Volume 6 ~ Issue 6, June - 2016

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Phytochemical Evaluation and Pharmacological Screening of Antiparkinson's Activity of Allium Sativum In Swiss/Albino Mice

Country

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India

Authors

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Zeenath Banu ||, Syeda Juveria Fatima ||, Azra Fatima ||, Sarwar Fatima ||, Syeda Fatimuz Zohra ||, Tabassum Sultana

Page No.

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01-12

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To evaluate the Antiparkinson activity of Allium sativum in Haloperidol induced Parkinson‟s disease in mice. Method: Parkinson‟s disease was induced by administering haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg i.p.) Daily for a week. The mice were divided into 5 group (n=6). Group II received haloperidol (2mg/kg body weight).Group III received combination of levodopa and carbidopa (100mg+ 10mg/kg by i.p along with haloperidol) and Group IV and V received Allium sativum extract (200 and 400mg/kg by p.o), respectively for 7 days along with haloperidol. To evaluate the antiparkinson effect of Allium sativum, catalepsy bar test, rotarod test, hang test and horizontal bar test were used. One way ANOVA was used to test statistical significance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison tests .Results: Allium sativum extract (200 and 400mg/kg by p.o) was found to decrease the duration of catalepsy significantly (P<0.001) in catalepsy bar test as compared to haloperidol group, and significantly increases (P<0.001) fall off time in, rotarod test, hang test and horizontal bar test respectively as compared to haloperidol group. Conclusion: The result of the present study conclusively shows the Antiparkinson‟s activity of Allium sativum in haloperidol induced Parkinson‟s disease in mice. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Allium sativum, Haloperidol, Levodopa.
[1]. Deepa B, Anu E joy, and Shyamjith manikkoth, Effect of phyllanthu samarus on haloperidol induced catalepsy in experimental animal models, IJABPT, 6(3), (2015), 199-203.
[2]. Pranali P.Paradkar and Rachana,Neuropharmacological evaluation of Brassica nigra seed extract in Parkinson"s disease, WJPPS, 4(6),(2015),2291-2307.
[3]. Kuldeep S sandhu , Avtar, Evaluation of anti parkinson‟s activity of nigella sativa (kalonji) seeds in chlorpromazine induced experimental animal model,IJPPS,5(3),(2013),884-885.
[4]. Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate (14th Edition), year (2008),Pg.no (215-218).
[5]. Londhe V.P.*, Gavasane A.T., Nipate S.S., Bandawane D.D., Chaudhari P.D.,Role of garlic (allium sativum) in various diseases: an overview,JPRO,1(4),(2011)129-134.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Difference of Artificial Insemination Successful Rate of Onggole Filial Cattle Using Cold Semen with Different Storage Time with Tris Aminomethane Egg Yolk Dilution Agent

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Nolasco Da Costa ||, Trinil Susilawati ||, Nurul Isnaini ||, and Moh. Nur Ihsan

Page No.

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13-19

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This study was aimed to find out the artificial insemination successful rate of Onggole filial using liquid semen stored at first and fifth day diluted with tris aminomethane + 20% egg yolk. The method used in this study was field experiment and for each treatment 30 cows used for AI, hence total cows used in this study were 60 heads with following criteria have already delivery experience, age between 4 – 7 years. The successful parameter was determined using NRR, CR and S/C. The research results concluded that AI result using semen in tris aminomethane + 20% egg yolk dilution agent and cold stored for the first and fifth day of storage resulted CR 86.67% and 83.33% while S/C were 1.31 and 1.44 respectively. Key words: Artificial Insemination, Semen dilution agent, NRR, CR and S/C.

[1]. Abdollahi, R., -Arpanahia., F. Peñagaricano., H. Aliloo., H. Ghiasi and J.I. Urioste. 2013. Comparison of Poisson, probit and linear models for genetic analysis of number of inseminations to conception and success at first insemination in Iranian Holstein cows. Livestock Science; 20-26.
[2]. Anna Shaliutina-Kolešová, Jacky Cosson, Ievgen Lebeda, Ievgenia Gazo, Olena Shaliutina, Boris Dzyuba, Otomar Linhart,2015. The influence of cryoprotectants on sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) sperm quality, DNA integrity, antioxidant responses, and resistance to oxidative stress, Animal Reproduction Science, 66-76.

[3]. Ayres, H.R.M., Ferreira., J.R.S. Torres-Júnior., C.G.B. Demétrio., M.F. Sá Filho., L.U. Gimenes., L. Penteado., M.J. D'Occhi and P.S. Baruselli. 2014. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.Theriogenology; 82(4):529-536.
[4]. Berry, D.P., F. Buckley., P. Dillon., R.D. Evans., M. Rath and R.F. Veerkamp. 2003. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci; 86:2193- 2204.
[5]. Caraviello, D.Z., K.A. Weigel., M. Craven., D. Gianola., N.B. Cook., K.V. Nordlund., P.M. Fricke and M.C. Wiltbank. 2006. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms. J. Dairy Sci; 89:4703–4722.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Ondesetron as an adjuvant in supraclavicular brachial plexus block(original article)

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr vasudha jadhav ||, Dr Ranjeetsinha jadhav ||, Dr B. M . Diwanmal

Page No.

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20-22

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Brachial plexus block is a very helpful alternative to general anesthesia .The present study was done to asses the analgesic efficacy of ondensetron with bupivacaine in brachial plexus block. A prospective , randomized, double blind study was done at our institute (BVDU) Sangli maharastra 50 adult patients of ASA grade I and 2, aged between 18-65 years nd scheduled for various upperlimb surgeries . patients were divided into two groups of 25 each . Group A received 30 ml of bupivacaine .5% and2ml normal saline and group B received 30ml of bupivacaine and 8mgm of ondansetron . patients were observed for occurance of any complications , SBP,DBP, duration of motor block ,duration of pain relief. Duration of sensory and motor block was prolonged Post operative analgesia was longer in group B as compared to group A with p value <0.001. Pain score was significantly low in group B and 8.56 in group A with p value 20.05 Hence there was not significant difference . onset of motor block in group A was 9 min and group B was 7.9 min and Pvalue was 0.05 min Hence there was no statistical significant difference . Addition of ondensetron 8 mgm to 30ml of bupivacaine .5% for supra clavicular brachial plexus block prolonged sensory blockade and reduced the dose of analgesics intraoperatively without increasing adverse effects Keywords: Bupivacaine,supraclavicular,brachial plexus block,ondensetron, postoperative analgesia.
[1]. DeeganR.Ondensetron :Pharmacology of a specific 5-HT3 receptor antagonist.Am JMed Sci 1992;304:373-89(PubMed).
[2]. Ye JH Mui WC ,RenJ,Hunt EE.Ondensetron exhibits the properties of a local anesthetic.Anesth Analg.1997;885:1116-21(PubMed).
[3]. Yurtlu S,HanciV,KargiE.ErdoganG,Koksal BG,Gul,et al. The analgesic effect of dexketoprofen when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia; A prospective ,randomized. Placebo controlled study.J Int Med Res.2011;39;1923-31.(PubMed).
[4]. Ambesh SP,DubeyPK,SinhaPK.Ondensetron pretreatment to alleviate pain on propofol injection:A randomized,controlled,double blinded study.Anesth Analg.1999;89:197-9(Pub Med).
[5]. Reddy MS,Chen FG ,Ng HP .Effect of Ondensetron pretreatment on pain after rocuronium and propofol injection:A randomized ,double blind controlled compatison with lidocaine. Anesthesia 2001;56:902-5(PubMed).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Vasopressine in laparoscopic myomectomy, a review over the effectiveness, dosage and possible complications

Country

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Albania

Authors

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Zeqja E, MD ||, Qirko R, PhD

Page No.

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23-27

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Uterine leiomyomas (myomas or fibroids) are smooth muscle tumors and are the most common type of pelvic tumors in women. Myomatous uteri have an increased number of arterioles and venules and myomectomy may involve significant blood loss. To reduce blood loss during an laparoscopic myomectomy, gynecologic surgeons often take the preventive step of injecting a dilute solution of vasopressin intramyometrial before they start the procedure. In randomized clinical trials, injection of vasopressin has been demonstrated to reduce blood loss in several gyn surgical procedures, including myomectomy, hysterectomy, abortion, and conization.5,6,7 Vasopressin is diluted with saline as 10 units of vasopressin for every 100 ml of saline. For a fibroid of about 8 cm size, 40 units of vasopressin is diluted in 400 ml of normal saline. The whole of 400 ml of this saline is injected in the myometrium. Incision is made on the uterus with just simple scissors (no energy source is required). As the uterus is cut, instead of bleeding, saline leakage takes place. This helps to keep the field clear and it is easier to get the correct plane between the fibroid and the myometrium. The separation of the fibroid is helped due to the dissection of the correct plane by the saline injection. A persistent concern, however, is that injection of vasopressin is, occasionally, associated with bradycardia and cardiac arrest, especially if injection is made into a blood vessel inadvertently. An unresolved issue is identifying the optimal dilution and dose of vasopressin that will reduce blood loss and minimize the risk of cardiac arrest.9,10,11 Keywords: vasopressin, myomectomi, , laparoscopy, hemorrhage, complications Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness, safety dose and tolerability of vasopressin intramyometrial injection to reduce the blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy .
[1]. Modi R, Laparoscopic myomectomy with aquadissection techniques and barbed sutures. J Gynec Endosc Surg, 2011, 2;47-52.
[2]. Kongnyuy EJ, Wiysonge CS. Interventions to reduce haemorrhage during myomectomy for fibroids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD005355.
[3]. Frederick J, Fletcher H, Simeon D, Mullings A, Hardie M. Intramyometrial vasopressin as a haemostatic agent during myomectomy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;101(5):435–437.
[4]. Kimura T, Kucui C. Effectiveness of hormonal tourniquet by vasopressin during myomectomy through vasopressin V1a receptor ubiquitously expressed in myometrium. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2002;54(3):125-31.
[5]. Sabol ED, Gibson JL, Bowes WA Jr. Vasopressin injection in cervical conization. A double-blind study. Obstet Gynecol. 1971;37(4):596–601.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Antipyrectic And Antinociceptive Activities of Ethanolic Extract Of Eugenia Aromatica Baill Seeds

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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ANIFOWOSE, Ojo Ayodeji ||, ADEGBOLA, Rachael Adebola ||, RAHEEM, Hammed Adeniyi

Page No.

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28-33

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Eugenia aromatica Baill popularly known as Kanafuru is said to be useful in food processing, cooking as spicy, perfumery cosmetic. Its oil extract (Eugenol) and ground powdered have been used in folk medicine for manifold conditions such as in dental care, headache, blood purifier, cough, fever, pain, malaria, stomach pain, etc. This study was designed to determine the antipyretic and antinociceptive property of ethanolic extract of Eugenia aromatica, in laboratory wistar rats. Ten groups of four animals each weighing between 100-120g were studied. Antinociceptive test was performed by using acetic acid solution to induce pain in form of Writhes in wistar rat intraperitoneally (i.p); 30 minutes after: group I was administered orally with (p.o) normal saline solution . Standard aspirin (100mg/kg) and diclofenac solution (100mg/kg) to group II and III respectively, ethanolic extract of Eugenia aromatica to group IV, V and VI at dose of 50,100 and 200mg/kg respectively. The Baker's yeast induced anal temperature showed a dose dependent and temperature decrease as ethanolic extract have 37.4, 37.2 and 37.1oC at dose of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg which is more effective than standard and control group having 37.8oC and 38.7oC respectively. The acetic acid induced Writhing count for the control standard and test sample with Normal saline having 133, Aspirin 100mg/kg 120 Diclofenac 100mg/kg, 128 ethanolic extract 50, 100 and 200mg/kg at 116, 110 and 105 respectively. However, the antinociceptive effect was markedly observed with ethanolic extract of Eugenia aromatica more effective as it increases. Based on the result obtained, Eugenia aromatica has the ability to control or prevent fever and pain and could be recommended for fever and pain treatment. Efforts should be made on the production of oil extracts of Eugenia aromatica {Eugenol} for intake as daily diet. However, the dosage should be controlled.
[1]. Alqareer A., Alyahya A, Andesson L. (2012). The Effect of Clove and Benzoncaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics" Journal of dentistry 34(10):747-50.
[2]. Anoka, A.N, Adzu B., Amon G. A., Byarugabi D., Diaz-Llera S. (2008). The analgesic and antiplasmodial activities and toxicology of verononia amygdalina. J. Med. Food 11(3):574-580.
[3]. Banerjee S, Panda KC, Das, S. Clove (Syzygiurn aromaticum L.) (2006). A potential Chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 27(8): 1645-1654.
[4]. Bishnu Joshi, Govind Prasad Sah, Buddha Bahadur Basnet, Megh Raj Bhatt, Dinita Sharma, Krishna Subedi, Janardhan Pandey and Rajani Malla (2011): Phytochemical extraction and antimicrobial properties of different medicinal plants: Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove), Achyranthes bidentata (Datiwan) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials 3(1), 1-7.
[5]. Chan K. (2005). Some aspects of toxic contaminats in herbal medicines, J. Chemosphere 52(2005)1371.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Twin Mix formulation for Mandibular Anaesthesia for Minor Oral Surgical Procedures

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr.Darpan Bhargava ||, Dr.Rajkumar Ahirwal ||, Dr.Ankit Pandey ||, Dr. Ashwini Deshpande

Page No.

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34-35

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In minor oral surgical cases expected to produce post-operative edema are managed with the use of steroids which are strong anti-inflammatory agents. Glucocorticosteroid are the preferred group for management of post-surgical edema, where indicated. In practice, glucocorticosteroid are administered via intravenous or intramuscular route. In minor oral surgical procedures requiring mandibular anesthesia, intra-pterigomandibular space administration of steroids may be utilized in combination with local anaesthetic solution.
[1]. Bhargava D, Sreekumar K, Rastogi S, Deshpande A, Chakravorty N. A prospective randomized double-blind study to assess the latency and efficacy of Twin-mix and 2% lignocaine with 1: 200,000 epinephrine in surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars: a pilot study. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;17(4):275-80. [2]. Bhargava D, Deshpande A, Khare P, Pandey SP, Thakur N. Validation of data on the use of twin mix in minor oral surgery: comparative evaluation of efficacy of twin mix versus 2 % lignocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine based on power analysis and an UV spectrometry study for chemical stability of the mixture. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;19(1):37-41. [3]. Bhargava D, Sreekumar K, Deshpande A. Effects of intra-space injection of Twin mix versus intraoral-submucosal, intramuscular, intravenous and per-oral administration of dexamethasone on post-operative sequelae after mandibular impacted third molar surgery: a preliminary clinical comparative study. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014 Sep 1;18(3):293-6
[4]. Bhargava D, Deshpande A. Twin-mix anesthesia as pterygomandibular nerve block for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Int J Stomatol Occlusion Med. 2015;8:29-32

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Concept And Managemnet of Leucorrhoea In Unani Sytem Of Medicine

Country

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India

Authors

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Najmus Sehar ||, Khaja Bahauddin Ansari

Page No.

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36-40

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Leucorrhoea is excessive vaginal discharge. It is a frequent gynaecological complaint that accounts for more than 1/4th gynaec. visit to gynaecologist. The vaginal discharge may be caused by excess of humours with discharge colour whitish, yellowish, reddish and blackish and it may be accompanied with foul smelling and itchy sensation or a pain at the infected area. If the disease is not treated in the initial stage then it may become chronic and leads to Pelvic inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the Unani concept described in Unani classical literatures regarding various causes, symptoms and management of this common gynaecological disorder by Unani system of medicine with an aim to spread the knowledge for preventive measures, home remedies to get relief from the disease and the management of the leucorrhoea by Unani compound formulations, which are not only easily available but also have no side effect on the human body. In this regard, we may conclude that spread of the knowledge of abundant storage of Unani components and general principles of treatment, which are being used by Unani physicians since ancient times, shall be very effective in the management of this gynaecological disorder. Keywords: Leucorrhoea, Vaginal discharge, Gyneacological, Unani system of medicines
[1]. D. C. Dutta (Ed.), Text Book of Gynaecology, 4 (Kolkata, New Central Book Agency, 2007) 503-505.
[2]. D. C. Dutta (Ed.), Text Book of Gynaecology, 2 (Kolkata, New Central Book Agency, 1994) 485-489.
[3]. Hkm. Kabiruddin, Alaksser Vol-II (New Delhi, Ejaz Publication, 2003) 1372.
[4]. Ajmal Khan, Hazique (New Delhi, Idara Kitab-ul-Shifa, 2002 ) 481-487.
[5]. S. Demirezen, Z. Safi, S. Beksac, The interaction of Trichomonas Vaginalis with epithelial cells, polymorph nuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes on vaginal smears, light microscopic observation, Cytopathology (11), 2000, 326-332.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Optimisation via experimental design of LC method for simultaneously determination of four antiepileptic drugs and active metabolite in human plasma

Country

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Macedonia

Authors

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Arlinda Haxhiu Zajmi ||, Jasmina Tonic Ribarska ||, Emilija Cvetkovska ||, Rumenka Petkovska ||, Natalija Nakov ||, Kristina Mladenovska ||, Suzana Trajkovic Jolevska

Page No.

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41-54

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This paper presents the chemometrically assisted optimisation and validation of the UV-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of four antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproic acid and levetiracetam) and carbamazepine 10,11 epoxide (active metabolite of carbamazepine) in human plasma. To reach desired chromatographic separation of analytes, Fractional factorial 34 design was used for simultaneously optimisation of some chromatographic parameters: acetonitrile content in the mobile phase, pH of the buffer solution in the mobile phase and time of gradient elution. Separations of analytes were performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C-18(150x4.6 mm; 5μm) column, with a gradient elution system comprising acetonitrile (ACN) - phosphate buffer (pH 3.0). Two procedures were tested for the pretreatment of human samples: protein precipitation and solid phase extraction. The last preparatory method provides the best results of extraction recoveries and allowed for the determination of all anaytes. The developed method was linear over the concentration ranges studied with r ≥0.995 for all compounds. Accuracy (%) and precision (CV,%) values for within and between day were <15% at all concentrations tested. This method was successfully applied to the plasma samples from epileptic patients and it seems to be suitable tool for routine therapeutic drug monitoring of AEDs.

Keywords: antiepileptic drugs, fractional factorial design, plasma, therapeutic drug monitoring, validation

[1] Browne T.R and Holmes G.L., Epilepsy. N. Engl. J. Med., 344,2001,1145–1151.

[2] Patsalos P.N., Antiepileptic drug pharmacogenetics, Ther. Drug. Monit.,22,2000, 127–130. [3] Bazil C.W., Morrell M.J and Pedley T.A. Epilepsy. In: Rowland LP, ed. Merritt's Neurology, 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005,pp. 990–1008.

[4] Korinthenberg R, Bukart P, Woefle C, Moenting JS and Ernst JP., Pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability of pottasium bromide in childhood epilepsy, J. Child. Neurology.,22,2007, 414 – 418.

[5] Brodie M.J and Kwan P , Staged approach to epilepsy management. Neurology ., 58,2002,2–8.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Bakri balloon for the management of placenta previa

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Dr Mohammad S. Othman ||, Dr FatmaK. Siddiqui ||, DrFadwaM.Alahmadi ||,

Dr Lamia M. Aljaiar

Page No.

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55-63

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Introduction; Placenta previa is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage. Bakri balloon was used for the first time in 1992, and was approved as one of the primary support tools in treating PPH. Objective; To evaluate the outcomes of uterine tamponade using a Bakri balloon for management of placenta previa during caesarean deliveries. Methods; This is a retrospective study carried out in Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH), Madinah, Saudi Arabia, from September 2012 to September 2015. Outcomes include demographic characteristics of the participants, need for blood transfusion, failure of the balloon, need for further management, duration the balloon kept in, obstetric complications, neonatal morbidity, hospital course post-operative, follow up and progress afterward. Results; Total number of placenta previa patients 225, of these 164 were operated, while, 47 were transferred to higher medical centre. Added to that, 14 patients were discharged against medical advice. 13 Bakri balloon were inserted intraoperative. Conclusion; Bakri balloon was more effective in controlling bleeding and was associated with less maternal morbidity and mortality than not using the balloon. This is the only study in the Middle East which study Bakri balloon for the management of placentaprevia. Keywords: Placenta previa, Bakri balloon, uterine tamponade,maternal morbidity,Placenta accreta, retrospective study.
[1]. Cho, H., et al., Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients. PLoS ONE, 2015. 10(8): p. 1-11.
[2]. Cheng, K. and M. Lee, Rising incidence of morbidly adherent placenta and its association with previous caesarean section: a 15-year analysis in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2015. 21: p. 1-7.
[3]. Barbieri, R., You should add the Bakri balloon to your treatments for OB bleeds. Obstetrics and Gynecology Management, 2009. 21(2): p. 6-10.
[4]. Canonico, S., et al., Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery. Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2013: p. 1-3.
[5]. Committee, S., FIGO Guidelines: Prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage in low-resource settings. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2012. 117: p. 108-118.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 6,~Version 2,~June - 2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Use Flour Bones of Fish Skipjack ( Katsuwonus Pelamis L ) By Boiling It Naoh On The Model Mice Ovariektomi

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Ahmad Talib ||, Amalan Tomia ||, Umar Tangke

Page No.

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01-06

Paper Index
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Waste management from home industries in North Moluccas optimal done so make the impact less well on the environment,while the waste can be processed further into a variety of products having economic value. This study attempts to find out the uses of flour bones of fish skipjack by boiling it NaOH on the model mice ovariektomi.Methods used is the method his experiments with uses the media boiling bones of fish skipjack use NaOH while to test in vivo use the Lab rats. Parameter that analyzed in order to characteristic physical; degree is white, absorption capacity water and the density of the camba while chemical characteristic of flour a bone of a fish skipjack consisting of the water level, ashes, fat, protein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, vitamin D and solubility. The results of the analysis physical flour bones of fish skipjack but boiling NaOH following; 0.92, 62.31, 97.06. The results of the analysis chemical flour bones of fish skipjack but boiling NaOH consisting of the Ca, P, Mg, Na and vitamin d respectively is; 26.56, 0.78, 0.48,1.84 and 4.6 while level of solubility respectively is; 0.04 , 0.07 , 0.39 and 0.08.Test results in vivo on the day zero, 15 and 30 to value Ca and P in the blood serum mice respectively following; 49.08,29.23; 51.59 , 31.92; 55.17 and 29.23 mg/dL. Key words:Waste bones of fish skipjack, boiling NaOH, model mice ovariektomi
[1]. AOAC-Associattion of Official Analiytical Chemist. Official methods of analiysis. Washingthon DC, 1995.
[2]. Alexander and karla,100 Question and answer of osteoporosis and osteopenia.PT.Index.Jakarta.2010.
[3]. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. California: Universitay of California at Berkeley.1999.
[4]. Fardiaz D, Andarwulan N, Wijaya H, Puspitasari LN. Mechanical Analysis of chemistry and functional properties of food components.Bogor: Inter - University Center of Food and Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University.1992.
[5]. Harris SR, Karnas E.Evaluation of Nutrition in Food Processing.The Second Edition.A Translator: Achmadi S, Niksolihin S .Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing.Bandung: Bandung Institute of Technology.1989.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Is Cranberryeffective in preventingrecurrent urinary tract infection in women

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Dr Mohammad S. Othman

Page No.

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07-15

Paper Index
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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in hospital settings. While antibiotics are quite effective at providing clinical cure for UTI, urogenital pathogen drug resistance is on the increase. In recent decades, cranberry has been shown to be solid means of alleviating and curing several illnesses that previously could only be treated with conventional drugs. The anti-adherence activity of cranberry products is the main mechanism involved in the preventive actions of UTIs, and it is a dose-dependent. For people with recurrent uncomplicated UTIs, routine utilization of cranberry products may offer an alternative methodology to antibiotic prophylaxis. The anti-adherence activity of cranberry and its PACs content is enough to produce their pharmacological activity, reduce the UTIs recurrences and improve patient's symptoms. Key words:Cranberry, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection, anti-adherence activity, A-type proanthocyanidins.
[1]. Dielubanza, E. and A. Schaeffer, Urinary tract infections in women. The Medical clinics of North America, 2011. 95(1): p. 27-41.
[2]. Linhares, I., et al., Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000–2009). BMC Infectious Diseases, 2013. 13(19): p. 1-14.
[3]. Nicolle, L., Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Urologic Clinics of North America 2008. 35(1): p. 1-12.
[4]. Nickel, J., Practical Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Premenopausal Women. REVIEWS IN UROLOGY, 2005. 7 number 1: p. 11-17.
[5]. Salvatore, S., et al., Urinary tract infections in women. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 2011. 156(2): p. 131-6.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Inhaled analgesia for labor pain

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Dr Mohammad Othman

Page No.

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16-26

Paper Index
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Labour pain is one of the most sever pains in the life of women. It is multifactorial and affected by both psychological, many biochemical and physiological factors. Many methods are used to manage labour pain whichare divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Inhaled analgesia, as part of the pharmacological methods, involves the inhalation of smaller dose of the inhaled anaesthetic agents while maintaining awareness of the mother.Drugs used for inhaled analgesia for relief of labour pain include nitrous oxide, isoflurane, sevoflurane, trichloroethylene, methoxyflurane and cyclopropane. It is important to do this review because all women should have a relatively effective and safe analgesia during labour. Therefore, this review objective was to explore the efficacy and safety of inhaled analgesia as pain relief for women in labour planning a vaginal delivery.A total of 74 reports of studies were identified from the search strategy. A total of 26 studies reporting data on 2959 women (31 reports) were included and 27 studies (43 reports) were excluded. Outcomes included effect of inhaled analgesia on pain intensity, pain relief,satisfaction with pain relief, effect of inhaled analgesia on assisted vaginal birth, caesarean section, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, amnesia, and Apgar score less than seven at five minutes. This review concluded that inhaled analgesia may be beneficial for labour pain relief, with minimal to no effect on Apgar score of the newborn.There is a need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials which include relevant clinical outcomes. Key words: Labour pain, Inhaled analgesia, Nitrous oxide, Flurane derivatives, Pain intensity, Pain relief, amnesia, Apgar score, TENS.
[1]. Lowe, N.K., The nature of labor pain. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2002. 186(5 Suppl Nature): p. S16-S24.
[2]. Simkin, P. and A. Bolding, Update on nonpharmacologic approaches to relieve labor pain and prevent suffering. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 2004. 49(6): p. 489–504.
[3]. Gaskin, I., The pain/pleasure riddle, in May's Guide to Childbirth. 2003, Bantam Dell: New York. p. 150-66.
[4]. Melzack, R., The myth of painless childbirth. Pain, 1984. 19(4): p. 321-337.
[5]. Caton, D., et al., The nature and management of labor pain. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2002. 186(5 Suppl Nature): p. S1-S15.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Accessing The Anthropometric And Haemodynamic Parameters Among Elderly Population Of Jammu

Country

::

Jammu

Authors

::

Roop Krishan Ji Dhar ||, Suman Bala ||, Sunil Sachdev

Page No.

::

27-31

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The objective of the present study was to access the physical parameters among elderly population aged 60 years and above. Methods: The subjects were undertaken from old people homes and different geriatric organisations located in the city and its outskirts. One hundred eighty five subjects who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected for the study. The physical examination and clinical examination were performed in the Department of Physiology, Government Medical College, Jammu and at Old people homes. The statistical difference in mean values was tested using student't test to evaluate statistical significance. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results of the present study showed anthropometric and haemodynamic parameters like height, respiratory rate, pulse, diastolic blood pressure were almost similar in all groups. There was progressive decline in the mean value of weight and body surface area with increase in age which was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). Statistically highly significant (p < 0.001) progressive increase was also seen in the mean value of systolic blood pressure with increase in age. Conclusion: It was revealed that anthropometric and haemodynamic parameters like height, respiratory rate, pulse, diastolic blood pressure were almost similar in all groups. There was progressive decline in the mean value of weight and body surface area with increase in age.

Keywords: Anthropometric; haemodynamic parameters; geriatric population

[1]. Ruivo S, Viana P, Martins C and Baeta C. Effects of aging on lung function.A comparison of lung function in healthy adults and the elderly. Rev Port Pneumol 2009; 15(4):629-53.
[2]. Caruso LB and Silliman RA. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw- Hill 2008; 2: 53-59.
[3]. WHO Technical Report Series 779. Health of the elderly. WHO Expert Committee, Geneva: WHO, 1989.
[4]. Phatak MS, Kurhade GA, Pradhan GC, and Gosavi GB. An epidemiological study of Pulmonary Function Tests in Geriatic population of central India. Indian J Physiol and Pharmacol 2002; 46(1):85-91.
[5]. Janssens JP. Aging of the Respiratory system:Impact on Pulmonary Function Tests and adaptation to Exertion. Clin Chest Med 2005; 26:469-484.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Comparative Phytochemical and Anti-Trypanosomal Efficacy of Stem Bark and Leaf of ErythrinaSenegalensis

Country

::

Nigeria

Authors

::

Amadi .O.D. ||, Prof. J.Yisa ||, Dr. Mann .A ||, Prof. E.O. Ogbadoyi ||, Busari. M

Page No.

::

32-36

Paper Index
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Erythrinasenegalensis is a common medicinal plant found in Nigeria and some other parts of African. A quantitative and qualitative phytochemical analysis of the stem bark and leaves were carried out and compared. Likewise, the bioactivity test of the crude extracts of both sample were carried out against Trypanosomabruceibrucei. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponnins, phenols, steroids and terpernoids in both the stem bark and leaves of E. senegalensis. Higher values of alkaloids (6.94±1.68mg/100g), tannins (8.04±1.78mg/100g), flavonoids (12.00±9.04mg/100g), saponnins (5.29±1.27mg/100g),steroids (3.00±3.20mg/100g) and glycoside (0.91±0.97mg/100g) was observed in the stem bark compared to the leaves with values of 3.38±2.45mg/100g for alkaloids, 4.07±1.78mg/100g tannins, 7.63±3.45mg/100g flavonoids, 3.61±0.09mg/100gsaponnins, 2.01±2.00mg/100gsteroids and 0.82±0.80mg/100g glycoside. Although total phenols were found to be high in the leaves (10.06±8.01mg/100g) compared to the stem bark (4.77±2.02). As for the anti-trypanosomal activities, the dose 300mg/kg bodyweight of the stem bark extract showed more activities against T. bruceibrucei as the parasites was cleared within 17th days of post treatment. However, there was no pronounced activity recorded when various doses of the leaf extract were administered. Therefore, thestems barkextract of Erythrinasenegalensis contain higher quantities of phytochemicals with high efficacy of anti-trypanosomal activitieswhen compared to the leaf extract. Key words: ErythrinaSenegalensis, Stem bark, Leaves, Phytochemical, Trypanosomabruceibrucei.
[1]. Abbas .S.A, Rana .M.,Shahid .N., Mahmood . H., Hussain .M.(2012). Chemical evaluation ofweed seeds mixed with wheat grains at harvest. Journal of Ani.& plant Sci 22(2)
[2]. Adamu, Y.K., Aderonke, A.S. and Ogbadoyi, E.O. (2010) Therapeutic effects of annonasenegalensispers stem bark extracts in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Int. J. Health Res., 3(1): 45-49.
[3]. Amir .M.K, Rizwana .A.Q, Faizen .U, Syed .A.G, Muhammed .Y.L., (2011). Phytochemical
[4]. analysis of selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hill and surroundings. Journal of medi. Plant Research vol. 5(25) 6017-6023
[5]. Anhwange, B.A; Ajibola, V.O &Okibe, F.G; (2006). Nutritive value & Anti- Nutritional factors in Hibiscus Sabdaripta, Journal of fisheries international 1(2-4): 73-76.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of CedrelaToonaRoxb. Leaves and Fruits.

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Dr. Kinjal H Shah

Page No.

::

37-45

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Transverse section of leaf shows upper and lower epidermis with thin cuticle, cortex differentiated into collenchyma and cortical parenchyma, bi-collateral vascular bundle in midrib region; dorsiventral structure with palisade tissue lying towards upper surface, upper and lower epidermis with thin cuticle and spongy parenchyma in lamina portion with unicellular covering trichomes and glandular trichome at lower surface of lamina.Surface preparation of leaf shows epidermal cells with wavy margin of lower epidermal cells and straight margin of upper epidermal cells, anomocytic stomata. Transverse section of fruit shows Outer coat with Epidermis Single layered, polygonal tabular cells with thin anticlinal walls filled with mucilage, Sub–epidermis, Inner coat containing Sclerenchymatous layer, Parenchymatous layer, Pigmant layer and also contains endosperm and cotyledon.The quantitative microscopy of leaf shows average stomatal index ~ 12.23-16.18 and 20.14-23.98 in upper and lower surfaces respectively, vein-islet number~41-44/sq.mm, vein termination number~74-77/sq.mm, palisade ratio~8-10. Phytochemical observations including physical constant values like ash values, extractive values, moisture content and behaviour of powder drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were carried out. Keywords: Cedrelatoona, Transverse section, Leaves, Fruit, Phytochemistry.
[1]. The Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India part -1. Vol.5. Govt of India Ministry of Health and Family welfare Department of Ayush,179.
[2]. Loupee D, Oteng- Amoaka A.A, Brink M. Timber 1. Vol1, vol7, PROTA publishers,2008,557-559.
[3]. Pullaiah , T. Biodiversity in India. Vol 4, Published by Regency Publication ,2006,160.
[4]. Khare, C.P. Indian Medicinal Plant. An Illustrated Dictionary. Published by Springer , 2006,112 -113.
[5]. Nadkarni A K. Indian MateriaMedica. Edn 3, Vol I, Popular prakashan, 2009, 1908.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum - A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

46-65

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Phytochemical analysis showed that Cuminum cyminum contained: alkaloid , coumarin, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, protein, resin, saponin, tannin and steroid. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that Cuminum cyminum exerted antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiplatelet aggregation, hypotensive, bronchodilatory, immunological, contraceptive, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-osteoporotic, aldose reductase , alpha-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory effects, protective and central nervous effects. This review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cuminum cyminum. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Cuminum cyminum.

[1]. Davidson-Hunt I. Ecological ethnobotany: stumbling toward new practices and paradigms. MASAJ 2000; 16: 1–13.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Agropyron repens – A review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015; 1 (2): 37-41.
[3]. Al–Snafi AE. Pharmacology and medicinal properties of Caesalpinia crista - An overview. International Journal of Pharmacy 2015; 5(2): 71-83.

[4]. Al-Snafi AE. The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Calendula officinalis - A review. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Research 2015; 5(3): 172-185.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. The constituents and pharmacological properties of Calotropis procera - An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacy Review & Research 2015; 5(3): 259-275.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Medical importance of Cupressus sempervirens- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

66-76

Paper Index
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The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed that the plant contained alkaloids 0.7%, flavonoids 0.22%, tannin 0.31%, saponins 1.9% , phenols 0.067%, essential oils, and many other biologically active constituents. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that Cupressus sempervirens possessed antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, insecticidal, antioxidant, wound healing, anticancer, estrogenic, anticoagulant and many other effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Cupressus sempervirens. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, medical, Cupressus sempervirens

[1]. Rossato SC, Leitao-Filho H and Gegossi A. Ethnobotany of Caicaras of the Atlantic forest coast (Brazil). Econ Bot 1999; 53: 387-395.

[2]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Aloe vera- A review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research 2015; 6(1) : 28-33.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their immunological effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2015; 5(3): 208-216.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antibacterial activity (part 1). International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015; 6(3): 137-158.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antioxidant activity (part 1). International Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2015; 6(3): 159-182.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The contents and pharmacology of Crotalaria juncea- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

77-86

Paper Index
::
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The preliminary phytochemical screening of the Crotalaria juncea leaves revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, triterpenes, phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, aminoacids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and volatile oils. The plant possessed hypolipidemic, reproductive, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Crotalaria juncea. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology Crotalaria juncea.
[1]. Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological importance of Aloe vera- A review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research 2015; 6(1) : 28-33.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants affected smooth muscles functions (part 1). Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(2): 90-97.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antidiabetic effects (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 218-229.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The medical importance of Cydonia oblonga- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

87-99

Paper Index
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The chemical analysis of Cydonia oblonga showed that it contained phenolics, pectin, essential and volatile oils. The analysis of the essential oils of Cydonia oblonga leaves showed that the it contained aromatic aldehyde, fatty acid, oxygenated monoterpene, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon and aromatic aldehyde. The quince fruits contained protein, carbohydrate, lipids, and high levels of mineral elements suc as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Cydonia oblonga. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, medical, Cydonia oblonga
[1]. Vickers A. and Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine Herbal medicine. 2-BMJ 1999; 319: 1050 - 1053. 2-Fikrat IA. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of Saffron(Crocus sativus L.). Experimental biology and medicine 2002;, 227: 20-25.
[2]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with hypolipidemic, hemostatic, fibrinolytic and anticoagulant effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology 2015; 5(4): 271-284.
[3]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their effect on reproductive systems ( part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 240-248.
[4]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[5]. Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 6,~Version 3,~June - 2016

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in treatment of lumbar radiculopathy; A randomized clinical trial

Country

::

Iran

Authors

::

Ehsan Shahverdi ||, Rahim Roointan ||, Hossein Afkari ||, Fatemeh Shafizadeh Barmi ||, Mohammad Shahriar

Page No.

::

01-03

Paper Index
::
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin in combination with standard treatment (an NSAID) compared with the control group in the course of lumbar radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial study, patients with lumbar radiculopathy referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were divided into two groups of 28 people. Group 1 was treated with naproxen 250mg every 12 hours and placebo of gabapentin 900 mg daily (300 mg, 3 times a day). In another group, patients were treated with naproxen 250 mg twice a day and gabapentin 900 mg daily (300 mg, 3 times a day).A visual analog scale (VAS) pain assessment was used for evaluation of pain severity . Results: Pain severity before and after treatment showed no significant decrease in the both groups. (P value = 0.079) The ability to walk before and after treatment in the both groups increased significantly, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. (P value = 0.054) Conclusion: Gabapentin in combination with NSAID consumption is more effective compared to NSAID use only in patients with lumbar radiculopathy of spinal origin.

Keywords: Gabapentin, Low back pain, NSAID, Radiculopathy, Spinal

[1]. Kasimcan O, Kaptan H. Efficacy of gabapentin for radiculopathy caused by lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disk hernia. Neurologia medico-chirurgica. 2010;50(12):1070-3.

[2]. Iversen T, Solberg TK, Romner B, Wilsgaard T, Nygaard Ø, Waterloo K, et al. Accuracy of physical examination for chronic lumbar radiculopathy. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2013;14(1):206.

[3]. Andersson G. The epidemiology of spinal disorders. The adult spine: Principles and practice. 1997.

[4]. Heliövaara M, Knekt P, Aromaa A. Incidence and risk factors of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc or sciatica leading to hospitalization. Journal of Chronic Diseases. 1987;40(3):251-8.

[5]. Kaye AD, Beuno F, Katalenich B, Stell C, Liu H, Rosinia FA, et al. The effects of gastroretentive gabapentin (Gralise®) on spinal stenosis patients with radicular pain. Pain physician. 2013;17(2):169-78.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Impact of acute and chronic treatment on the production of prostaglandin E2 in Wistar rats with nicotine extracts from oriental tobacco varieties

Country

::

Balkans

Authors

::

Cvetanovska Ana ||, Icko Gjorgjoski ||, Cvetanovska Lenka

Page No.

::

04-07

Paper Index
::
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::
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During 2011 and 2012, on the experienced field of Scientific Tobacco Institute in Prilep experimental plots were set with oriental tobacco type Prilep (PP 66), type Jaka (JK-125/3) and type Basma. Nicotiana tabacum L. which is the subject of the biochemical analysis is an important crop spread widely in the world. Nicotine, is the most important alkaloid in the tobacco plants, which has a big influence in the function of the organs in the living organisms. Experimental part concerns determination of the effect of nicotine extracts from different oriental tobacco varieties in the production of prostaglandin E2 in white laboratory rats after acute and chronic treatment. This research is conducted in order to determine the influence on the function of prostaglandin E2 in the plasma of the experimental animals using ELISA test.

 

Key words: tobacco, nicotine, prostaglandin E2, white laboratory rat, ELISA

[1] Mackay, J., Eriksen, M. (2002). The Tobacco Atlas, World Health Organization, Geneva

[2] Miceski, T., Taskoski, P. (2006). Agrochemical Management in Production of Tobacco" In: 70th Anniversary of Plant Protection Institute and Annual Balkan Week of Plant Health, May 28-31, 2006, Kostinbrod, Bulgaria
[3] Troje, Z. S., Frobe, Z., Perovic, D. (1997). Analysis of elected alkaloids and sugars in tobacco extract. Journal of Chromatography A. 775: 101-107
[4] Serebryakov, V., Zakharenko, S., Snetkov, V., Takeda, K. (1994). Effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on cultured smooth muscle cells and strips of rat aorta. Prostaglandins 47(5): 353-365
[5] Kalinski.P., (2012) Regulation of Immune Responces by Prostaglandin E2. J Immunol 188: 21-28

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The pharmacology of Crocus sativus- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

08-38

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Saffron contained more than 150 volatile and several nonvolatile compounds, approximately 40–50 constituents have already been identified. It contained apocarotinoid glycosides: in particular crocin (crocetin-betadigentiobioside), colored intensive yellow orange; picrocrocin (glycosidic bitter principle, up to 4%): the apocarotinoids and picrocrocin were presumably breakdown products of a carotinoid-digentiobioside-diglucoside (protocrocin); volatile oil (0.4 to 1.3%): [(4,5-dehydro-betacyclocitral (safranal), 4-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (breakdown products of the picrocrocin)]; carotinoids: lycopene, alpha-, beta-, gamma-carotene; fatty oil and starch. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that saffron possessed antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antianxiety, memory improvement, for the treatment of tremor and morphine-withdrawal syndrome, antidiabetic, antioxidant, dermatological, immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, gastrointestinal, smooth muscle relaxation, anticancer, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, protective ( hepatic, renal, CNS) and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Crocus sativus.

 

Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Crocus sativus, saffron

[1] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with anticancer activity (part 1) . Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(3): 104-124.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activity (part 1). Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(3): 125-147.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their immunological effects (part 1). Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2015; 5(3): 208-216.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1) Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The chemical constituents and therapeutic importance of Cressa cretica- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

39-46

Paper Index
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Cressa cretica contained many biologically active constituents including coumarins, sterols, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides (cardiac glycoside, anthraquinone glycoside), protein, carbohydrate, flavonoids, unidentified sugars and high salt content. The pharmacological studies of Cressa cretica revealed that the plant possessed bronchodilatory, antitussive, reproductive, nootropic, antidiabetic antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects. This review will highlight the chemical constituents and medical importance of Cressa cretica.

 

Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Cressa cretica.

[1] Vickers A. and Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine Herbal medicine.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Mammary gland stimulating effects of the crude phenolic extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis). International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research 2015; 6(7): 573-576.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. The pharmacological Importance of Antirrhinum majus - A review. Asian J of Pharm Sci & Tech 2015; 5(4): 313-320.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Astragalus hamosus and Astragalus tribuloides grown in Iraq. Asian J of Pharm Sci & Tech 2015; 5(4): 321-328.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. The Pharmacological Importance of Ballota nigra –A review. Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 249-256.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The Pharmacological and therapeutic importance of Cordia myxa- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

47-57

Paper Index
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The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on Cordia myxa fruit extract revealed the presence of oil, glycosides, flavonoids, sterols, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic acids, coumarins, tannins, resins, gums and mucilage. Pharmacological studies revealed that Cordia myxa possessed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, insecticidal, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and protective effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cordia myxa. Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Cordia myxa.
[1] Orhan IE . Biotechnological production of plant secondary metabolites. Bentham ebook, 2012: 107.
[2] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants affected smooth muscles functions (part 1). Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(2): 90-97.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their gastro-intestinal effects (part 1). Ind J of Pharm Sci & Res 2015; 5(4): 220-232.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal activity (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 203-217.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants with antidiabetic effects (part 1). J of Pharmaceutical Biology 2015; 5(3): 218-229.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The contents and pharmacological importance of Corchorus capsularis- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

58-63

Paper Index
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Seeds of Corchorus capsularis contained cardiac glycosides, corchorin, corchortoxin helveticoside, corchoroside A and B, biosides, olitoriside, erysimoside, strophantidol glycosides, oliogosaccaride and olitoriside; while leaves contained flavonoids, triterpenes, saponins, glucoside, capsularin steroids and many other secondary metabolites. The pharmacological studied revealed that te plant possessed cardiac, antioxidant, antiinflammmatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial, insecticidal and many other pharmacological effects. This review was designed to highlight the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Corchorus capsularis

Keywords: pharmacology, constituents, pharmacognosy, Corchorus capsularis

[1] Rossato SC, Leitao-Filho H and Gegossi A. Ethnobotany of Caicaras of the Atlantic forest coast (Brazil). Econ Bot 1999; 53: 387-395.
[2] Al-Snafi AE Medical importance of Cichorium intybus – A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 41-56.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological importance of Clitoria ternatea – A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 68-83.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. The medical Importance of Cicer arietinum - A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 29-40.
[5] Al-Snafi AE. Galactagogue action of the crude phenolic extracts of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera). International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Research 2015; 6(8): 577-580.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Convolvulus arvensis and Convolvulus scammonia- A review

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Prof Dr Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

Page No.

::

64-75

Paper Index
::
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The phytochemical studies showed that Convolvulus arvensis contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carbohydrates, sugars, mucilage, sterols, resin. tannins, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, lactones and proteins; while, scammonia contained scammonin resin, dihydroxy cinnamic acid, beta-methyl-esculetin, ipuranol, surcose, reducing sugar and starch. The previous pharmacological studies revealed that Convolvulus arvensis possessed cytotoxic, antioxidant, vasorelaxat, immunostimulant, epatoprotective, antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal and diuretic effect; while, Convolvulus scammonia sowed purgative , vasorelaxat, anti platelet aggregation, anticancer and cellular protective effects. This study will highlight the constituents and pharmacological effects of Convolvulus arvensis and Convolvulus scammonia.

 

Keywords: constituents, pharmacology, Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulus scammonia.

[1] Al-snafi AE. Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Citrullus colocynthis - A review. IOSR Journal Of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 57-67.
[2] 2-Al-Snafi AE Medical importance of Cichorium intybus – A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 41-56.
[3] Al-Snafi AE. Pharmacological importance of Clitoria ternatea – A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 68-83.
[4] Al-Snafi AE. The medical Importance of Cicer arietinum - A review IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2016; 6(3): 29-40.
[5] 5-Al-Snafi AE. Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of plants affected smooth muscles functions (part 1). Int J of Pharmacy 2015; 5(2): 90-97.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Efficacy Of Larvicides Of Leaves Of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizuserosus) As Botanical Insecticides Against Fly Larvae Myiasis Chrysomyabezziana

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Aulia Andi Mustika ||, Upik Kesumawati Hadi ||, April Hari Wardhana ||,

Min Rahminiwati ||, Ietje Wientarsih

Page No.

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76-81

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The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of myasis cases in cattle have not been reported yet. One potential medicinal plants as a biopesticide is a yam bean plant (Pachyrhizuserosus). The leaf of yam bean has larvicidal efficacy against some insects. This study is expected to examine the effectiveness of yam bean leaves as a bothanical insecticides against fly larvae Chrysomyabezzianaas a causative agent in vitro. This study is divided into 5 treatment groups. As many as 20 larvae 1, larvae 2 and larvae 3 of Chrysomyabezziana used for in vitro testing using plastic pots containing larvae media and ethanol extracts of leaves of yam bean with graded concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2%. Coumaphos and sterile distilled water were used as positive and negative controls. The result showed that the ethanol extract of leaves of yam bean had an activity as larvicides against L1 and L2. The ethanol extract of the yam bean leaf showed the effectiveness as larvicides against L1 and L2 depending on the level of concentration of the extract which was mixed into the media. The higher the concentration of the extract was the higher the death rate of the larvae. At a concentration of 2%, it was capable of causing 100% pupae did not hatch. At L3 testing showed that the ethanol extract of the leaves was able to cause a decrease in hatchability at all concentrations. Testing L1 and L2 indicated the effectiveness of the extract as a stomach poison, while testing L3 showed an indication of a contact poison. Keywords-Chrysomyabezziana, leaf of yam bean, myiasis
[1] J. A Duke,Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance (New York & London:Plenum Press,1981, 345 – 350).
[2] A.J.De Roos, S.H.Zahm, K.P.Cantor, D.D.Weisenburger, F.F.Holmes, L.F.Burmeister, and A.Blair, Integrative assessment of multiple pesticides as risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men. Occupational and Environmental Medicine,60(e11), 2003
[3] W.C.Gealh, G.M.Ferreira, J.G.Farah, U. Teodoro, and E.T.Camarini, Treatment of Oral Miasis Caused by Cochlomya hominivorax, two cases treated with Ivermectin. Journal Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 47, 2009, 23-26.
[4] M.J.R.Hall, R. Farkas, Traumatic Miasis of Human and Animals. Chapter 1.18 : Page 751-768. 2000
[5] A.Kardinan,Pestisida Nabati Ramuan dan Aplikasi (Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya, 2001, 21-22)

 

Volume 6 ~ Issue 6,~Version 4,~June - 2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Speckle Tracking Ultrasound: Role in Cerebrovascular Imaging

Country

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England

Authors

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Pooja Sethi MD ||, Zia Ur Rahman MD ||, Ghulam Murtaza MD ||, Aitzaz Bin Sultan Rai MD

Page No.

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01-02

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Speckle Tracking Ultrasound Is An Emerging Modality. It Involves Tracking Of Ultrasound Derived Speckles Formed By Constructive And Destructive Interference Of Ultrasound Waves(1). Tracking Algorithms Track A Set (Kernel) Of Speckles Frame By Frame Throughout The Cardiac Cycle. In This Way, Deformation Measures Like Strain And Strain Rate Are Calculated. Speckle Tracking Ultrasound Has Emerging Applications In The Field Of Cerebrovascular Imaging.This Technique Has Various Applications As Detailedas Below.
[1] H. Blessberger,T. Binder, NON-Invasive Imaging: Two Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiographybasic Principles. Heart 96, 2010; 716-722. [2] LaserSpeckle Imaging Allows Real-Time Intraoperative Blood Flow Assessment During Neurosurgical Procedures. Nils Hecht, Johannes Woitzik,Susanne König,Peter Hornet Al .Journal Of Cerebral Blood Flow &Metabolism(2013) 33, 1000–1007; Doi:10.1038/Jcbfm.2013.42; Published Online 20 March 2013 [3] Chronic Monitoring Of Vascular Progression After Ischemic Stroke Using Multiexposure Speckle Imaging And Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy.Schrandt CJ, Kazmi SM, Jones TAEt Al. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Jun;35(6):933-42.
[4] Swillens, A., Segers, P., Torp, H., &Løvstakken, L. (2010). Two-Dimensional Blood Velocity Estimation With Ultrasound: Speckle Tracking Versus Crossed-Beam Vector Doppler Based On Flow Simulations In A Carotid Bifurcation Model. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, And Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions On, 57(2), 327-339.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Docking Of The Isolated Compounds - 3,3',4',5,7-Penta Hydroxy Isoflavone And 5,7,4'- Tri Hydroxy Isoflavone With Various Proteins

Country

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India

Authors

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Ethalsha ||, Malar Retna

Page No.

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03-12

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It evaluates the inhibitory effect of the isolated compounds with different drug targets for the anti-cancer and anti-diabetic activities. The present investigation analyses the docking score of the isolated compounds with different proteins. Two types of proteins (Drug targets) were chosen against Breast cancer and Diabetes namely AKT1 – Rac-Alpha Serine/Threonine-protein Kinase (breast cancer drug target) and ACE2- Angiotensin- converting enzyme (diabetes drug target) respectively. These results reveals that the 3,3',4',5,7-penta hydroxyl isoflavone (compound 1) shows seven hydrogen interactions with the docking energy of –8.83 Kcal/mol for drug target AKT1 and seven hydrogen interactions with the docking energy of –8.76 Kcal/mol drug target ACE2 and 5,7,4'- tri hydroxyl isoflavone (compound 2) exihibits four hydrogen interactions with the docking energy of –8.16 Kcal/mol for drug target AKT1 and four hydrogen interactions with the docking energy of -7.61 Kcal/mol for drug target ACE2. This reveals a significant interaction between the target proteins and the selected compounds. Hence, these compounds (3,3',4',5,7-penta hydroxyl isoflavone and 5,7,4'tri hydroxyl isoflavone may offer therapeutic advantages in the treatment and prevention of diabetes and breast cancer. Keywords: Isolated compounds, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Drug targets, AKT1, ACE2, Docking scores.
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