempt has been made to examine the effect of anthropometric parameters on blood pressure in normotensive males. The present study was carried out in physiology department, Prathima Medical College, Karimnagar, (A.P.), India. Subjects were mainly staff of Prathima Medical College and old age home, Karimnagar. Included male subjects who had no significant aliments. This was done in accordance with joint national committee report guidelines. According to the study, it can concluded that BMI,WHR, showed a statistically significant positive correlation with diastolic blood pressure. But age did not show the expected impact on either systolic or diastolic blood pressure.

Keywords: hypertension, BMI, WHR.
39 A study on the effect of Aldosterone antagonist on Nociception and anxiety in Swiss albino mice
Suresh.M, Chandrasekar.M, Nilesh N.Kate, S.Qairunnisa, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad & Ambareesha Kondam

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0230599603  

ANED : 05.3013/023599603  

An aldosterone antagonist, used for the treatment of hypertension, edema, hyper-aldosteronism and also act as the anti-inflammatory functions. Spironolactone is a steroid, easily available and marketed as a trade name aldactone. This drug is used for blocking aldosterone dependent sodium transport in the distal tubule of the kidney in order to reduce oedema and to treat essential hypertension and primary hyperaldosteronism. In this study aldosterone antagonist Spironolactone was administrated to find the effect of thermally induced pain, visceral pain and behavioral response in Swiss albino mice. The effects of spironolactone aldosterone antagonist, were examined on thermally-induced pain using the hot-plate and hot water tail immersion test (53-54°C). The visceral nociception was observed by intra-peritoneal acetic acid injection and the behavioral responses in the mice were examined by using open field behavioral model test. In hot plate test and hot water tail immersion test spironolactone significantly(0.01) reduces the pain threshold in dose dependent manner and increases the somatic pain, was as in visceral pain induced by acetic acid writhing spironolactone significantly(0.003) increases the pain threshold and decreases the visceral pain. In behavioral study spironolactone decrease the ambulation, rearing and grooming and significantly (0.01) increases immobilization time and urination. Spironolactone increased somatic pain in hot plate test and hot water tail immersion test and decreases visceral pain in writhing test. The spironolactone also altered the behavioral response in mice, such as increased immobilization and decreased ambulation.

Keywords: Spironolactone, aldosterone antagonist, and Swiss albino mice.





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