Volume 2 ~ Issue 2


S.No. TITLE P.No. Download
Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Properties of a Triherbal Formulation against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity
O. Iroanya, J. Okpuzor, O. Adebesin

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220130136  

ANED : 05.3013/022130136  

The hepatoprotective activity of a triherbal formulation (GOV) comprising of 50 % ethanolic extract of Gongronema latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina was studied using Wistar albino rats. The animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 1 ml/kg of a 50 % (v/v) solution in liquid paraffin. GOV dose dependently and significantly (p< 0.05) attenuated the increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels after CCl4 treatment compared to the toxin control group. On administration of GOV, it dose dependently resulted in a significant (p< 0.05) elevation in the levels of serum CAT, GPx, GSH, GST, SOD and total protein and significant (p < 0.05) decrease in lipid peroxidation compared to the toxin control group. It also increased the attenuated the total protein concentrations compared to the toxin control group. The results were comparable to Liv 52 and silymarin.The results of this study confirmed the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the triherbal formulation against carbon tetrachloride induced nephro-hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats.

Keywords: Carbon tetrachloride, Gongronema latifolia, Hepatoprotective, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina.
130-136 pdf
Synthesis of 2, 6-Diaryl-4-5-Secondary aminonicotinonitriles as potent antimicrobial agents
R. Patil, G. Mandawad, S. Sirsat, A. Patil, M. Kalyankar

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220137141  

ANED : 05.3013/022137141  

A series of 2, 6-Diaryl-4-5-Secondary aminonicotinonitriles derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2H-pyran-2-one (I) and the N-aryl amidine (II) using KOH as catalyst in DMF at room temperature. All synthesized compounds (IIIa-i) evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Aspergillus niger and, Candida albicans strains most of the compound shows potent activity.

Keywords: 2-H-pyran-2-one, N-aryl amidine, aminonicotinonitrile and Antimicrobial activity.
137-141 pdf
3 Hepatoprotective and antioxidants activity of ethanolic extract of Cuscutta reflexa roxb
Amrita Richhariya, Ajay Kumar Singh, Neelima Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Singh

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220142147  

ANED : 05.3013/022142147  

Background and objective: Medicinal plants play a key role in the human health care system. About 80% of the world populations rely on traditional medicine which is predominantly based on plants material. A large number of plants and purified natural substances have been screened for liver disorders. Liver diseases are mainly caused by toxic chemicals, excess alcohol consumption, infection and auto immune mediated. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by lipid peroxidation & other oxidative damage. In view of above discussion, this study was aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cuscutta reflexa in albino rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetrachloride.
Materials and methods: Liver damage was evaluated by accessing the antioxidants parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase), lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde), serum enzymes (SGOT, SGPT), total protein and bilirubin.
Result: The ethanol extract at on oral doses of 100mg/kg exhibited a highly significant (p<0.001) protective effect by lowering serum levels of lipid peroxidation, serum enzymes and bilirubin. The highly significant (p<0.001) increase was found in the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase & total protein. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Furthermore, the ethanol extract showed no significance of toxicity up to a dose level of 100mg/kg.
Conclusion: The results suggested the ethanolic extract of Cuscutta reflexa exhibit significant hepatoprotective properties.

Keywords: antioxidants, carbon tetrachloride, cuscutta reflexa, hepatoprotective activity, lipid peroxidation
142-147 pdf
4 Atypical presentations of tuberculous meningitis patient on prolong mechanical ventilation
Dr. Anil k Paswan, Dr. RK.Dubey , Sandeep Khuba, Suman sarkar

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220148152  

ANED : 05.3013/022148152  

Tracheal stenosis is the most common late airway complication of post intubation/trachestomy resulted in hemodynamic deterioration and impairment of respiratory system mechanics. Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is well known complication of introduction of spinal/epidural needle in subarachanoid space. In this article, we present a very rare case report of a patient 18 year old male, diagnosis tuberculous meningitis(TBM) get prolong mechanical ventilation and dural puncture had developed tracheal stenosis and post-dural puncture headache . We describe a patient with PDPH and tracheal stenosis which was initially misdiagnosed as simple headache and asthma after prolonged tracheal intubation. Surgery is lifesaving for patients with critical tracheal stenosis, but how to ensure effective gas exchange is crucial to the anesthetic management.

148-152 pdf
Arora Neha, Inderjit Singh, Monish Sharma, Garg Tarun

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220153154  

ANED : 05.3013/022153154  

Many drugs show bioavailability problems due to their low water solubility, slow dissolution rate, and instability in the gastrointestinal tract. Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agent, chemically is N-(4 nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methane sulfonamide. It is poorly soluble in water and irregularly absorbed by gastrointestinal tract. Among the various approaches to improve the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs, the preparation of solid dispersions has often to be successful [1]. Solid dispersion (SD) is defined as the dispersion of one or more active ingredients in inert carriers at solid state prepared by fusion, solvent, or solvent-fusion methods. In solid dispersions, the particle size of the drugs was reduced, wettability and the dispersibility of the drugs were enhanced; therefore, drug dissolution was improved markedly. Solid dispersion is a promising approach to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs [2]. The methods utilized in the preparation of solid dispersion include melting, use of common solvent and a combination of melting and solvent approach1,6. Various hydrophilic carriers, such as polyethylene glycols, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose have been Investigated as carriers for solid dispersions, improvement of dissolution characteristics and bioavailability of poorly aqueous-soluble drugs1,6. Solid dispersion prepared from soluble carriers such as polyethylene glycol, usually have the disadvantage of being tacky and therefore difficult to subdivide and handle. PEG solid dispersions were formulated using combinations of melting and solvent approach in which the melted drug and carrier mixture were granulated with excipients that result less tacky granulation.
153-154 pdf
Arora Neha, Inderjit Singh, Monish Sharma, Garg Tarun

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220155156  

ANED : 05.3013/022155156  

Pepsin is aspartic proteneases. Pepsin is most active in acidic environments between 37°C and 42°C [1,2]. Accordingly, its primary site of synthesis and activity is the stomach (pH 1.5 to 2). Pepsin exhibits maximal activity at pH 2.0 and is inactive at pH 6.5 and above, however pepsin is not fully denatured or irreversibly inactivated until pH 8.0. Therefore pepsin in solution of up to pH 8.0 can be reactivated upon re-acidification [3].
155-156 pdf

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220157161  

ANED : 05.3013/022157161  

Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston in CCl4 induced rats.
Materials and Methods: The authenticated leaves of Ecbolium viride (E.V) were collected from ABS botanical garden, Salem, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for acute oral toxicity study by using OECD guidelines 423. The starting dose level of Ethanolic extract of E.V was 2000 mg /kg. Body weight p.o. and the route of administration was oral. Dose volume was administered 0.1 ml / 100 gms body weight to the rats, which were fasted over night with water ad libitum. Assessment of hepatoprotective activity was carried out on albino wistar rats. The animals were segregated into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as normal control receiving 5% CMC (10ml/kg). All other groups received CCL4 (1ml/kg) with equal volume of olive oil (50% v/v) for two successive days. Group II animals were maintained as CCL4 group, while group III, IV and V animals were treated orally for seven days with suspension of extract (100mg/kg), extract (200mg/kg) and reference drug silymarin (25 mg/kg), respectively. After the drug treatment all the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected from the carotid artery and was allowed to clot for 45 min at room temperature; serum was separated by centrifugation at 2500 rpm for 15 min, used for the estimation of various biochemical parameters namely GOT, GPT, ALP, ACP and Bilirubin. Biochemical parameters such as Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (SALP), Serum acid Phosphatase (SACP), Liver, and Bilirubin (total & direct) were determined.
Results: The acute oral toxicity studies showed that ethanolic extract of E.V up to 2000 mg/kg are non toxic and safe. This studies shows that ethanolic extract of E.V possess good hepatoprotective activity. This hepatoprotective activity shown by the E.V may be possibly was due to the active constituent present in these extracts which was responsible for the pharmacological action.
Conclusion: The results indicates that ethanolic extract of EV leaves possesses significant hepatoprotective activity.

Keywords:Hepatoprotective, Silymarin, Ecbolium viride (Forssk.) Alston, Hepatotoxicity and Acute oral toxicity study.
157-161 pdf

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220162169  

ANED :05.3013/022162169  

Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Hiptage benghalensis (l) kurz in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The authenticated stem of Hiptage benghalensis (HB) were collected from ABS botanical garden, Salem, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for acute oral toxicity study by using OECD guidelines 423. The starting dose level of Ethanolic extract of HB was 2000 mg /kg. Body weight p.o. and the route of administration was oral. Dose volume was administered 0.1 ml / 100 gms body weight to the rats, which were fasted over night with water ad libitum. Assessment of antidiabetic activity was carried out on albino wistar rats. The animals were segregated into five groups of six animals each.
Acute toxicity study revealed the non-toxic nature of the Hiptage benghalensis extract. There was no mortality or any toxic reactions found at the maximum tested dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The serum glucose levels of normal rats reached a peak at 60 min after the oral administration of glucose (3 g/kg) and gradually decreased to 116.0 mg/dl and 104.2 mg/dl in 2 hours. The pretreatment with Hiptage bengahlensis extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) and Glebinclamide (2.5 mg/kg) elicited decreased serum glucose level significantly (p < 0.001) as compared to the control group. On repeated oral administration of the vehicle, Hiptage benghalensis extract or Glebinclamide, for 21 days, a sustained and significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the serum blood glucose of the diabetic rats was observed at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in a dose dependent manner as compared to the vehicle treated group. Glebinclamide also showed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in serum glucose at a dose of 2.5 mg/ kg, p.o. as compared with the vehicle treated group. The results of the present study indicate that Hiptage benghalensis extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) was found to reduce the glucose level in glucose loaded animals and in STZ induced diabetic animals.
STZ has been shown to induce free radical production and cause tissue injury. The pancreas is especially susceptible to the action of STZ-induced free- radical damage (Hunt, 1990). Induction of diabetes with STZ is associated with a characteristic loss of body weight, which is due to increased muscle wasting and due to loss of tissue proteins. In STZ animals, there was an increase in the value of total cholesterol (TCH), triglycerides (TG), LDL, VLDL, except HDL and protein values (albumin and total protein), while the extract treated group showed an increased value of HDL, protein values, and reduced VLDL, TC, and TG in a significant manner. This reduced the VLDL, TC, and TG; it may be presumed that the extract is responsible for the enhancement of the transcription of lipoprotein lipase similar to that of insulin, since in the untreated or under treated diabetes animals, the level of triglycerides and cholesterol increases due to increased production of VLDL and unavailability of protein lipase which hydrolyses the triglycerides to VLDL because of insulin deficiency.
Results: The acute oral toxicity studies showed that ethanolic extract of HB up to 2000 mg/kg are non toxic and safe. This study shows that ethanolic extract of BH possess significant antidiabetic activity. This antidiabetic activity shown by the HB may be possibly due to the active constituent present in the extract which is responsible for the pharmacological action.
Conclusion: The results indicates that ethanolic extract of HB stem possesses significant antidiabetic activity. Key words: Antidiabetic activity, Streptozotocin, Hiptage benghalensisi (l) kurz and Acute oral toxicity study.

Keywords: Flavonoidal glycosides, Reducing Sugar, RF values, phytochemical constituents, phytochemical screening.
162-169 pdf

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220170179  

ANED : 05.3013/02217017  

In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in demand for herbal drugs due to its safety, efficacy and better therapeutic results. Due to its economic pricing as compared to synthetic or allopathic drugs, which have several therapeutic complications, herbal drugs are more preferred nowadays. Developing of drug as antidiabetic agent involves screening of large number of phytochemical and natural products for their specific and non-specific antidiabetic activity against many types of chemical agents. There are many natural products which are used as potential anti diabetic agents. Looking at the scope of herbal drug and increasing demand of my plant especially in diabetic, hepatoprotective, AIDS, skin diseases, stomatitis and cancer etc. In this Hiptage benghalensis plant is chosen to study the pharmacognostical features.
170-179 pdf
Arora Neha, Khattar Himanshi,Parashar Deepa,Arora Nageen,Garg Tarun

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220180181  

ANED : 05.3013/022180181  

Glipizide is a second-generation sulfonylurea that acutely lowers the blood glucose level in humans by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas and it is prescribed to treat type II diabetes (non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus). Its short biological half-life (3.4 6 0.7 hours) necessitates that it be administered in 2 or 3 doses of 2.5 to 10 mg per day.18 Thus, the development of controlled-release dosage forms would clearly be advantageous. So we have formulated oral controlled-release products of glipizide by various techniques1,2. Moreover, the site of absorption of glipizide is in the stomach. Dosage forms that are retained in the stomach would increase the absorption, improve drug efficiency,and decrease dose requirements. Thus, an attempt was made in this investigation to use chitosan as a mucoadhesive polymer and prepare microspheres3,4.
180-181 pdf
Arora Neha, Arora Nageen, Khattar Himanshi , Kaul parinita, Garg Tarun

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220182183  

ANED : 05.3013/022182183  

A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization which provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers various‖ pharmaceutical research that is essential for conducting clinical trials in the present boom when various complications are involved in the drug discovery process. India occupie very small place in global market as clinical trial industry. But india taking step for growth of various clinical trial organization for conducting of many clinical trials . Various companies are involved in his type of development many examples are thee like Lupin , Quintil, Cipla, Zydus Cadeila and they are also conduct these type of trails with the collaboration of many multinational companies and these Indian companies are making space in foreign .and these companies makes a protocol before conductind a clinical trial that is very typical and handeled by many highly qualified personnal . According to ICH-GCP Contract Research organization define as ―A organization contracted by the sponsor to perform one or more of a sponsor's trial-related duties and functions.
182-183 pdf
Jadhav V.S, Mundada V.D, Gaikwad A.V, Doibale M.K, Kulkani A.P

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220184188  

ANED : 05.3013/022184188  

1.Research Question: What is the morbidity profile pattern of geriatric population in rural area?
2. Objectives : (i) To study the morbidity profile of elderly, (ii) To study the addiction problems among elderly.
3. Study design: Cross - Sectional Study
4. Settings: Field practice area of R.H.T.C, Paithan of Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad.
5. Participants: Elderly above 60 years of age.
6. Sample size: 625 which was 20 % of total elderly at RHTC, Paithan.
7. Statistical analysis: Chi- Square
8. Results: We concluded that the prevalence of Cataract was 40.16 %,joint pain-23.04%, C.O.P.D-7.52%, Senescent forgetfulness-10.88%, hemorrhoids - 8.64%, BEP- 7.20% in elderly males, hearing impairment - 24.8%, hypertension - 21.6% and diabetes mellitus - 13.92%, anemia - 8.32% was present in elderly. Prevalence of addiction among males was 68.34% and among females 45.42% elderly females use to chew tobacc
184-188 pdf
13 Insecticidal Activity of Castanospermum australe against stored Grain Pest Callosobruchus analis
Zafar Alam Mahmood, Salman Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Mohtasheem ul Hasan

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220189191  

ANED : 05.3013/022189191  

The butanol fraction of the leaves of Castanospermum australe Cunn. & Fraser., was tested on adult Callosobruchus analis (pulse beetle) for its insecticidal activity by impregnation method at concentration of 3, 9, 48, 240 and 354 μg / cm2. The result showed that the extract is toxic to Callosobruchus analis and the LD50 was found to be 38 g/cm2.

Keywords: Callosobruchus analis, Castanospermum australe, Grain pest, Insecticidal activity, Saponins.
189-191 pdf
14 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Hydro-Alcoholic Curcuma Longa Extracts against Endodontic Pathogens
Prof. (Dr) Mithra N Hegde, Dr. Shishir Shetty, Dr. Mahalaxmi Yelapure, Amit Patil

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220192198  

ANED : 05.3013/022192198  

The most commonly isolated bacteria from endodontically infected teeth are anaerobic, especially black-pigmented gram negative organisms. However, facultative microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis, aerobes like Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts like Candida albicans are considered by many to be the most resistant species, and possible causes of root canal treatment failure. Irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments are required to eradicate microorganisms, and over a period of time, a variety of chemicals have been introduced. The alarming incidence of antibiotic resistance amongst the microbes, has led to the search of alternative antimicrobial drugs from medicinal plants to treat these infections. Curcuma longa (turmeric) belonging to the Zingiberaeceae family, has been used for thousands of years as a flavouring agent, a medicinal herb, and a dyeing agent. Owing to its antimicrobial properties, it can prove to be useful in endodontics as well. Therefore; in the present study, aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the roots of Curcuma longa rhizome were prepared and solutions of different concentrations of the extracts were made. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the agar well diffusion method. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were calculated. 2.3% sodium hypochlorite solution was used as the positive control. Both extracts showed good antimicrobial properties against the endodontic pathogens. Hence, its future use as an endodontic irrigant or medicament should be considered and further evaluated.

Keywords: Curcuma longa, aqueous extract, hydro-alcoholic extract, endodontic pathogens, antimicrobial activity.
192-198 pdf
15 A comparative evaluation of in vitro growth inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of some medicinal plants in Northern Ghana against selected human pathogens
Oseni Lateef Adebayo, Kadiri Osman

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220199206  

ANED : 05.3013/022199206  

Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics justifies the need to explore alternative remedies from medicinal plants since they represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. We present a comparative evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts of seven medicinal plants used to treat bacterial infections amongst the tribes of Northern Ghana. In the present study, extracts of the plants were obtained using solvents of different polarities and their growth inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli evaluated in vitro. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in most of the extracts. These secondary metabolites have been implicated as antibacterial agents in several reports. The extracts from the seven plants showed varied antibacterial activity against the test organisms. Of the bacteria tested, Salmonella typhi was the least susceptible to most of the extracts. The ethanol extracts of the plants generally demonstrated superior growth inhibitory activity at 100 and 200mg/ml concentrations while the aqueous extracts were the least active at similar concentrations. The maximum antibacterial activity was recorded for Khaya senegalensis ethanol stem bark extract against Escherichia coli (zone of inhibition = 20.10mm) and Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition = 17.10mm) at 200mg/ml. The result presents the basis for which these plants have been used for treatment of bacterial infections in folkloric medicine. The results further reveal that ethanol stem bark extract of K. senegalensis demonstrated the greatest activity and thus can be very useful in the search for novel antibacterial agents.

Keywords: Solvent extracts, polarity, medicinal plants, antimicrobial assay, higher plants, phytochemistry
199-206 pdf
16 Antibiotic impregnated tablets for screening ESBL and AmpC beta lactamases
Ritu Nayar, Vivek Mohan Arora, Shalini Duggal

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220207209  

ANED : 05.3013/022207209  

Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat. Fifty non repetitive multi drug resistant gram negative bacterial isolates were screened for ESBL, AmpC, ESBL-AmpC co-production using antibiotic tablets. Of these 56% were Escherichia coli, 16% were Klebsiella spp., 39.6% produced ESBLs, 17.2% AmpC and 13.8% showed co-production. Antibiotic tablets sensitivity for ESBL detection was 93.9% compared to filter paper discs. We emphasize that even small and medium level laboratories should screen for ESBL and AmpC production to check the burden of antibiotic resistance. Use of antibiotic tablets, though costlier can be used especially in tropical countries given their stability during transit from manufacturer to user.

Keywords: ESBL, AmpC, antibiotic impregnated tablets
207-209 pdf
Nayla S. Al-Akl, Farah Khaliefeh, Alexander M. Abdelnoor

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220210214  

ANED : 05.3013/022210214  

Coley's Mixed Bacterial Toxin (MBT) used to treat cancer patients, is thought to be a modulator of a number of cytokines. In this study the effects of the MBT supernatant and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined.
MBT was prepared, centrifuged and the supernatant was dialyzed. The protein content of the dialysate was determined by the Bradford assay and SDS-PAGE. A portion of the dialysate was heated to denature proteins. Groups of mice were given intraperitoneal injections of MBT, dialysate or heated dialysate, LPS, RPMI, or were left untreated. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-12 and VEGF were determined at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-injection by ELISA.
The dialysate contained 9% protein and SDS-PAGE revealed only one band (17KDa). Unheated or heated dialysate increased the levels of TNF-α and IL-12. Heated dialysate decreased VEGF levels. LPS caused an increase in TNF-α and IL-12, and a decrease in VEGF levels.
Activity was present in the MBT and both heated and unheated dialysate. Heating of fractions enhanced activity, suggesting that active sites were exposed or inhibitory factors were inactivated by heat. It appears that LPS could be one of the active constituents of MBT.

Keywords: Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens, Lipopolysaccharide
210-214 pdf
18 Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge About Package Inserts Amongst Medical Students: A Questionnaire Based Study
Gupta VK ,Pathak SS

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220215217  

ANED : 05.3013/022215217  

A package insert or prescribing information (in Europe, Patient information leaflet for human medicines or Package Leaflet for veterinary medicines) is a document provided along with a prescription medication to provide additional information about that drug. In developing countries , the package insert is considered an important source of drug information for health care providers as well, because of limited ability to access up-to-date information about drugs. The quality and quantity of information available in the package insert has been shown to influence patient's compliance and satisfaction.
This study was undertaken to assess the knowledge about package inserts amongst medical students.
A prevalidated questionnaire based study was conducted amongst 100 medical students. It was observed that significantly large number of student (42%) do not even read package inserts. 18% looked for indications,19% looked for contraindications, 21% looked for adverse effects and 23% opinioned that it should be in mother tongue. It is a good idea to review the need of more awareness amongst the students and certain changes in the package inserts.

Keywords: Awareness, Medical students, package inserts, questionnaire based study
215-217 pdf
19 Reaction time in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients before and after drug treatment
Shah SH, Nahar PS

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220218221  

ANED : 05.3013/022218221  

Reaction time (RT) is the time interval between onset of stimulus and occurrence of response. There are few studies on audiovisual RT in patients of thyroid dysfunction and effect of treatment on RT. Hence this study was aimed to compare the audiovisual RT in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients with age matched normal healthy controls. We also studied that whether there is any improvement in RT after giving treatment to these patients with L- Thyroxine and Carbimazole respectively after 21 days. RT was measured by Response analyser, a simple machine manufactured locally .This machine provide audio ( low and high ) and visual ( red, green and yellow colours each of low and high intensity ). RT was measured in 20 hypothyroid , 20 hyperthyroid and 20 healthy controls. Again RT was measured after giving treatment with L- Thyroxine and Carbimazole respectively after 21 days. Statistical analysis was done by using Student's t test. The results showed that there was a significant increase in audio-visual RT in hypo as well as hyperthyroid patients as compared to the control group. In hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients the auditory RT decreased significantly after treatment( p < 0.05 ) . Hence it appears that measurement of auditory RT is probably a sensitive indicator of thyroid dysfunction, in absence of any other clinical pathology.

Keywords: reaction time, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
218-221 pdf
20 Comparative study of spirometric parameters between active tobacco smokers and tobacco non-smokers
Dr. Ritesh M. Karia, Dr. Pradnya A. Gokhale, Dr. Hemant B. Mehta

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220222224  

ANED : 05.3013/022222224  

Aim of this study is to study effect of smoking on various spirometric parameters like forced vital capacity (FVC) , forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1 / FVC ratio in apparently healthy tobacco smokers and non-smokers and to compare the result of both the studies to assess the effects of smoking. The present study was carried out by computerized software of Pulmonary Function Test named 'Spiro Excel' on 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers. Smokers are divided in three gropus. Full series of test take 4 to 5 minutes. Tests were compared in the both smokers and non-smokers group by the 'unpaired t test'. Statistical significance was indicated by 'p' value < 0.05. From the result it is found that actual value of spirometric parameters are significantly lower in all smokers group than non-smokers.

Keywords: Effect of smoking, forced vital capacity , forced expiratory flow rate in 1 second, FEV1 / FVC ratio
222-224 pdf
Dr Vikas Sikarwar, Dr R.S Bisht, Dr Anshuman Darbari

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220225227  

ANED : 05.3013/022225227  

Orbital emphysema due to barotrauma is rare ocular emergency which is usually benign but can cause serious visual complications if not timely recognized. We report a case of orbital emphysema in 34-years-old male presented with sudden onset of right periorbital swelling after forceful blowing of the nose. There was no history of facial trauma or previous surgery. Examination of the patient revealed crepitant eyelid swelling and ptosis but no visual impairment or diplopia was seen. Otorhinolaryngologic examination revealed clotted blood in right nasal cavity. Computerized tomography demonstrated areas of emphysema in the right orbit. Patient was managed conservatively with favorable outcome. The purpose of this presentation is to stress the recognition of rare possibility of orbital emphysema in the absence of trauma as timely intervention can prevent vision loss.

Keywords: Barotrauma, Orbital Emphysema, Nose blowing.
225-227 pdf
22 Cancer preventive Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit juice against the AflatoxinB1-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220228234  

ANED : 05.3013/022228234  

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity. The exact mechanism of action is unknown. The hypothesis is generated from the experiment that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiative stage of carcinogenesis. The antigenotoxic potential of Noni juice (NJ) was demonstrated on the aflatoxin B1 induced genotoxicity. In vitro studies were carried on human lymphocyte culture. We have used chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and cell cycle kinetics (CCK) with and without S9 mix. as markers in this experiments. Four doses viz., 200, 250, 300, 350 μl/ml per culture were selected and found that NJ significantly reduces the frequencies of chromosomal aberration, sister chromatid exchanges and enhances RI in vitro. It was also noticed that the antigenotoxic potential of NJ shows dose – response relationship. The results suggest that NJ was a potent anticarcinogen may contribute to the cancer prevention.

Keywords: Morinda citrifolia (Noni), Noni Fruit juice (NJ), chromosomal aberration, Sister Chromatid Exchange, anticarcinogen.
228-234 pdf

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220235236  

ANED : 05.3013/022235236  

This method was developed for the determination of maltose in malting barley and other cereals, and in certain products containing malted barley. Using a modification of the procedure originally described by Bates and co-workers (1942), which determined sugar in sugar solution by the polarimeter. In this study combined titration and Polari metric quantification as described by Bates was modified. Malt samples were prepared by extraction for barley seeds by germination method. The malt content of the hydrolyzed maltose was quantified. Preparation of the extract that was commonly used for titration method should be sensitive response and sensitivity for sugar in malt. In this case, good agreements were obtained between this method and commonly used methods based on chemical maltose determination, such as titration method.

Keywords: Combined, Titri metric, Polari metric, determination, maltose, malting barley.
235-236 pdf
24 Screening of Lactobacillus spp, for mediating the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate
Ranganath E, Vandana Rathod and Afreen Banu

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220237241  

ANED : 05.3013/022237241  

In modern nano science and technology the interaction between inorganic nanoparticles and biological structures are the most exciting areas of research. The desire to synthesize nanoparticles, using efficient and green chemistry approaches has led to the use of microorganisms. Hence the present study reports on the screening of potent Lactobacillus spp for ecofriendly and economical synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Total of nine Lactobacillus strains were isolated from milk and milk products inoculated to sterilized milk and latter (after 24hr) the whey was collected by coarse filtration (Whatman no.40). Silver nitrate (1 mg) was added to 5 ml of pale yellow filtrate then incubated at 37⁰C. Absorption maximum was measured using spectrophotometer. The silver nanoparticles of size ranging from 2 to 20nm were synthesized by Lactobacillus sp VRS-2 which was confirmed by TEM and EDS analysis. Thus, rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using whey appears to be economical approach and any research in this direction is encouraging.

Antimicrobial resistance, Lactobacillus spp, Nanobiotechnology. Silver nanoparticles,
237-241 pdf
25 Interaction Between Cibacron Blue F3GA and Luteinizing Hormone: A Chromatographic Investigation
Rajesh Chaudhary, Taruna Arora, Nidhi Vashistha, Sakshi Gera and K. Muralidhar

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220242256  

ANED : 05.3013/022242256  

Luteinizing hormone which was bound to Cibacron Blue F3GA could not be eluted with 10mM NAD. Bound LH could be eluted partially (up to 5%) with 80% ethylene glycol and rest with 50mM phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing 1M NaCl. Each of the bound fractions could also be sub-fractionated with differential elution with a gradient of ethylene glycol or NaCl. This indicated that pituitary LH was a mixture of two different sub-populations of LH, one which interacts with CB predominantly via hydrophobic interactions and the other via electrostatic interaction. In the case of subunits of LH that occur in free state in pituitaries, approximately half of the bound subunits interacted with CB column predominantly via hydrophobic interactions whereas the other half interacted via electrostatic force. It is concluded that differences in glycan content, composition and structure could be the cause for differential binding of buLH and its free subunits to the CBA column. M

Keywords: Cibacron blue F3GA, buffalo LH, interaction, hydrophobic, electrostatic, gonadotropin, ethylene glycol, free subunits.
242-256 pdf
26 HPLC method for Pharmacokinetics of cis and trans isomer of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma
Haojing Song, Guiyan Yuan, Chunmin Wei, Xiaoyan Liu, Rong Li, Benjie Wang, Ruichen Guo

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220257264  

ANED : 05.3013/022257264  

Using an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and UV detection, a simple and precise analytical procedure was developed to quantify levels of cis and trans isomer of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma. Cefprozil was extracted from plasma samples into 10% perchloric acid. The HPLC system included an acetonitrile-0.05M monopotassium phosphate water (adjust pH to 3.05 with glacial acetic acid) (12:88, v/v), flow rate of 1 mL/min, UltimateTM XB-C18 column,(5m,4.6×150mm), and UV detection at 280 nm. The regression of the spiked calibrator curves were linear from 0.02–10 μg/mL and 0.02–1 μg/mL (r2 =0.9951, 0.9950), respectively. The lower limits of quantification were 0.02 μg/mL, the inter- and intra-day precisions (RSD) were lower than 9.0%, and the extraction recoveries were all more than 90%. The cis and trans isomers of cefprozil were stable under a variety of storage and process conditions. To demonstrate utility, the pharmacokinetic parameters of cis and trans isomer of cefprozil were measured in twenty human after oral administration of 500mg cefprozil. The assay was sensitive, accurate and convenient, and can be used for the determination of cis and trans isomer of cefprozil in human plasma.

Keywords: cefprozil; cis and trans isomer; pharmacokinetics; HPLC
257-264 pdf
27 Histopathological and nephroprotective study of aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus racemosa in drug induced nephrotoxic rats
Shivalinge Gowda KP and Vrushabendra Swamy BM

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220265270  

ANED : 05.3013/022265270  

The histopathological changes and nephroprotective effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Ficus racemesa (ARF) in Albino wistar rats were studied. Rats were divided into four groups. Vehicle was administered to the group I (control). Nephrotoxicity was induced in the rats of group II by administering gentamicin (80mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days. The ARF (200 and 400mg/k.g.p.o) was administered to the rats of group II and IV for 11 days together with gentamicin (8days). Kidney function was assessed by measuring urine urea and creatinine and serum urea and creatinine. Kidney superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase and reduced glutathione were also measured in control and treated groups. Histopathological examinations were conducted to confirm the nephroprotective effect. The sign of nephrotoxicity in rats was significantly alleviated by ARF. The results of histopathological examinations also confirm the nephroprotective effect of ARF.

Keywords: Gentamicin, Ficus racemosa, creatinine, super oxide dismutase.
265-270 pdf
28 Isolation of Phosphate Solibulizing Actinomycetes from Forest Soils of Mahabubnagar District
G. Balakrishna, A. Shiva Shanker and Pavan Kumar Pindi

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220271275  

ANED : 05.3013/022271275  

The present study was carried out in order to establish a suitable protocol for the screening of phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. 10 isolates with distinct morphology were isolated and purified on starch casein agar from forest soils of Mahabubnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. These isolates screened for phosphate solubilizing activity on modified starch casein agar which contains tricalcium phosphate as a sole "P‟ source. Out of 10 isolates, 4 isolates were showed the activity of phosphate solubilization. Among them two isolates were showed good activity. The solubilizing activity was maximum at pH 7.0 and with incubation period of 10 days. The isolate PSA-7, which is showing maximum activity of phosphate solubilization selected for 16S rRNA partial gene sequence and BLAST analysis revealed that the strain shown 98% similarity with streptomyces spp. The present study indicates that actinomycetes play an important role in the phosphate solubilization there by increases the soluble phosphate concentration, which is an essential for plant growth.

Keywords: Actinomycetes, 16S r RNA, Phosphate Solubilization, Starch Casein Agar
271-275 pdf
29 Microbial Extracellular Polymeric Substances: Production, Isolation and Applications
Tapan Kumar Singha

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220276281  

ANED : 05.3013/022276281  

Microbial polysaccharides have multiple functions and can be divided into intracellular polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes has a great deal of research interest. Recent approaches are carried out to replace the traditionally used plant gums by their bacterial counterparts. The bacterial EPS represent a huge variety of chemical structures, but have not yet get appreciable significance. Chemically, EPS contains high molecular weight polysaccharides (10-30 kDa) and have homopolymeric as well as heteropolymeric composition. They have new-fangled applications due to their unique properties they possess. Therefore EPS have found multifarious applications in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. It also possesses potential application on waste water treatment.

Keywords: exopolysaccharides (EPS); microorganisms; homopolymeric; Application of EPS; Isolation of EPS
276-281 pdf
M. Suneetha and K. Ravindhranath

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220282290  

ANED : 05.3013/022282290  

Bio-adsorbents derived from leaves, stems or barks of Phyllanthus Neruri, Moringa Tinctoria and Azadiracta Indica have been probed for their sorption abilities towards Nitrate ions using simulated polluted waters. At low pH values, these sorbents show affinity towards Nitrates. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, time of equilibration and sorbent concentrations are optimized for the maximum removal of Nitrates. Methodologies have been developed to extract good quantities of Nitrates. Percentage of extraction with stems powders are found to be more than the respective leaves powders. Optimum time of equilibration and sorbent dosage needed are found to be less for stem powders than the corresponding leaves powders and further, more then 80.0% percentage of extractions are found with stem powders even at 1.0 hr equilibration time. Common cations present in waters, have synergistic effect on the percentage of extraction while other common anions, except sulphate, have marginal effect. The procedures developed are found to be successful with real samples of industrial effluents and polluted lakes.

Keywords: Nitrates; pollution control; bio-adsorbents; Phyllanthus Neruri; Moringa Tinctoria; Azadiracta Indica.
282-290 pdf
31 Acute Systemic Toxicity Of Four Mimosaceous Plants Leaves In Mice
Syed Muzammi Ahmed, Salman Ahmed, Farhana Tasleem, Muhammad Mohtasheem ul Hasan, Iqbal Azhar

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220291295  

ANED : 05.3013/022291295  

Nature provides drugs in the form of medicinal plants to cure all ailments of mankind with fewer side effects. These medicinal plants can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body too; there is a need of toxicity studies to provide their safe use both in human and animals. The present study reports the acute systemic toxicity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Adenanthera pavonina L., Peltophorum roxburghii Deneger., Prosopis cineraria Druce and Prosopis juliflora DC., (Mimosaceae) in swiss albino mice to explore their suitable doses for pharmacological screening. Observations were made immediately and after 1/2, 1, 4, 24 and 48hours of intraperitoneal drug administration. Adenanthera pavonina extract at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight is considered to be safe. Whereas remaining extracts of investigated plants are relatively safe at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: Acute systematic toxicity, Adenanthera pavonina, Methanol extract, Mimosaceae, Peltophorum roxburghii, Prosopis cineraria, Prosopis juliflora, Swiss albino mice.
291-295 pdf
32 Penicillin Acylase Production By Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Soda Lake.
Vivek Tembhurkar, Anuradha Patil, Chetan Chaudhari, Manjiree Kulkarni, Sanjay Harke

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220296301  

ANED : 05.3013/022296301  

Two strains of M. luteus and a Staphylococcus spp capable of producing penicillin acylse were isolated from lonar lake water. Optimum penicillin acylse production time for M. luteus was 72hrs and 48hrs for Staphyloccus spp. Elevated temperature (40 to 50oC) better suited penicillin acylse production. Glucose and sucrose stimulated penicillin acylse production by M. luteus and Staphyloccus spp respectively. Penicillin acylse from M. luteus worked optimally at neutral to slightly alkaline pH and within 60 to 80oC. Staphylococcus spp. worked better at pH 6. Penicillin acylse was more active against ampicillin.

Keywords: Ampicillin, Lonar lake, M. luteus, Penicillin acylase, Staphylococcus.
296-301 pdf
33 Folic acid Determination in neutral pH electrolyte by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film Electrode
Pércio Augusto Mardini Farias, Maristela de Castro Rezende, & Josino Costa Moreira

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220302311  

ANED : 05.3013/022302311  

A stripping method for the determination of folic acid at the submicromolar concentration levels is described. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of folic acid at the hanging mercury drop electrode followed by differential pulse measurement of the adsorbate. The adsorptive stripping response was evaluated with respect to concentration dependence, accumulation time, accumulation potential, scan-rate, size of the mercury drop, pH, ionic strength, presence of possible interferences and other variables. Cyclic voltammograms at pH 7.1(0.2 mol.L-1 KH2PO4/ NaOH buffer solution) showed four cathodic peaks at - 0.57, - 0.75, -1.18 and -1.39 V. The second peak, (at –0.75 mV), was the most useful for analytical purposes (more sensitive, quasi reversible and well defined) and it was used for quantifying folic acid by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry in four types of pharmaceutical multivitamin preparations. Sequential determination of folic acid with ascorbic acid is also possible. The results obtained in analysing medicines having folic acid as active constituent were compared favourably with those obtained by HPLC with UV detection. The average content of folic acid found in these medicines by HPLC was 4.81±0.09mg and by voltammetry, 4.87±0.09mg. The proposed method is very simple, efficient and does not involve time-consuming separation steps.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, differential pulse voltammetry, folic acid, pharmaceutical preparations, vitamins.
302-311 pdf
34 Curcumin Prevents Chromium Induced Sperm Characteristics In Mice
K Rudrama Devi, M Mosheraju & K Dilip Reddy

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220312316  

ANED : 05.3013/022312316  

Chromium was discovered in 1797 and found in all phases including air, water, and soil biota. Major uses of hexavalent chromium are metallurgical metal plating leather tanning etc. In spite its uses it has been reporting ITAR 1990 as a potent carcinogen teratogen and mutagen. The clastogenic potential of chromium has been well documented. In contrast to the activity of chromium, curcumin is a yellow colored derived from powdered rhizome Curcuma Longa is useful for the treatment of many disorders inflammation, skin wounds, certain tumors. Hence in the present investigation, studies were carried out to evaluate the protective role of curcumin on chromium induced gentoxicity in germ cells of male mice. In the present study four batches were of animals were maintained. Group II animals were given 60 mg/kg of chromium once in a week, whereas group III mice were given curcumin 5 and 7.5 mg /kg for five weeks. Group IV animals were pretreated with 5 and 7.5 mg/kg curcumin for 5 weeks plus chromium 60mg/kg once in a week. All the animals were sacrificed on the 35th day and cauda epidymis was processed and slides were screened for the incidence of various types of sperm head abnormalities. A significant increase was observed in chromium treated animals. However when animals pretreated with curcumin, the percentage of sperm characters decreased the significance of two dose levels. Thus the results clearly indicate the protective effect of curcumin against chromium damage in mice.

Keywords: Curcumin, chromium VI, Metaphases, sperm head abnormalities.
312-316 pdf
Amardeep, Mukunda S. Bande, Shilpi Agarwal

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220317321  

ANED : 05.3013/022317321  

A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of tacrolimus in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Tacrolimus on dehydration with sulphuric acid resulted in the induction of α, β unsaturated enone system and λ max value was observed to be 291 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10 - 70 μg mL-1 for the sulphuric acid method (r²=0.999) and the prepared samples were stable for a period of five days. The proposed method was applied for determination of Tacrolimus in capsule dosage forms. The application of this simple method to routine quality control analysis of pharmaceuticals could contribute to their safety and therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Tacrolimus; sulphuric acid method; UV spectrophotometry; quality control
317-321 pdf
36 Epidemiological Studies on Canine Mammary Tumour and its Relevance for Breast Cancer Studies
Kuldip Gupta, Naresh Kumar Sood, Sanjeev Kumar Uppal, Jitender Mohindroo, Shashikant Mahajan, M Raghunath & Kiranjeet Singh

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220322333  

ANED : 05.3013/022322333  

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Its incidence is rising globally and more so in the developing countries. There is a need to look for suitable animal model for biomedical research and pharmaceutical trails for this dreadly disease. In this pursuit, huge naturally occurring resource of canine mammary tumour may provide valid answer to impending questions in a shorter time frame. However, the epidemiology of canine mammary tumour (CMT) is poorly documented, especially in India. The present review deals with global and Indian scenario related to epidemiology of canine mammary tumour and its relevance as a model for human breast cancer.

Keywords: Animal model, Breast cancer, Canine mammary tumour, Epidemiology, Incidence
322-333 pdf
Dr. Sujatha Talikoti, Dr. Anand N Patil, Dr. Manjunatha Aithala, Dr. Sumangla Patil

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220334337  

ANED : 05.3013/022334337  

Background: The cotton mill workers have increased prevalence of both obstructive and restrictive lung functions compared with control studies. Smoking was found to be an important risk factor for byssinosis and duration of exposure to cotton dust has also been reported to associated with chronic bronchitis, cough, dyspnoea ,evaluate the relation between smoking and incidence of byssinosis in ginning mill workers.
Aims and objectives: To determine chronic effects of long term exposure to cotton dust and to Respiratory symptoms in study group-200 ginning(cotton) mill workers. It is further divided into GROUP-I [130] Workers who exposed directly to the cotton dust. GROUP-II [70] Who are not directly exposed but working in other areas like office, watchman etc. Control group- [70] Non-Teaching staff members from BLDEU‟s Shri BM Patil Medical College , from the same socioeconomic group were taken. The various lung functions like FEV1[ml], FVC[ml], FEV1% and PEFR[lit/min] were measured by using Bendict‟s recording spirometry and asking questionnaires. GROUP-I [50] and GROUP-II [25] smokers were identified.
Statistical analysis was done by "Z‟ test and ANOVA test was applied to calculate mean values in various groups.
Results: We found [50] smokers in GROUP-I [130] and [25 ]from GROUP-II [70] .All the lung function parameters were significantly decreased in smokers when compared with non-smokers and controls. where P value is [P<0.05]
Conclusion: The smokers are more prone to respiratory disorders and byssinosis compared to non-smokers who are working in ginning mill factory. The lung function parameters were also decreased in the smokers compared to non-smokers group.

Keywords:  Byssinosis, Pulmonary function tests, Smoking
334-337 pdf
Tarun Garg, Arsh Chanana, Ankit Gupta, Neetu Khatri, Govind Sharma

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220338339  

ANED : 05.3013/022338339  

Pulsatile systems are achieving a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right site of action at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance. These systems are designed based on the circadian rhythm of the body. The principle rationale for the use of pulsatile release is for the drugs where a constant drug release, i.e., a zero-order release is not desired. Products available as once-a-daily formulation based on Pulsatile release like Pulsincap®, Ritalin®, and Pulsys®. In these systems, a most important and widely used pulsincap system is described here.
338-339 pdf
Tarun Garg, Arsh Chanana, Ankit Gupta, Neetu Khatri, Govind Sharma

DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220340341  

ANED : 05.3013/022340341  

Professional practice is a blueprint of good pharmacy practice. It is the foundation for all college of pharmacists. It describes the standards the college uses to assess quality of pharmacy practice, and provides the basis of current and future practice support initiatives. It supports the college's mission to ensure safe and effective pharmacy care to help the people achieve better health. Professional Practice is designed to help pharmacists enhance their practice and patient outcomes and guide their professional development.
340-341 pdf



DOI : 10.9790/3013-0220342344  

ANED : 05.3013/022342344  


Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into different types of cells and unique property of self renewal. Thus it is suitable for replacement therapies and regenerative medical applications. Besides hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), bone marrow (BM) possess marrow cells called as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or stromal stem cells are present in bone marrow. MSCs are multipotent precursors present in adult BM, having the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, tenocytes and myoblasts (Pittenger et al.,1999; Bianco et al., 2001). Although MSCs represent a very small fraction of the total population of nucleated cells in the marrow (0.01% - 0.001%, Pittenger et al., 1999) they can be easily separated from the HSCs by their adherence to plastics and glasses (Colter et al., 2000).Green fluorescent protein has been used widely as a marker for tracking cells in a wide variety of cell biology studies. Since MSCs are gaining importance for their potential in clinical application the present study has been done to assess the efficiency of GFP marking in ovine fetal mesenchymal stem cells and thus evolve suitable method for tracking these cells in transplantation in pharmacologic applications.

Keywords: Bone Marrow,Mesenchymal Stem Cells,Green fluorescent protein, biomarking

342-344 pdf




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