Volume 4 ~ Issue 10 October 2014

 

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Studies on combined effect of Aeromonas hydrophila and cadmium on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in selected tissues of Indian freshwater major carp, Catla catla: role of silver nanoparticles

Country

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India

Authors

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T. Kiran Reddy||T.N.V.K.V. Prasad|| S. Janardana Reddy

Page No.

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01-07

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-040100107

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/04100107  

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of dual stressors cadmium (Cd) and Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) on pro-and antioxidant status in gills, kidneys and liver tissues of fishes, Catla catla treated with or without silver nano-particles. Significant elevation in the lipid peroxidation levels with a significant decrease in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase in were observed in gills, kidneys and liver tissues of fishes exposed to individual and/or in combination with Cd and AH over controls. However, significant elevation in the activity levels of xanthine oxidase was observed in the selected tissues of fishes treated with Cd, AH and Cd+AH over controls. On the other hand, AgNPs showed a reversal effect on Cd-, AH- and Cd+AH-induced alterations in lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymes in gills, kidneys and liver tissues of fishes over their respective controls. No significant changes were observed in lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymes in selected tissues of fishes exposed to AgNPs alone as compared to untreated fishes. From the findings it is clear that AgNPs protects gills, kidneys and liver against Cd and AH induced oxidative stress. Further studies in this direction might definitely augment the use of nano-based compounds as therapeutic candidates in fisheries.

 

Key Words: A. hydrophila, Catla catla, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, silver nanoparticles

[1]. K. Anjani, P.K. Joshi and S.B. Pratap, Fisheries Sector in India: An Overview of Performance, Policies and Programmes, in K. Anjani, K.K. Pradeep and P.K. Joshi (Eds.), A Profile of People, Technologies and Policies in Fisheries Sector in India, (2003) 1-16.

[2]. B. Mohanty, S. Mohanty, J. Sahoo and A. Sharma, Climate Change: Impacts on Fisheries and Aquaculture, in S. Simard (Ed.), Climate Change and Variability, (Europe: Sciyo, Intech, 2010) 1-486.
[3]. M. J. A. Sarkar and M. M. Rashid, Pathogenicity of the bacterial isolate Aeromonas hydrophila to catfishes, carps and perch, Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University 10(1), 2012, 157-161. [4]. S. Ayyappan, and J.K. Jena, Grow-out production of carps in India, Journal of Applied Aquaculture 13(3/4), 2003, 251-282.
[5]. J.L. Torres, M. Sharif and A.T. Law, Identification and virulence screening of Aeromonas spp. isolated from healthy and epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) infected fish, in R. Hirano, and I. Hanyu (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum, (Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippine, 1996) pp. 663-668.
[6]. H.A.C.C. Perera, and A. Pathiratne, Enhancement of immune responses in Indian carp, Catla catla, following adistration of levamisole by immersion, in M.G. Bondad-Reantaso, C.V. Mohan, M. Crumlish, and R.P. Subasinghe, (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VI. Fish Health Section, (Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, 2008) pp 505.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Effect Of Roselle Extract (Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn.) On Blood Glucose Level And Total Antioxidant Level On Diabetic Rat Induced By Streptozotocin

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Mardiah ||Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria || Endang Prangdimurti|| Rizal Damanik

Page No.

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08-16

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-0401008016

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041008016 

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) contains phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins which act as antioxidants. The purposes of this study were to examine the antioxidant capacity and capability of purple roselle extract as an antidiabetics in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin(STZ). A total of 24 male rats was used in this study. The rats were divided into six groups including group of normal rats as standard group (SG), diabetic rats given distilled water (DiW), diabetic rats given roselle extract 72 mg/day/200 g bw (DiR1), diabetic rats given roselle extract 288 mg/day/200 g bw (DiR2), preventive rats (PR1) which were rats given roselle extract 72 mg/day/200 g bw for 11 days then injected with STZ and continued with roselle extract 72 mg/day/200 g bw until the 21th day, and the last group was glibenclamide rats (DiG), were diabetic rats given glibenclamide 0.09 mg/day/200g bw. Roselle extract was given orally administered 2ml/day/rat for 21 days. Results showed that blood sugar of DiR2, DiG and PR1 rat groups tended to decrease. Total antioxidant capacity ( TAC ) in DiR1 (0.2655 ± 0.0016 mM) was same with others group (DiR2, PR1, DiG). Negative control rats (DiW) had the lowest total antioxidant capacity (0.0893 ± 0.0134 mM). The content of malonaldehyde (MDA) of liver not significant (P>0.05) but MDA of kidney was significant (P<0.05), that DiR1, PR1, DiG, DiR2 was lower than in DiW. Insulin content analysis showed that DiR1 had the highest insulin levels (0.4433±0.1802 ng/ml) and differ significantly with DiW. Meanwhile groups of negative control rats (DiW) had the lowest insulin levels (0.1286 ± 0.0337ng/ml). It was concluded that roselle extract had the ability to lower blood sugar (both curative and preventive), increase of antioxidant capacity, and improve insulin production.

 

Key-words:blood glucose, roselle, streptozotocin, total antioxidant capacity

[1] Sukandar, Yulinah, Elin, Andrajati, Retnosari, I.Sigit, Joseph,Adyana, K.I.Setiadi, A.Prayitno, and A.Kusnandar, ISO farmakoterapi (Jakarta :PT ISFI,2008).

[2] F.Giacco, and M.Brownlee, Pathogenesis of microvascular complication, in R.I.G. Holt, C. Cokram,A.Flyvbjerg,B.J.Goldstein, (eds), Textbook of diabetes, 4 (UK: A John Wiley &Sons Ltd Publ., 2010)

[3] A.J.Delli, H.E. Larsson, S.A.Ivarsson, and A.Lernmark, Type I diabetes, in R.I.G. Holt, C. Cokram,A.Flyvbjerg,B.J.Goldstein, (eds), Textbook of diabetes, 4 (UK: A John Wiley &Sons Ltd Publ., 2010)

[4] R.P.Robertson, J.Harmon, P.O.Tran, Y.Tanaka, and H.Takahashi, Glucose toxicity in β cell type 2 diabetes, good radical gone bad and the gluthatione connection, Diabetes, 52, 2003, 581-587.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Luteolin isolate from the methanol extract identified as the single-carbon compound responsible for broad antiulcer activities of Cassia singueana Leaves.

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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O.J. Ode|| I.U. Asuzu

Page No.

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17-23

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010017023

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041017023 

The results of earlier studies by my team of researchers demonstrated the wide spectrum of in vivo gastro-protective effects of the methanol extract of Cassia singueana leaves (MECSL) in rats. The crude extract exhibited profound potency against experimentally-induced ulcerative lesions in various gastric ulcer induction models (pyloric ligation/histamine, indomethacin and ethanol-mediated stomach ulcers) in rats. The activities of the extract thus, authenticated the claim of high folkloric efficacy of the plant leaves in diverse chronic peptic ulcer therapies in Northern Nigeria. Bioassay-guided fraction using column chromatography, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and indomethacin treatment afforded the isolation of the bioactive compound. A further TLC purification of this pure compound facilitated the isolation of the single-carbon antiulcer agent from MECSL. Structural and molecular elucidation of this active principle with Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry enabled its identification as luteolin. Luteolin is a known compound which is safe and possesses multiplicity of effects against gastric ulceration. The results of this study provide indications for conducting clinical trials with luteolin as a potential sole antiulcer agent.

 

Key-words:Antiulcer; Cassia singueana; Helicobacter pylori; Luteolin; Indomethacin

[1]K. Takeuchi, and S. Okabe, Acid back-diffusion and mucosal H+ handling in the rat stomach under normal and stress-induced conditions, The Japanese J. Pharmacol., 33, 1982, 85-93.

[2] H. Tanaka, K. Shuto, and N. Nakamizo, Exacerbation of acetic acid induced by Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rats, The Japanese J. Pharmacol., 33, 1983, 447-454.

[3] T. Brzozowski, P.C.H. Konturek, Z. Sliwowski, D. Drozdowicz, E.G. Hahn, and S.J. Konturek, Importance of nitric oxide and capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in healing of stress lesions induced by epidermal growth factor, J. Clin. Gastroenterol., 25, 1997, 28-38.

[4] D.R. Laurence, P.N. Bennett, and M.J. Brown, Clinical Pharmacology (London: Churchill Livingstone, 1997) 567-578.

[5] P.L. Munson, R.A. Mueller, and G. R. Breese, Principles of pharmacology: Basic concepts and clinical applications (USA: Chapman & Hall, 1995) 1063-1081.

[6] J. Blum, A. Garner, and I. Fridovich, Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase by superoxide radical, Arch. Biophys., 240, 1986, 500.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Consumer-Oriented Drug Information Service Needs Assessment

Country

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USA

Authors

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Timothy K. Cheum|| Kejal V. Patel|| Rodney G. Richmond

Page No.

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24-27

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010024027

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041024027 

Federal legislation that has been introduced to amend the Social Security Act in order to provide for coverage of cognitive pharmacist services under the Medicare program in medically underserved communities. In the rural state of Arkansas this legislation would be well-received because a large portion of the state meets the criteria of a health professional shortage area. Considering the growing interest of using telecommunications as an alternative means of delivering healthcare services to medically underserved rural areas, a pharmacist-staffed consumer-oriented drug information service was explored. Over a 5-day period, 473 face-to-face consumer surveys were conducted in pharmacy and non-pharmacy settings in an urban cluster population center that serves the surrounding rural area. The survey was designed to determine whether or not consumers had a perceived need for a drug information service that was independent from and supplemental to services provided by their pharmacist. Results reveal that 71% of participants surveyed did not perceive a need for medication information that was supplemental to that provided by their pharmacist. When queried regarding the likelihood of using a drug information service if one was available their response was neutral, and they became less likely if a fee was associated with the service. While the results are not conclusive and cannot be generalized as to whether a consumer-oriented drug information service would contribute to improving patient care, the survey suggests that this telepharmacy service is not perceived as being needed by the public

 

Key-words:Consumer medication information, Drug information center, Patient education, Telepharmacy

[1] United States Congress. H.R.4190: To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for coverage under the Medicare program of pharmacist services. Accessed on October 6, 2014 from https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/4190.
[2] United States Department of Health and Human Services. Shortage designation: health professional shortage areas and medically underserved areas/population. Accessed on October 2, 2014 from http://hpsafind.hrsa.gov/HPSASearch.aspx.
[3] Arkansas Department of Health. Arkansas's big health problems and how we plan to solve them: state health assessment and improvement plan, 2013. Accessed on October 6, 2014 from http:// www.healthy.arkansas.gov/aboutADH/Documents/Accred/ARHealthReportHealthProblems.pdf.
[4] Arkansas Board of Pharmacy. Licensee Information. Accessed on October 6, 2014 from http://pharmacyboard.arkansas.gov/Pages/default.aspx.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Modified Terminalia randii gum as a binder in metronidazole tablet formulation

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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OluyemisiAdebowaleBamiro, OlusegunDeru, Lateef Gbenga Bakre, Onyinye Jennifer Uwaezuoke

Page No.

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28-32

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010028032

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041028032 

The aim of this work is to acetylate Terminalia randii gum and evaluate its effectiveness as a binder in metronidazole tablet formulations. The gum was extracted using standard methods. The extracted gum was acetylatedand used at varying concentrations (1%-5%w/w) as a binder in metronidazole tablets and compared with a standard binder, polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) using wet granulation. The granule properties were assessed using bulk and tapped densities, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose and flow rate. The mechanical properties of tablets were assessed using friability, crushing strength and crushing strength friability ratio while the release properties were evaluated using disintegration time, and dissolution time for 50% and 80% of the drug (t50 and t80 respectively). Statistical analysis using ANOVA was carried out with computer software graph pad prism (Graph pad software INC. San Diego, USA). At 95% confidence intervals, p value less than or equal to 0.05 were considered significant. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the granule properties.Formulations prepared with acetylated gum (ATR) had significantly lower (P<0.05) mechanical properties which were still within Pharmacopeia limits. There was no significance difference (p>0.05) in the release properties of the formulations. ATR could be substituted for PVP as a binder in pharmaceutical formulations.

 

Key-words:Acetylation, Metronidazole, Release properties, Tablet, Terminalia randii gum

[1] K. OforiKwakye, Y. Asantewaa and S. Lugrie kipo.Physicochemical and Binding Properties of cashew tree gum in metronidazoletablet formulations.Int.J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2( 4), 2010, 105109
[2] H. Rahim, M. A Khan, A. Badshah, K.A Chishti, S. Khan and M. Junaid. Evaluation of Prunusdomestica gum as a novel tablet binder. BJPS, 50(1), 2014, 195-202.
[3] R. Kumar, S.R. Patil, M. B. Patil, M. S. Paschapur, R. Mahalaxmi Isolation and evaluation of the emulsifying properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide on castor oil emulsion. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2 (1), 2010, 518-527
[4] V. Rana, P. Rai, A.K. Tiwary, R.S. Singh, J.F. Kennedy and C.J.Knill. Modified gums: Approaches and applications in drug delivery. Carbohydrate Polymers, 83, 2011, 1031-1047.
[5] G. Dodi, D. Hritcu and M. I. Popa. Carboxymethylation of guar gum: Synthesis and characterization. Cellulose Chem. Technol., 45 (3-4), 2011, 171-176
[6] B.R. Sharma, V. Kumar and P.L. Soni. Ceric ammonium nitrate-initiated graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto Cassia tora gum. J Appl. Polymer Sci. 90, 2002.3250-3255.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A NOVEL BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL AGENT: L-AMINO ACID OXIDASE WITH CORRELATION TO CANCER MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW

Country

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India.

Authors

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Sanjesh Kumar || A. Nath || KrishnaMurti|| Manoj Kumar Sethi|| MD Tarique Nadeem||P. Das

Page No.

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33-38

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010033038

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041033038 

Different types of snake venom including LAAO venom found in different organism which
possesses anticancer effect as well as other pharmacological activity. Now a days using medicine for cancer treatment that have a lots of adverse effect such as alopecia, bone marrow depression, vomiting etc., we are focusing on SV-LAAOs to search out the natural bioactive novel agents. King cobra venom LAAO has more stability than other SV-LAAOs which may be correct agent to developed anticancer medicine. These effects mainly produced due to hydrogen peroxide which is generated during catalytic reaction

 

Key-words:L-amino acid oxidase, cancer, snake venom, H2O2, cytotoxic effect.

[1]. J. J. Calvete et al. "Snake venomics. Strategy and applications," Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1405–1414, 2007.

[2]. X.-Y.Du and K. J. Clemetson, "Snake venomL-amino acid oxidases," Toxicon, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 659–665, 2002.

[3]. T. Nishizawa, C. C. Aldrich, and D. H. Sherman, "Molecular analysis of the rebeccamycin L-amino acid oxidase from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes ATCC 39243," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 187, no. 6, pp. 2084–2092, 2005.

[4]. J. T. Nuutinen and S. Timonen, "Identification of nitrogen mineralization enzymes, l-amino acid oxidases, from the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hebeloma spp. and Laccaria bicolor," Mycological Research, vol. 112, no. 12, pp. 1453–1464, 2008.

[5]. G. Borkow et al. "Binding of cytotoxin P4 from Naja nigricollis nigricollis to B16F10 melanoma and WEHI-3B leukemia cells," FEMS Microbiology Immunology, vol. 5, no. 1–3, pp. 139–146, 1992.

[6]. S. Iwanaga , T. Suzuki. L-Amino acid oxidase. In: Lee CY ed. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Berlin: Springer.vol. 52. pp. 75-84. 1979.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Herpes Viruses – An Overview

Country

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Bengaluru

Authors

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Dr. K. Badari Rao

Page No.

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39-41

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010039041

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041039041 

Most human viruses known to cause oral diseases are deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) viruses that are contracted either in childhood or early adulthood through contact with blood, saliva, or other secretions. Herpes viruses seem to be the most important DNA viruses in oral pathology. Clinically, herpes viruses can cause a spectrum of diseases; the hallmark of their infections being immune impairment. Active herpes virus infections may have particularly severe consequences in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and other immunocompromised individuals. This review highlights the description of herpes viruses, organization of its genome and proteins, and the diseases affecting the mankind. It brings to fore the need for newer drugs to effectively manage the ever increasing diseases caused by herpes viruses.

 

Key-words:DNA viruses, herpes viruses, HIV, immunocompromised humans

[1]. Contreras A, Slots J. Herpesviruses in human periodontal disease. J Periodont Res 2000; 35: 3-16.
[2]. Stoopler ET, Greenberg MS. Update on herpes virus infections. Dent Clin N Am 2003; 47: 517-32.
[3]. Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA, editors. Medical microbiology. USA: McGraw- Hill: 2001; p. 370-4.
[4]. McAdam AJ, Sharpe AH. Infectious diseases. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, editors. Pathologic basis of disease. Pennsylvania: Saunders; 2004. p. 343-414.


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Brief Communication Thombotic Trombocytopenic Purpura: Allergic Reaction to Plasma Proteins During Therapeutic Apheresis

Country

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Costa Rica

Authors

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Max Mendez-López, XiniaRojas, Hever Herrera

Page No.

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42-44

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010042044

ANED :: DDl : 05.3013/041042044 

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) is a raredisordercharacterized by microangiopathichemolysiswiththrombosis. The golds tandard of treatment is the rapeutic plasma exchangewhichreplenishesthedepleted ADAMTS-13. Herewepresent a rarecomplication: a patient that developed allergy to plasma proteins and remitted afterapheresis with albumin.

 

Key-words:ThromboticThrombocytopenic Purpura, AllergytoPlasma Proteins, Plasma Exchange.

[1] Vesely SK, George JN, Lämmle B, Studt JD, Albeiro L, El-Harake MA et al. ADAMTS13 activity in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-hemolytic syndrome: relation to presenting features and clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort of 142 patients. Blood 2003;102:60-8.
[2] Taylor CM, Chua C, Howie AJ, Risdon RA; British Association for Paediatric Nephrology. Clinico-pathological findings in diarrhoea negative haemolytic uraemic syndrome. PediatrNephrol 2004;19:419–425
[3] Amorosi EL, Ultmann JE. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: report of 16 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 1966;45:139-59.
[4] Sadler JE. Von Willebrand Factor, ADAMTS 13 and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 2008;112:11-18
[5] Rock GA, Shumak KH, Buskard NA, Blanchette VS, Kelton JG, Nair RC et al. Comparison of plasma exchange with plasma infusion in the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: Canadian Apheresis Study Group.NEngl J Med 1991;325:393-397



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mangifera indica (Mango) Kernel on Aeromonas caviae

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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A. M. Talba || M. M. Sulaiman || M. A. Raji ||S, J. Oniye

Page No.

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45-50

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010045050

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041045050 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the phytoconstituents of Mangifera indica kernel and its antibacterial activity against Aeromonas caviae. METHODS: Methanol extract of mango kernel was used to identify secondary metabolites of mango kernel. Aqueous and methanol extracts of mango kernel were tested in-vitro for antibacterial activity. Colony of pure culture of A. caviae was inoculated onto sterile plate of Muller-Hinton agar. Five wells (6mm in diameter) were made in circular pattern equidistance in each of the plates using a sterile cup borer. One hundred microliters of different concentrations of both aqueous and methanol extracts of mango kernel were placed into the wells using sterile pipettes and 100μl of sterile distilled water in a given well as negative control. The test was performed in triplicates (3 plates for every extract), the plates were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours.

 

Key-words:Phytochemical analysis, M. indica kernel, In-vitro, A. caviae, Antibacterial activity.

[1] Harikrishnan, R., Rani, M., Balasundaram, C. Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Common Carp,Cyprinus Carpio, Following Herbal Treatment for A. hydrophila infection, Aquaculture, 2003; 31:409-412.

[2] Coe, F.G., Anderson, G.J. Screening of medicinal plants used by the Gar´ıfuna of eastern icaragua for bioactive compounds. J. Ethnopharm. 1996; 53:29–50.

[3] Keita, Y., Kone, O., Ly, A. K. and Hakkinen, V. Chemical and antibacterial activity of some Guinean mango varieties distillates. Comptes Rendus CXhimie 2004; 7(10-11):1095- 1100.

[4] Cojocaru, M., Droby, S., Glotter, E., Goldman, A., Gottlieb, H.E., Jacoby, B. 5-(12-heptadecenyl)-resorcinol, the major component of the antifugal activity in the peel of mango fruit. Phyto., 1986; 25:1093-5.

[5] Garrido, G., Gonzalez, D., Lemus, Y., Garcia, D., Lodeiro, L., Quintero, G. (2004). In- vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (VIMANG). Pharm. Res. 1986; 50:143-149.

[6] Sairam, K., Hemalata, S., Kumar, A., Srinivasan, T., Ganesh, J., Shankar, M. Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica. J. Enthnopharm. 2003; 84:11-15.

[7] Scartezzini, P., Speroni, E., Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity. J. Ethnopharm. 2002; 71:23-4.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Impact of Sheetali and Sheetkari Pranayama on the Topographic Mapping of the Brain Waves

Country

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India

Authors

::

J. Thanalakshmi|| R. Ravindran || Sembulingam K || Prema Sembulingam

Page No.

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51-57

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010051057

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041051057 

Pranayama is yogic breathing technique which is known to improve the physical and mental well-being. The tremendous impact of yoga on the functioning of nervous system, attenuation of stress and promotion of relaxation is well known. Sheetali and Sheetkari pranayama also produce similar effects but, in addition, they also cool down the body and the brain. However, the impact of these pranayama on electroencephalogram (EEG) is not explored so far. For this study, 20 male volunteers were recruited and divided into two equal groups namely yoga group (YG) who underwent the practice of these pranayama for two months and non-yoga group (NYG) who did not do any type of breathing technique. In both the groups, EEG topographic mapping was recorded and the results were compared. The mapping revealed an increase in the delta (red bands) and alpha band power (green bands) in the frontal and occipital regions and an increase in theta band power (yellow bands) in the frontal region with a marked decrease in beta band power (blue bands) almost throughout the entire hemisphere after two months' of Sheetali and Sheethkari pranayama practice indicating that the brain (mind) was calm and quiet in relaxed state with less anxiety.

 

Key-words:Yoga, Sheetali and Sheetkari Pranayama, Electroencephalogram, Topographic mapping, Brain waves, Band power,

[1] http://hinduism.about.com/od/meditationyoga/
[2] J. D. Bronzino. 1995. Principles of Electroencephalography. In: J.D. Bronzinoed. The Biomedical Engeneering Handbook, pp. 201-212, CRC Press, Florida
[3] Renato M.E. Sabbatini, PhD. Mapping the Brain. http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n03/tecnologia/eeg.htm
[4] Holzel BK, Ott U, Hempel H, Hackl A, Wolf K, Stark R, Vaitl D (2007). "Differential e"gagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators". Neuroscience Letters 421: 16–21. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.04.074. ),
[5] Cahn BR, Polich J (2006). "Meditation states and traits : EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies". Psychological Bulletin 132 (2): 180–211. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180. PMID 16536641. )
[6] Pagnoni G, Cekic M, Guo Y ("008). "" Thinking about not- thinking‟: neural correlates of conceptual processing during Zen meditation". PLoS ONE 3: e3083. 10.1371/journal.pone.0003083.)
[7] Chiesa A, Ser"etti, A (2010). "A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations". Psychological Medicine 40 (8): 1239–1252.).



Paper Type

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Case report

Title

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Acyclovir Induced Acute Kidney Injury In Acute Meningitis Patient: A Case Report Highlights the Concurrence Of AKI Risk Factors And The Neutropenic Effect Of Ticlopidine

Country

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Malaysia

Authors

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Arwa M. Amin || Baharudin Ibrahim|| Azmi Sarriff

Page No.

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58-62

Paper Index

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DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010058062

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041058062 

Nephrotoxicity is one of the challenging side effects of acyclovir use in clinical practice. The Concomitant use of other nephrotoxic antibiotics, in addition to patient's risk factors, can trigger acyclovir induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We described a case of acute meningitis in 68 year old female patient with underlying history of ischemic heart disease managed by ticlopidine. The gram stain, culture and PCR of the CSF did not show any positive growth of bacterial infection or HSV. However, the negative CSF gram stain and culture caused a confusion of the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis with viral meningitis. The patient had AKI induced by the treatment with acyclovir for 16 consecutive days and possibly triggered by other AKI risk factors. Hemodialysis and hydration did not reverse the kidney function to normal. However, it was reversed to its normal status only after the discontinuation of acyclovir. The neutropenic effect of ticlopidine can be a risk to the patient that could lead to fatal infection. In this case report we reviewed the literature on the nephrotoxicity of acyclovir, the neutropenia of ticlopidine and a proposed role of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF).

 

Key-words:Acute Kidney Injury, Acyclovir, Meningitis, Neutropenia, nephrotoxicity, granulocyte colony stimulating factor

[1] Gunness, P., et al., Acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity: the role of the acyclovir aldehyde metabolite. Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 2011. 158(5): p. 290-301.
[2] Fleischer, R. and M. Johnson, Acyclovir nephrotoxicity: a case report highlighting the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of acyclovir-induced nephropathy. Case Rep Med, 2010. 2010.
[3] Obada, E.N., et al., [Acute renal failure following a treatment with acyclovir]. Nephrol Ther, 2010. 6(2): p. 125-7.
[4] Seedat, A. and G. Winnett, Acyclovir-induced acute renal failure and the importance of an expanding waist line. BMJ Case Rep, 2012. 2012.
[5] Gunness, P., et al., Acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity: the role of the acyclovir aldehyde metabolite. Transl Res, 2011. 158(5): p. 290-301.
[6] Oliveira, J.F.P., et al., Prevalence and Risk Factors for Aminoglycoside Nephrotoxicity in Intensive Care Units. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009. 53(7): p. 2887-2891.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Validation Of Radiation Sterilization Dose For Proteases Immobilized On Aldehyde-Containing Textile Carriers

Country

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Bulgaria

Authors

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Svetla Maksimova Dyankova || Maria Doncheva Doneva || Tsvetan Dimitrov Tsvetkov

Page No.

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63-68

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010063068

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041063068 

The main objective of this work is to establish the parameters of radiation sterilization for three proteolytic enzymes (papain, trypsin and subtilisin) immobilized on aldehyde-containing textile carriers in terms of the development of new biomaterials – wound dressings with debridement effect. This paper describes the steps taken to validate a low dose sterilization process by following the Method 2A defined in ISO 11137. The content of aldehyde groups in the used modified cellulose carriers is 0.798  0.002 mmol/g. After immobilization and freeze-drying of the respective enzyme, all experimental variants demonstrated proteolytic activity in the following ranges: Variant 1 (immobilized papain) - 47.641.73 U/g; Variant 2 (immobilized trypsin) - 84.571.45 U/g; Variant 3 (immobilized subtilisin) - 55.53 3.46 U/g. The obtained results for enzyme activity made it possible to determine the dose of 30 kGy as the maximum acceptable dose for all experimental variants biomaterials. The minimal doses necessary to achieve sterilization at SAL of 10-6 are respectively: variant 1 (immobilized papain) - 16.0 kGy; variant 2 (immobilized trypsin) - 15.2 kGy and variant 3 (immobilized subtilisin) - 12.1 kGy. These low terminal doses provide effective bactericidal coverage and very likely have minimal impact on the properties of the biomaterials. For all three variants the proteolytic activity remains above 90% of the initial value.

 

Key-words:proteolytic enzymes, biomaterials, sterility assurance level, sterilization dose

[1] A. Esquisabel, R. M. Hernandez, A. Rodriguez and J. L. Pedraz, In: J. M. Guisan (Ed.) Immobilization of Enzymes and Cells, (New Jersey: Humana Press Inc., 2006) 283-294.
[2] T. Yudanova and I. Reshetov, Modern wound dressings: Manufacturing and properties. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 40 (2), 2006, 430-434.
[3] J. Ramundo and M. Gray, Enzymatic wound debridement, Journal of Wound Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 35 (3), 2008, 273-280.
[4] D. Steed, Debridement, The American Journal of Surgery, 187 (5A), 2004, 71-74.
[5] J. W. Phillip, N. R. Bertoniere, D. P Thibodeaux., B. A. Triplett and A. D French, Cotton Fiber Chemistry and Technology, (New York: CRC Press, 2007) 70-104.
[6] D-S. Hon, Cellulose and its derivatives: structures, reactions, and medical uses, in S. Dumitriu (Ed.), Polysaccharides in medicinal applications, (NewYork, USA: Marcel Dekker, 1996) 87–105.
[7] U. Kim, S. Kuga, M. Wada, T. Okano and T. Kondo, Periodate oxidation of crystalline cellulose. Biomacromolecules, 1 (3), 2000, 488-492.



Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluation of Anti-Retroviral Combination Therapy In Patients With HIV/Aids Injecting Drug Users

Country

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Costa Rica

Authors

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Ahmad Riyadi|| Arif Wardoyo|| Syamsudin

Page No.

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69-74

Paper Index

::

DOI : 10.9790/3013-04010069074

ANED :: DDL : 05.3013/041069074 

HIV stands for 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus'. HIV is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system (mainly CD4), and destroys or impairs their function. This viral infection results in a constant decrease in human immune system and eventually results in immunodeficiency. Indonesia is one of the countries that show increasing number of HIV/AIDS cases. By June 2011, 26.483 cumulative HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Indonesia. Drug users are a major factor in the spread of HIV/AIDS infections. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in patients with HIV infection aims at suppressing replication in a maximum way for a long period, restoring and maintaining the body's immune. It is important to extend and improve the quality of life to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of the combination of three of antiretroviral drugs was better than the combination of two types of antiretroviral, where there is a decrease in viral load to undetectable level and increased CD4 lymphocyte count. This study was conducted compare several combinations of antiretroviral, that is Lamivudine +Zidovudine+ Nevirapine, Lamivudine+ Zidovudine +Efavirenz, Lamivudine +Stavudine +Nevirapine and Lamivudine+Stavudine+Efavirenz, in terms of effectiveness, side effects, adherence and antiretroviral drug costs in patients HIV/AIDS drug users in Drug Dependence Hospital Jakarta. The study was conducted in a retrospective way, using data obtained from medical records of patients from January 2005 to December 2010 in patients with CD4 ≤ 350 cells/mmᵌ and a minimum of 6-12 months of antiretroviral treatment. Of the 333 patients, 100 patients had antiretroviral treatment and met the inclusion criteria. The results showed effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy in that there was an increase in the number of CD4; the increase was found to be different in each antiretroviral combination. However, statistical test with ANOVA showed that the increases in CD4 had no significant difference. Nausea is a common side effect in HIV/AIDS patients who received antiretroviral therapy. Of the 100 patients, 94% adhered to the therapy and the combination of Lamivudine+Zidovudine +Efavirenz required the highest cost, compared to the other combinations.

 

Key-words:HIV/AIDS, CD4 count, antiretroviral combination

[1] Shete, A (2013). Current Trends in HIV/AIDS. J HIV AIDS Infect Dis 1: 1-2.
[2] Ibrahim K, Songwathana P, Boonyasopun U, Francis K (2010) The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Indonesia: does primary health care as a prevention and intervention strategy work? Int J Nurs Pract 16: 87–91.
[3] Robertson J, Meier, M, Wall J, Ying J, Fichtenbaum C (2006). Immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV: validating a case definition and identifying clinical predictors in persons initiating antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis;42:1639-46.
[4] Costello C, Nelson K, et al (2005). Predictors of low CD4 count in resource-limited settings based on an antiretroviral-naive heterosexual Thai population. JAIDS;39:242-8.
[5] Alvarez (2004). Tenovir and Zidovudine/Lamivudine as Triple Therapy for Infection, Drexer University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA, International Journal of Infection Disease, ICID Vol. 8
[6] Kenneth A. Freedberg, M.D., et al. (2001). The Cost Effectivennes Of Combination Antiretroviral Theraphy For HIV Disease, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, No.11
[7] Koening SP et al, (2011) Cost Effectiveness of early versus antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults in Haiti. PLoS Med 8(9).
[8] Sungkanuparph S, Kiertiburanakul S, et al (2005). Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced AIDS with CD4 <50 cells/mm3 in a resource-limited setting: efficacy and tolerability. International Journal of STD & AIDS;16:243-6.