Volume 7 ~ Issue 1,~Version 1,~January - 2017


Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparative study on anointment promoted for Vitiligo Vis-À-Vis Tolenormointment in causing Immediate Pigment Darkening

Country

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India

Authors

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Aruna.V ||, Priya. R ||, Satarupa Mukherjee ||, GayathriRajagopal

Page No.

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01-03

Paper Index
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XXXX

The effect of an Ayurvedic formulation promoted for treatment of vitiligovis- a-visTolenorm ointment in triggering the genetic memory of the skin on exposure to sun was studied using Mexameter. Findings suggest that Tolenorm ointment elicit faster release of melanosomes to keratinocytes and simultaneously protecting the skin from sun damage. Irrespective of the extent of sun exposure,Tolenorm ointment triggers pigmentogenesis within 5 minutes indicating its rapid absorption. Details of the study are presented in the article.

Keywords: Immediate pigment darkening (IPD), Melanin, Sun exposure, Tolenorm, Vitiligo

[1] Herbert Hönigsmann, Gerold Schuler Werner Aberer et al. Immediate Pigment Darkening Phenomenon. A Re-evaluation of Its Mechanisms.Journal of Investigative DermatologyVolume 87, Issue 5, November 1986, Pages 648-652

[2] Routaboul C, Denis A, Vinche A. Immediate pigment darkening: description, kinetic and biological function.Eur J Dermatol. 1999 Mar; 9(2):95-9.

[3] Kays H. Kaidbey, Angelit Barnes, Determination of UVA protection factors by means of immediate pigment darkening in normal skinJournal of the American Academy of DermatologyVolume 25, Issue 2, Part 1, August 1991, Pages 262-266

[4] Ravichandran F, Jayaraman N. Efficacy of topical application of Tolenorm oil or ointment in the management foVitiligo. Dermavision beyond 2000, Banglore, Karnataka.

[5] M. Arunothayam, Krishnamoorthy.J.R, GayathriRajagopal, Ranganathan.S. Dermal melanogenesis in response to combination of Curcuma zedoaria and Aloe vera – A Mexameter base evaluation. Journal of Applied cometology.30, 129-136 (July/December 2012).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The effect of thermal, chlorine and ozone treatments on survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in açai berries

Country

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Brazil

Authors

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Valeria Saldanha Bezerra ||, Eduardo H. M. Walter ||, Otniel Freitas-Silva ||, Izabela Alves Gomes ||, Leandro Fernandes Damasceno ||, Ivan Alcântara ||, Lourdes Maria Correa Cabral

Page No.

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04-11

Paper Index
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XXXX

Açai berries (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) have a high natural microbial load that can compromise the quality of their products. In this study, test microorganisms were inoculated on raw açai berries in drip trials, with five strains of Salmonella spp. and E. coli, separately. Açai berries sanitizing processes were: i) chlorination with 200 mg.L-1 for a period of 15 min; ii) blanching at 80 °C for 10 s (regional legislation); iii) blanching at 90 °C for 10 s; iv) aqueous ozonation at 4 mg.L-1 for 5 min; and v) washing with distilled water for 15 min as control treatment. Thermal treatment at 90 °C 10 s achieved the highest efficiency in reducing counts of E.coli (3.0 ± 0.8 log CFU.mL-1). In Salmonella spp., all sanitizing treatments were similar and better than simple washing with water. Thus, blanching of açai berries at 90 °C 10 s, with immediate cooling with chlorinated water (50 mg.L-1), is an alternative process for sanitization for açai berries, considering the application of good manufacturing practices.

Keywords - Bacteria, blanching, contamination, Euterpe oleracea; ozonation; thermal processing

[1] M.A Pavan, S. J. Schmidt and H. Feng, Water sorption behavior and thermal analysis of freeze-dried, Refractance Window-dried and hot-air dried açaí (Euterpe oleracea Martius) juice, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2012; 48: 75–81.
[2] Ministério da Saúde (MS), 2008. Água Brasil, Região Norte: municípios com simples desinfecção cloração no ano de 2008. Available at: http://www.aguabrasil.icict.fiocruz.br/index.php?pag=c_r_i.
[3] M.S.P. Oliveira, J.T. Farias Neto, and R.S. Pena, Açaí: técnicas de cultivo e processamento (Instituto Frutal, 104 pp, 2007).
[4] F. Aguiar, V. Menezes, and H. Rogez, Spontaneous postharvest fermentation of açaí (Euterpe oleracea) fruit, Postharvest Biology Technology, 2013; 86: 294–299.
[5] Governo do Estado do Pará, 2012. Decreto n°326, de 20 janeiro de 2012. Available at: http://www.sagri.pa.gov.br/files/pdfs/D E C R E T O No 326-2012.pdf.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Composition of the Daily Food Ration in Ivory Coast

Country

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Abidjan

Authors

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Drogba Alexis Sahoré ||, Olga Yolande Aké Ako ||, Joachim Levry Abouattier

Page No.

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12-14

Paper Index
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XXXX

Food products such as yam, cassava, plantain, rice and maize are an important part of food in Ivory Coast. These products are high in carbohydrates and their consumption only covers the energy needs of the population. It is therefore important to provide other foods rich in proteins, lipids and minerals in the daily diet to meet the food needs of this population.

KEYWORDS:- Food products, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Minerals, Daily diet, Population

[1] Léon. Y. 1983. Les cultures vivrières et le problème alimentaire de la Côte d'Ivoire Économie rurale Vol. 156 Numéro 1 pp. 41-46
[2] Doumbia S, 1990. Développement du système post-récolte de l'igname et de la banane plantain. Analyse
[3] des contraintes post-récolte et des circuits et des circuits de commercialisation. Abidjan. Univ. Nat. 57 p
[4] Aboua F, 1991. Chemical and physical changes in plantains (Musa paradisiacal) during ripening.Trop. Sci. 31- 35 p
[5] http://www.food-of-africa.com/cassava-recipes/ accessed19/08/2016

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Effect of Orlistat as an Adjuvant to Lifestyle Modification on Weight Loss in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients:An Evidence-Based Case Report

Country

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Indonesia

Authors

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Nobian Andre ||, Kevin Aristyo ||, Aqila Sakina Zhafira ||, Riesta Hanjani ||, Diannisa Paramita Susantono ||, Rachel Ethelind ||, Listya Tresnanti Mirtha

Page No.

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15-20

Paper Index
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XXXX
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 1 of 10 women of reproductive age. This syndrome is highly associated with obesity. Therefore, many of the patients face weight loss challenges. Given that many patients find it rather difficult to change their lifestyle, medicamentous intervention poses an option. Orlistat is an inhibitor of carboxyl ester lipase which inhibits the hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides that decreases the absorption of fatty acids and monoglyceride. The purpose of this study is to determine whether administration of orlistat can improve diet and exercise-induced body weight reduction in PCOS patients with obesity. Literature searching was done in 3 databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase which yielded 141 articles. Findings were narrowed down using duplicate removal, inclusion and exclusion criteria into two relevant articles of randomized controlled trials. One randomized clinical trial showed a greater percentage in weight loss in PCOS patients BMI>23 kg/m2 administered with orlistat and lifestyle modification in comparison to lifestyle modification alone (7.81% (6.51–9.11%) vs 4.7% (4.19–5.21%) ; p<0.001). Similar body weight reduction was also found by another randomized clinical trial in PCOS patients BMI>25 kg/m2 with orlistat treatment (from 81.5 kg (80.3–82.7) to 76.2 kg (74.92–77.48) vs from 80.91 kg (79.65–82.17) to 79.15 kg (77.8–80.5) ; p<0.01). It was concluded that a considerable reduction of weight in obese and overweight PCOS patients was found when given orlistat with exercise and dietary interventions compared to exercise and dietary interventions alone. Keywords – orlistat, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight loss
[1] Office on Women's Health. Polycystic ovary syndrome [internet]. [updated: June 8 2016; cited: Oct 2 2016].Available from: http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/polycystic-ovary-syndrome.html
[2] Pal L. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current and emerging concepts. New York: Springer; 2014.
[3] Nestler JE. Metformin for the treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:47–54.
[4] Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, Key TJ, Knochenhauer ES, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2745–9.
[5] Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, et al. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:453–62.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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A Review On The Diverse Application Of Silver Nanoparticle

Country

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India

Authors

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V. Thamilselvi ||, and K.V. Radha

Page No.

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21-27

Paper Index
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XXXX
Nanotechnology is an emerging field with diverse applications in pharmacy, medicine, industries and environments. Among nanosized particles, the inorganic nanoparticles posses unique physical and chemical properties. These nanoparticles and their composites are useful for the wide range of applications. This review aims to provide a consolidated assessment of silver nanoparticle and silver nanocomposites in various fields. Among nanoparticles, silver nanoparticle exhibits antimicrobial activities and prominent in diverse applications. The nanosilver composites by coating of chemical material, agricultural residues, other matrices etc., have been used for the development of new materials that could be conveniently used in house cleaning solutions, fabric cleaners, wound bandages, paints, ornamental glasses, electronics circuits, fridge, washing machines and cosmetics, etc., Similarly, silver nanoparticle can also be functionalized with various groups of commercial adsorbents and agricultural residues to increase their affinity towards target compounds and used as a selective sorbents for metal ions and anions. Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanocomposites, Antimicrobial, Agricultural residues, Adsorbents, Affinity, Silver nanoparticle, Target compounds
[1] J. Toudert, H. Fernandez, D. Babonneaue, S. Camelio, T. Girardeau and J. Solis, Linear and third order non linear optical responses of multilayered Ag:Si3N4 Nanocomposites, Nanotechnology 20 (2009), pp. 475-705.
[2] C. Rao, G. Kulkarni, P. Thomas and P. Edwards, Size dependent chemistry; properties of nanocrystals, Chem. Eur.J. 8 (1) (2002), pp. 28-35.
[3] S. Bruzzone, M. Malvaldi, G. Arrighini and C. Guiditti, Theoritical study of electromagnetic scattering by metal nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. B. 109 (2005), pp. 3807-3812.
[4] H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, T. Hattori and H. Nakatsuka, Ultrafast optical switching in a silver nanoparticle system, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 39 (2000), pp. 5132-5133.
[5] H. Park, R.P. VanDuyne and C.R. Yonzon, Optimizing the optical properties of functionalized silver nanoparticles by size, Spring Nanoscape 1(3) (2006), pp. 77-81.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Functional group analysis of Moringa concanensis Nimmo (Moringaceae) by FTIR spectrum

Country

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India

Authors

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K. Santhi ||, and R. Sengottuvel

Page No.

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28-33

Paper Index
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XXXX
In the present study deals with the FTIR profile and identify the functional components of methanol extracts of different parts of the (leaf, flower and seed) of Moringa concanensis Nimmo. The FTIR analysis was performed on a Thermo scientific spectrometer SMART iTR basic in NICOLET iS10 model using with ZnSe (zinc selenium) semiconductor the extracted plant samples of M. concanensis were scanned at room temperature within a spectral range of 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignments, intensities and dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. The results of the present study confirmed the presence of the different types of functional groups like amides, alcohols, amines, alkanes, acids, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, carbonyl, alkynes, alkenes, aromatic compounds, aliphatic amines, esters in the different parts of the plant extract. In future, M. concanensis used to different types of ailments and to treat various diseases. Key words :- FTIR Spectrum, Functional groups, Moringa concanensis Nimmo,
[1] P. Ragavendran, D. Sophia, C. Arul Raj and V.K Gopikrishnan, Functional group analysis of various extracts of Aerva lantata (L.,) by FTIR spectrum, Pharmacology online Newsletter, 1, 2011, 358-364.
[2] T. Antony Sandosh, M. Paul John Peter and J. Yesu Raj, Phytochemical analysis of Stylosanthes fruticosa using UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3(11), 2013, 14- 23.
[3] K. Santhi and R. Sengottuvel. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of Moringa concanensis Nimmo, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 2016, 633-640.
[4] K. Santhi and R. Sengottuvel, Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of Moringa concanensis Nimmo, International Journal Pharma and Bio Sciences, 7(3), 2016, 61-65.
[5] V. Balamurugan and V. Balakrishnan, Evaluation of phytochemical, phamacognostical and antimicrobial activity from the bark of Moringa concanensis Nimmo, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2(4), 2013, 117-125.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evolutionary Study of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer for the Patients with Glaucoma and Diabetes Mellitus

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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O. I. Motas ||, D. Chiselita ||, Nicoleta Anton Apreutesei ||, Vesna K. Hristova ||, Teresa Bonacci ||, M. Ayaz Ahmad

Page No.

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34-38

Paper Index
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XXXX
The aim of the paper was the evaluation of the modifications of the retinal nerve fiber layer for the patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension associated with diabetes mellitus. Material and method: a prospective study that included a number of 25 patients. The study group was made up of 17 patients: 12 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and diabetes mellitus and 5 patients with ocular hypertension (OH) and diabetes mellitus. The control group included 8 patients without glaucoma. All the patients with an accurate diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and intraocular hypertension that were medically and/or surgically treated or not, associated with diabetes mellitus, were included in the study. The patients with other types of glaucoma (closed angle, pigmentary, cortisone related, pseudoexfoliative), the ones without an accurate diagnosis of glaucoma or without associated diabetes mellitus were excluded. The control group was made up of subjects without a glaucoma diagnosis or clinical elements related to glaucoma, without surgical interventions in their medical records. All participants were evaluated with CIRRUS HD-OCT. Keywords - Poag, Oh, Rnfl, Cirrus Hd-Oct, Diabetes Mellitus.
[1] EGS-European Glaucoma Society (author), Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma. European Glaucoma Society. 4th ed. 2014.
[2] D. Chiseliță, Glaucomul primitiv cu unghi deschis – gânduri și sinteze practice. Iași: Editura "Gr.T.Popa", 2014.
[3] D. Huang , E. A. Swanson, C.P. Lin , J.S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, . Optical coherence tomography, . Science (NCBI, Vol. 254 (5035), 1991, 1178-1181.
[4] N. Anand, The role of ocular coherence tomography in Glaucoma diagnosis and management. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 30(1),2014, 1-3.
[5] J.Y. Huang, M. Pekmezci, N. Mesiwala, A. Kao, S. Lin S, Diagnostic power of optic disc morphology, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and macular inner retinal layer thickness in glaucoma diagnosis with fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, Journal of Glaucoma, Vol. 20 (2), 2011, 87-94.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Unna nevus of the scalp: Unusual clinical presentation

Country

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Saudi Arabia

Authors

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Aziz A. Al-Sohaimi ||, Hasan S. Alghamdi ||, Abdulrahman H. Alghamdi ||, Abdullah H. Alghamdi ||, Fares A. Alzahrani ||, Ali A. Alghamdi ||, Khalid S. Alghamdi

Page No.

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39-41

Paper Index
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XXXX
The term "dermal melanocytic nevi" includes a group of clinically and histopathologically distinct subtypes, including Miescher's nevus, flat nevus, and Unna's nevus. Flat nevi are the most common clinical type. Miescher's and Unna's nevi have different clinical and histopathological features, making them easily distinguishable. We present a case of an Unna's nevus in the posterior of the scalp with unusual localization. Keywords:- Unna's nevus; posterior of the scalp; Miescher's nevus; flat nevus
[1] 1-Yus ES, del Cerro M, Simón RS, Herrera M, Rueda M. Unna's and Miescher's nevi: two different types of intradermal nevus: hypothesis concerning their histogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2007;29:141-51.
[2] 2– Witt C, Krengel S. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of subtypes of melanocytic nevi (Flat nevi, Miescher nevi, Unna nevi). Dermatology Online Journal 2010;16 (1)
[3] 3- Kerl H, Cerroni L, Ackerman B. Pitfalls in Histopathologic Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma 1st edn 1994: 46-47.
[4] 4-Braun-Falco, O., Plewig G, Wolff H, Burgdorf W. Dermatology. 2nd edn , Chapter 58.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension in Hirat City Afghanistan-2015

Country

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Afghanistan

Authors

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Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc)

Page No.

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42-50

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:Hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature death and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypertension and characterize associated risk factors in an urban setting in Afghanistan. Methods: A provincial-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May-June 2015 among 1129 adult residents of Hirat city using the World Health Organization STEP wise approach tool (WHO STEPS). A multi-stage sampling technique was used to enroll participants in the study. Socio-economic and demographic variables were collected via face to face interviews, after which blood samples were collected using a locally developed standard operating procedure (SOP). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the association and data were coded, entered, and analyzed with SPSS version 20 software package. Results:A total of 1129 responses (47.4% males, 52.6% females) of 25-70 years of age were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 35.6%. Mean systolic blood pressure and standard deviation (SD) was 123.4 ± 18.5 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 81.8 ± 13 mmHg. Overall, 3.6% of hypertensive participants were previously diagnosed or were under treatment. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, central obesity, general obesity and existing of diabetes mellitus were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion: One third of adults are suffering from hypertension while 32% were latent. Age, obesity, and diabetes were identified as risk factors. However mass screening for hypertension, health education and life style modifications are recommended. Keywords: prevalence, associated factors, hypertension, urban, Afghanistan
[1] WHO. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014
[2] Abegunde DO, Mathers CD, Adam T, Ortegon M. The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2007 Dec 8;370(9603):1929–38
[3] Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365(9455):217-223.
[4] Mohan V, Seedat YK, Pradeepa R. The rising burden of diabetes and hypertension in Southeast Asian and African regions: Need for effective strategies for prevention and control in primary health care settings. Int J Hypertens. 2013.
[5] Medscape Cardiology. Hypertension, but not "prehypertension," increases stroke risk: Global prevalence of hypertension may be close to 30%. 2004; http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/471536_8

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Mazar-e-Sharif city using WHO STEP-Wise Approach

Country

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Afghanistan

Authors

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Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc) ||, Mohammad Hafez Rasooly (MD, MSc)

Page No.

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51-58

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background: Afghanistan is suffering from double burden of diseases including communicable and noncommunicable. The aim of this study was determine the risk factors for NCDs and among adults population in Mazar-e-Sharif city-Afghanistan. Methods and Materials: A provincial cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2015 on the prevalence of NCD risk factors using the WHO STEPS adapted instrument. The study enrolled a random sample of 1249 adults of age group of 25-70 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of all respondents 664 (53.9%) were females and 567 (46.1%) males with a mean age of 40.5±13.2 years. More than half (59.3%) were illiterates and (83.7%) were married and 72% had income of less than 10000 AFN. 9.9% were smokers and (8.3%) were mouth snuff users. Seventy nine percent of respondents ate fruits and 60% took vegetables 3 days or less per week. Almost 12% practiced vigorous physical activity and 21.8% of subjects reported doing moderate physical activity. Almost half (48.5) of subjects were overweight or obese. 30.9% had high blood pressure and 9.2% percent recorded diabetic. Level of high cholesterol was 33.2%, high triglycerides was 20.4%. Furthermore high level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was 55% and high level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) was 36.9%. The mean level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL were 161.7 mg/dL, 179.2mg/dL, 49.4 mg/dL and 113.4 mg/dL were respectively. Conclusions: The findings of study revealed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, showing the country is experiencing both communicable and noncommunicable at the same time. It is recommended and emphasized on focusing of interventions to prevent and control the noncommunicable diseases. Keywords: -Non-communicable diseases, risk factors, prevalence, WHO step approach, Balkh

[1] Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Outcome of the High-Level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases and the First Global Conference on Health Lifestyles and Non-communicable Disease Control. Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly, 20 April 2012. Provisional agenda item 13.1 (A65/6). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
[2] World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. Available on the WHO website (www.who.int)

[3] The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008 http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf?ua=1, accessed 29 July 2015).
[4] The Political Declaration of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases: Commitments of Member States and the way forward .Technical Discussion paper. Fifty-ninth session of the Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, August2012. Provisional agenda item 4(a) (EM/RC59/3) (http://applications.emro.who.int/docs/RC_technical_papers_2012_3_14578_EN.pdf, accessed 29 July 2015).
[5] Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010.Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011 (http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report_full_en.pdf, accessed 29 July 2015).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Obesity in Adults: A Neglected Public Health Problem in Urban Areas ofKandahar City-Afghanistan

Country

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Afghanistan

Authors

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Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc)

Page No.

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59-68

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:Obesity is a major public health problem particularly for elderly considered one of the most serious challenges all over the world. This study aims to determine prevalence and risk factors of obesity among elders Kandahar city, Afghanistan. Methods and Materials: Descriptive and analytical cross sectional study was conducted in Kandahar within October-November, 2015. Multistage random sampling technique used and 1165 adults of 25-70 years were cleaned for analysis. WHO STEPS approach used to collect data on demographic and behavioral factors. Physical measurement comprising height, weight and blood pressure including blood samples were collected and tested for biochemical measurements including blood lipids. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed using SPSS v.20. Results: The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity grade I, obesity grade II and obesity grade III were 4.9%, 44.8%, 34.3%, 11.2%, 2.9% and 1.9% respectively. Out of all respondents 597 (51.2%) were females and 568 (48.8%) males with a mean age of 38.3±11.2 years. Around two thirds (73.2%) were illiterates and (79.3%) were married. 9.7% were smokers and (16.3%) were mouth snuff users.The average of total cholesterol, glycerides, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and fast blood sugar were 183 mg /DL, 154.65mg/DL, 45.85mg/DL, 107.3 mg/DL and 131mg/DL respectively. Age, sex, education status, walking, triglyceride level, high blood pressure and central obesity were independently associated with obesity. Conclusion: Obesity is a cause of concern in urban citizens in Afghanistan. Increase awareness about obesity and healthy lifestyle is essential for adults to prevent obesity and its complications. Key Words: Prevalence, Obesity, adults, risk factors, WHO Steps, Afghanistan
[1] World Health Organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/en/
[2] Kottke, T.E, Wu, L.A, Hoffman, R.S. 2003. Economic and psychological implications of the obesity epidemic. Mayo.Clin. Proc.78, 92-94.
[3] Cawley, J. 2004. The impact of obesity on wages. J. Human. Resour. XXXIX, 451-474.
[4] Puhl, R. and Brownell, K.D. 2001. Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obes. Res. 9, 788-805.
[5] Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012; 380: 2224–60.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Descriptive Study of Hepatitis B, C and HIV Infections and Associated Factors among Adult Population in Kabul City, 2015

Country

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Afghanistan

Authors

::

Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc)

Page No.

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69-77

Paper Index
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XXXX
Background:Viral infections is a global public health problem. Shortage of information about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Afghanistan is very clear. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV, HCV and HIV infection among adult population of Kabul city. Methods and Materials:A province based cross-sectional survey among adult population (25-70 years) was conducted in November, 2015 using a WHO STEP wise tool and multistage cluster sampling strategy. A total of 1174 adult citizens in Kabul city were included in the study. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected by face to face questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and rapid tests were used to find the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Data management was done using Epi info v.7 and SPSS v.20. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV using HBsAg and Anti-HCV rapid tests were 3 % (35/1174) and 1.1% (13/1374) respectively. Only two individuals were positive for HIV infection out 100 samples under confirmatory test. Of total 1174 records females constituted almost half 599 (51%) with overall mean age of 38.6±12.2 years. Females were slightly more in all age groups. Approximately half of the respondents (49.6%) were illiterates while the proportion of illiteracy was more in all age groups. Two third of the study subjects were married (77.5%) and 60% of women were housewives. Risky behaviors such as tattooing, hospitalizations, history of jaundice, living with hepatitis patients and undergoing dental procedures were common among positive subjects.
[1] WHO. Media Center Hepatitis B fact sheet. Update July 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/
[2] Prevention and control of viral hepatitis infection: framework for global action. Geneva, WHO, 2012.
[3] WHO. Hepatitis C fact sheet. Updated July 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/
[4] WHO. HIV/AIDS fact sheet. Updated July 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/
[5] Ashfaq UA, Javed T, Rehman S, Nawaz Z, Riazuddin S. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses. Virology journal. 2011; 8:161.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Burden of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV infections among adult citizens in Kandahar city, Afghanistan

Country

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Afghanistan

Authors

::

Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed (MD, MSc)

Page No.

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78-85

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Background:Blood borne diseases including viral hepatitis important public health challenges worldwide. There is a notable dearth of data about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) prevalence in Afghanistan. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV infections among adult populations in Kandahar city, Afghanistan. Methods and Materials:A total of 1165 adult citizens in Kandahar city were included in the study using a cross-sectional design in October-November 2015. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected by WHO STEP wise approach. Rapid tests were conducted to identify the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Statistical analysis performed Using SPSS v.20. Results: Of total records females constituted almost half 597 (51.2%) with overall mean age of 38.3±11.2 years. The prevalence of HBV was 2% (22 out of 1153) for HBsAg on rapid test and 12 subject (1%) were seropositive for anti-HCV on rapid tests. None of subjects had co-infections. None of specimen were positive for HIV infection showed zero prevalence. Proportion of married groups was 79.3%, illiteracy rate was 73.2% and 88.5% of women were at home doing housework. About one tenth (9.7%) were smokers and 16.3% were snuffers. There was no statistical association of studied factors with HBV and HCV.
[1] Chan, O, Lao, T., Suen, S. &Yeung T. (2012). Deficient Knowledge on Hepatitis B Infection in Pregnant Women and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Carriage in an Endemic Area, A Review, Hepatitis Research and Treatment, 2012. Article ID 317451., 8 pages
[2] Navabakhsh, B., Mehrabi, N., Estakhri, A., Mohamadnejad, M. &Poustchi, H. (2011). Hepatitis B Virus Infection during Pregnancy, Transmission and Prevention, Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 3(2), 92-102.
[3] Burler JRG, Korda RJ, Watson KJR, Watson DAR. The impact of chronic Hepatitis in Australia: projecting mortality, morbidity and economic impact. Canberra. Australian Center for Economic Research on Health, 200
[4] Liaw YF, Chu CM. Hepatitis B virus infection. Lancet. 2009; 373(9663):582-92.
[5] Morgan M, Keeffe EB. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B: 2009 update. Minerva GastroenterolDietol. 2009;55(1):5–22.

 

Volume 7 ~ Issue 1,~Version 2,~January - 2017

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Antibacterial Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Punarnava) On certain Bacteria

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Shweta Majgaine ||, D. L. Verma

Page No.

::

01-13

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Plants have been a valuable source of natural products since the time immemorial. The use of plant compounds for pharmaceutical purposes has gradually increased in India. The use of plant extract with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance in therapeutic treatments. The present work is carried out on different parts of Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) on the basis of the literature obtained from the ethno medicinal documentation. Keeping in view the tremendous ethno medicinal use of Boerhaavia diffusa the study was aimed to scientifically validate antibacterial property of different plant components ( leaf, stem & root ) of Boerhaavia diffusa. Keywords: Antibacterial study, Boerhaavia diffusa, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Punarnava

[1] Guhabakshi, D.N., P. Sensarma and D.C. Pal (1999). A lexicon of medicinal plants of India (Vol-1). Naya Prakash Culcutta, India.

[2] Olukoya, D.K., N. Tdika and J. Odugbems (1993). Antibacterial activity of some Medicinal plants from Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 39: 6972.

[3] Aladesanmi, A.J., E.O. Iwalewa, A.C. Adebajo, E.O. Akinkunmi, B.J. Taiwo, F.O. Olorunmola and A. Lamikanra (2007). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 4 ( 2): 173-184.

[4] Agarwal, A., S. Srivastava, J.N. Srivastava and M.M. Srivastava (2004). Inhibitory effect of the plant Boerhaavia diffusa L. against the dermatophytic fungus Microsporum fulvum. J. Environment. Biol. 25 (3): 307-311.

[5] Pharmacopoeia of India (1985). Preparation of extracts of herbs. Third edition. Ministry of Health, Govt. of India.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Intra-lesional Cidofovir injection to treat Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: Review of literature

Country

::

England

Authors

::

Ms.Rupali Sawant

Page No.

::

14-17

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Introduction: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis(RRP) is a disease of the upper aerodigestive tract caused by infection with human papilloma virus(HPV) 6/11/16/18. Treatment involves surgical removal of the epithelial lesion in order to maintain airway patency and phonation. Objective: Review of literature to analyse the effect and safety of intra-lesional Cidofovir injection in patients with RRP. Method: Literature search done via Pubmed and NHS Athens using key words Cidofovir and RRP. Out of sixty two, thirty three articles studied consist of literature reviews and case series, systemic use and adverse effects of Cidofovir. Result: The relapse-free duration increases and RRP gets less aggressive with intra-lesional Cidofovir which is a cytosine nucleoside analogue antiviral medication. Incidence of dysplasia or malignant degeneration which can occur with Cidofovir is the same as spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP(2-3%). Conclusion: Intra-lesional Cidofovir controls aggressive lesions of RRP without increasing the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. For evaluation of safety; further research is required to define adequate dose and frequency of treatment. Histology of the lesions at every procedure and assessment of HPV genotype would help to monitor response to treatment, detect dysplasia and progress of the disease. Key words: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, intra-lesional Cidofovir.
[1] Broekema FI, Dikkers FG. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Aug;265(8):871-9. [2] Carifi M, Napolitano D, Morandi M, Dall'Olio D. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: current and future perspectives.Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2015 May 5;11:731-8.
[3] Rabah R, Lancaster WD, Thomas R, et al. Human papillomavirus-11-associated recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is more aggressive than human papillomavirus-6-associated disease. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2001;4:68-72.
[4] Goon P, Sonnex C, Jani P, Stanley M, SudhoV H. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: an overview of current thinking and treatment. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2008) 265(2):147–151.
[5] De Clercq E, Andrei G, Balzarini J, et al. Antitumor potential of acyclic
nucleoside phosphonates. Nucleosides Nucleotides 1999; 18:759–71

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Use of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists in treatment of morphological manifestations of diabetic gastroparesis

Country

::

Europe

Authors

::

I.O. Kostitska ||, B.N. Mankovskyi ||, O.Ya. Zhurakivska ||, V. M. Zhurakivskyi ||, V.M. Pertsovych

Page No.

::

18-22

Paper Index
::
XXXX
The research included 18 mature male Wistar rats. They were divided into 3 groups: Group I - 6 animals (the control group); Group II - 6 animals with streptozotocin-induced DM (DM was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin at a dose of 6 mg/100 g body weight); Group III - 6 animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus receiving a subcutaneous injection of exenatide at a dose of 0.04 mcg/100 g body weight once a day since the 14th day of DM development. Diabetic gastroparesis was observed on the 56th day of the development of streptozotocin-induced DM being morphologically manifested as destructive changes in neurons of the myenteric plexus (vacuolar degeneration, apoptosis), axonal degeneration of unmyelinated nerve fibers, apoptosis of the interstitial cells of Cajal, vacuolar degeneration of myocytes and the development of diabetic microangiopathy. The use of exenatide in the early stages of DM development (up to 28th day) led to the normalization of glycemic profile and the restoration of structural elements of the myenteric plexus and smooth myocytes of the muscular membrane of the stomach indicating the adequacy of the proposed therapy. However, the use of exenatide as a monotherapy for 1.5 month resulted in elevated blood glucose and HbА1c levels as well as destructive changes in neurons and the interstitial cells of Cajal of the myenteric plexus and smooth myocytes of the muscular membrane of the stomach. Considering the conducted research, we can conclude that the use of exenatide as a monotherapy in diabetic gastroparesis is advisable in the early stages of disease development only, in the late stages – only combinations with other hypoglycemic agents should be used. Keywords:- Diabetic gastroparesis, exenatide, interstitial cells of Cajal, stomach, streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus
[1] M. Camilleri. The Stomach in Diabetes: From Villain to Ally, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(3), 2009, 285-287.
[2] P. C. Kashyap, K. M. Choi, M. S. Lurken, et al. Carbon Monoxide Reverses Diabetic Gastroparesis in NOD Mice, Gastroenterology, 136(5), 2009, A-75.
[3] P. J. Pasricha, N. D. Pehlivanov, G. Gomez, et al. Changes in the gastric enteric nervous system and muscle: A casereport on two patients with diabetic gastroparesis, BMC Gastroenterology, 8, 2008, 21-29. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-8-21. [4] I. Crisci, A. Aragona, K.S. Politi, et al. GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 1 diabetes: a proof-of-concept approach, Acta Diabetol., 52, 2015, 1129-33.
[5] R. Pop-Busui, A.J.M. Boulton, E. L. Feldman, et al. Diabetic Neuropathy: A Position Statement by the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes Care, 40, 2017, 136-154. doi: 10.2337/dc16-2042.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The pain decreasing effect of the alcoholic extract " of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) (Ajwain) in experimental animals

Country

::

Iraq

Authors

::

Shahbaa M.Al-khazraji (Ass.prof)

Page No.

::

23-29

Paper Index
::
XXXX
In Iraq traditional medicine ,the decoction of Trachyspermum ammi is claimed to possess antinociceptive activity. The purpose of this research is to study the pain decreament of alcoholic extract " of Trachyspermum ammi in experimental animals , using three algesiometric methods and different doses.The results appears that extract intended to have an acceptable statistical values P<0.05)" as a pain decreasing agent The antinociceptive action of the extract was rapid in onset in action with prolong time of activity. The pain decreasing effect of the extract was inhibited by Metclopramide and Atropine ". Moreover, the extract has no sedative activity. The extract consist of many chemical componenets such as alkaloids , flavonoids , steroids , and polyphenols " that posses the pain decreament effect . The pain decreasing effect maybe due to "dopaminergic and cholinergic muscarinic activity" of the extract . The net effect of the extract shows effectiveness on neural and inflammed pain in the body . The effect obtained of this work wasa new aspects and determine that , Trachyspermum ammi exert a long term high decreasing effect on different types of pain , which indicate its folkloric in uses as a pain dereament plant. Key word: Trachyspermum ammi (L.) (Ajwain) ,"dopaminergic mechanisms, muscarinic mechanisms ", pain decreament ,toxic effect
[1] Sosa S, Balic MJ , Arvigo R, Esposito RG, Pizza C, Altinier G,et al."A Screening of the topical Anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants2002,J Ethanopharmacol ;8:211-215 ,
[2] Kayaalp SO. Medical pharmacology, in terms of rational treatment (Rasyonel tedaviyonunden tibbi farmakoloji),1998; Ankara: Ha-cettepe-Tas Ltd.Sti.
[3] Ali R. M. , Khan A. R. , and Feroz Z., . " Evaluation of antiepileptic activity of the methanol extract Trachyspermum ammi (L.) " ,2013; Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 65 (3), 815-819, DOI:10.2298 .
[4] Dwivedi S. N. , Mishra R. P. , and Alava S., . " Pharmacological studies and Traditional benefits of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague " , 2012; Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 5 , 1705-1709 ,
[5] Aggarwal S. , Goyal S. In Vitro antimicrobial studies of Trachyspermum ammi ,2012; Int J Pharm Bio Sci , 3(4): (P) 64 – 68 ,

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Prevalence of adverse Birth Outcome of Gestational Diabetes mellitus in Trichy district

Country

::

India

Authors

::

Dr.M.Muhil ||, D.Priyanka ||, Dr.Umapathy Sembian ||, Dr.Pugazhendi ||, Dr.Kalamani Pillai,

Page No.

::

30-33

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate influence of variable severity with first recognition of pregnancy, which as an adverse effect on both mother and the foetus. This case control study was carried out with the aim to determine the foetal outcome of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) cases who had regular antenatal check-up in Obstetric Out Patient Department of Tertiary care centre in Trichy District. Structured proforma was given to the participants and control to collect socio demographic data.Results showed there is a significant increase in prevalence of GDM and in upper class population.There was statistically significant association in the prevalence of GDM cases with family history of DM and BMI. The foetal complications and adverse birth outcome such as low Apgar ie <6, Macrosomia, neonatal jaundice and Respiratory distress which was statistically significant. Key words:- Adverse Birth otutcome, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin resistance
[1] Lyudmil Ninov1, Arivudainambi Kayal1, Belma Malanda1, Anne Belton1, Ram Uma2,. Current practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus in India (WINGS‑5). Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2016; 20(3):1
[2] E. P. O'Sullivan & G. Avalos & M. O'Reilly & M. C. Dennedy& G. Gaffney & F.Dunne &. Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy (DIP): The prevalence and outcomes of
[3] gestational diabetes mellitus using new diagnostic criteria. Diabetologia. 15 April 2011;e.g. 32(54): 1670–1675.
[4] Hull HR, Thornton JC, Ji Y, et al. Higher infant body fat with excessive gestationalweight gain in overweight women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 205(3): 211.e1-211.e7.
[5] Antonio E. Frias, and Kevin L. Grove. Obesity: A Transgenerational Problem Linked toNutrition during Pregnancy. SeminReprod Med. 2012 Dec; 30(6):472- 478.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Bart's syndrome Associated with Pyloric Atresia: Case Report

Country

::

Saudi Arabia

Authors

::

Dr.Mahadi Bashir ||, Dr.Manal Croft ||, Dr.Hasan S. Alghamdi ||, Dr.Mesfer Alghamdi ||, Dr.Jamal Alghamdi ||, Dr.Fahad Alzahrani ||, Abdulaziz Alzahrani ||, Dr.Faisal Alomari

Page No.

::

34-36

Paper Index
::
XXXX
In literature Bart's syndrome is presented as a genetic disorder of localized absence of skin accompanied with any type of epidermolysis bullosa (EB), but mostly with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB dominant), Bart's syndrome is one of the rare presentations of epidermolysis bullosa. It also known as congenital transient mechano-bullous dermatosis, and has tendency for skin and mucous membranes blistering, and may associated with nail deformities. Diagnosis is mainly clinically, but microscopy is required for classification. Palliative treatment and infection control are the main methods of treatment. The association of Bart's syndrome with other congenital anomalies is very rare.Here we reported a very rare interesting condition of a newborn girl baby of Bart's syndrome associated with pyloric Atresia, surgical repair done, together with palliative treatment and good infection control, she died 100 days after birth because of Fulminant sepsis due to Multi microbial infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Bart's syndrome associated with Pyloric Atresia reported in Saudi Arabia. Key words: - Bart's syndrome, Epidermolysis Bullosa, Pyloric Atresia, Surgical repair, Multi organisms' infection,Fulminant sepsis.
[1] Bart BJ, Gorlin RJ, Anderson VE. Congenital localized absence of skin and associated abnormalitiesresembling epidermolysis bullosa: A new syndrome. ArchDermatol. 1966;93:296-303.Amichai B, Metzker A. Bart's syndrome. International journal of dermatology. 1994 Mar;33(3):161-PubMed PMID: 8169011. Epub 1994/03/01. eng.
[2] Butler DF, Berger TG, James WD, Smith TL, Stanely JR, Rodman OG. Bart's syndrome: microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescent mapping features. Pediatric dermatology. 1986 Feb;3(2):113-8. PubMed PMID: 3513144. Epub 1986/02/01. eng.
[3] Smith SZ, Cram DL. A mechanobullous disease of the newborn. Bart's syndrome. Archives of dermatology. 1978 Jan;114(1):81-4. PubMed PMID: 339847. Epub 1978/01/01. eng.
[4] Sirota L, Dulitzky F, Metzker A. Bart's syndrome: a mechanobullous disease of the newborn. Report of five cases and review. Clinical pediatrics. 1986 May;25(5):252-4. PubMed PMID: 3698444. Epub 1986/05/01. eng.
[5] Kanzler MH, Smoller B, Woodley DT. Congenital localized absence of the skin as a manifestation of epidermolysis bullosa. Archives of dermatology. 1992 Aug;128(8):1087-90. PubMed PMID: 1497364.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Hand Hygiene Perception and Knowledge of Albaha University Medical Students, 2016

Country

::

Saudi Arabia)

Authors

::

Dr. Haitham M El Bingawi ||, Nasser S Alghamdi ||, Saeed A Alghamdi ||, Muath I Alghamdi ||, Nawaf B Alghamdi ||, Ahmed Y Alzahrani ||, Ahmed A Alghamdi ||, Abdullah I Alghamdi ||, Abdulrahman M Alghamdi ||, Ahmed A Alzahrani ||, Ahmed H Alzahrani

Page No.

::

37-45

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Exploring medical students' knowledge of and perceptions toward hand hygiene are important to health policy makers and medical educators. Such exploration will identify the curricular improvement needs. This study explored the knowledge and perception of Albaha medical students on hand hygiene practice. MATERIAL AND METIODS: This observational, cross sectional KAP study was conducted between February and May 2016 among male medical students in the faculty of medicine at Albaha University. Students were requested to complete anonymous paper format questionnaire which was developed from literature review. A pilot study testing the questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire composed of 26 questions (13 examined the knowledge, 11 reflect perception, 1 reflects practice and one general question). These questions were in form of multiple choices (16), yes/no (6) questions and true/false 4 questions). The questionnaire was analyzed by (SPSS v.17).
[1] Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary. WHO. (2009). Accessed: November 22, 2016.
[2] Huang Y, Xie W, Zeng J, Law F, Ba-Thein W. Limited knowledge and practice of Chinese medical students regarding health-care associated infections. J Infect DevCtries. 2013, 7:144– 151. 10.3855/jidc.3099
[3] Boyce JM, Pittet D. Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee; HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force: Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health- Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HIPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Am J Infect Control. 2002, 30:S1–S46.
[4] García-Zapata MRC, Silva e Souza AC, Guimarães JV, Tipple AFV, Prado MA, García-Zapata MTA. Standard precautions: knowledge and practice among nursing and medical students in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Int J Infect Control. 2010, 6:122-123. 10.3396/ijic.V6i1.005.10
[5] Graf K, Chaberny IF, Vonberg RP: Beliefs about hand hygiene: a survey in medical students in their first clinical year. Am J Infect Control.2011, 39:885–888. 10.1016/j.ajic.2010.08.025

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

New biochemical and physicochemical insights on a muskmelon [Cucumis melo (L.)] chitinase

Country

::

Brazil

Authors

::

José Edvar Monteiro Júnior ||, Sílvia Carla de Oliveira Sousa ||, Mairla Nunes da Silva ||, Suelen Carneiro de Medeiros ||, Cindy Magda Araújo dos Santos Freire ||, José Ednésio da Cruz Freire

Page No.

::

46-57

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) are enzymes that catalyse the degradation of chitin, a vastly abundant polymer of N-acetylglucosamine. Chtin is a structural component of insects, nematodes, fungi and other plant pests and pathogens. A chitinase (Cmchi1) was previously identified in Cucumis melo (L.). The enzyme was identified as not being active against an analog of chitin. However, the authors did not made any inference on the possible reasons to this absence of activity. In an attempt to better characterize Cmchi1 the present study was developed to explore several physicochemical, biochemical and structural parameters regarding to this enzyme through computational analysis. New and relevant insights on the mechanism of action of Cmchi1 over chitin are discussed. Keywords - Computational biology, Physicochemical property analysis, Amino acid sequences
[1] F. G. Malinovsky, J. U. Fangel, and W. G. T. Willats, "The role of the cell wall in plant immunity.," Front. Plant Sci., vol. 5, no. May, p. 178, 2014. [2] S. Zeilinger, C. K. M. Tsui, S. Zeilinger, V. K. Gupta, T. E. S. Dahms, R. N. Silva, H. B. Singh, R. S. Upadhyay, E. V. Gomes, C. K. Tsui, and C. N. S, "Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.," FEMS Microbiol. Rev., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 182–207, 2016. [3] L. Jiang, J. Wu, S. Fan, W. Li, L. Dong, Q. Cheng, P. Xu, and S. Zhang, "Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Pathogenesis-Related Protein Gene (GmPRP) with Induced Expression in Soybean (Glycine max) during Infection with Phytophthora sojae.," PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 6, p. e0129932, 2015. [4] J. García-Cristobal, A. García-Villaraco, B. Ramos, J. Gutierrez-Mañero, and J. A. Lucas, "Priming of pathogenesis related-proteins and enzymes related to oxidative stress by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on rice plants upon abiotic and biotic stress challenge.," J. Plant Physiol., vol. 188, pp. 72–79, 2015. [5] G. Senthilraja, T. Anand, J. S. Kennedy, T. Raguchander, and R. Samiyappan, "Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and entomopathogenic fungus bioformulation enhance the expression of defense enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins in groundnut plants against leafminer insect and collar rot pathogen.," Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., vol. 82, pp. 10–19, 2013.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Dietary Management Among Ischaemic Heart Disease Patients Treated at Teaching Hospital Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka

Country

::

Sri Lanka

Authors

::

Perera ACH ||, Samarawickrama MB

Page No.

::

58-65

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate influence of variable severity with first recognition of pregnancy, which as an adverse effect on both mother and the foetus. This case control study was carried out with the aim to determine the foetal outcome of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) cases who had regular antenatal check-up in Obstetric Out Patient Department of Tertiary care centre in Trichy District. Structured proforma was given to the participants and control to collect socio demographic data.Results showed there is a significant increase in prevalence of GDM and in upper class population.There was statistically significant association in the prevalence of GDM cases with family history of DM and BMI. The foetal complications and adverse birth outcome such as low Apgar ie <6, Macrosomia, neonatal jaundice and Respiratory distress which was statistically significant. Key words:- Adverse Birth otutcome, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin resistance
[1] Lyudmil Ninov1, Arivudainambi Kayal1, Belma Malanda1, Anne Belton1, Ram Uma2,. Current practices in the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus in India (WINGS‑5). Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2016; 20(3):1
[2] E. P. O'Sullivan & G. Avalos & M. O'Reilly & M. C. Dennedy& G. Gaffney & F.Dunne &. Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy (DIP): The prevalence and outcomes of
[3] gestational diabetes mellitus using new diagnostic criteria. Diabetologia. 15 April 2011;e.g. 32(54): 1670–1675.
[4] Hull HR, Thornton JC, Ji Y, et al. Higher infant body fat with excessive gestationalweight gain in overweight women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 205(3): 211.e1-211.e7.
[5] Antonio E. Frias, and Kevin L. Grove. Obesity: A Transgenerational Problem Linked toNutrition during Pregnancy. SeminReprod Med. 2012 Dec; 30(6):472- 478.

 

Paper Type

::

Research Paper

Title

::

The combined effect of heat and vitamins on gait and balance in people with mobility impairments

Country

::

California

Authors

::

Jerrold Petrofsky PhD ||, Michael Laymon D ||, ScIman Khowailed D Sc

Page No.

::

66-92

Paper Index
::
XXXX
Purpose- To determine if the use of heat and heat plus vitamins can increase mobility and balance stability in people with mobility impairments. Problem- Mobility loss is a major concern in the older population. It is a leading cause of falls and death. A previous study showed that heat helps mobility and balance. Antioxidants plus heat may even reduce cellular inflammation.
Subjects-Eighty healthy subjects free of any headaches, diabetes mellitus, and orthopedic or neurological conditions beyond normal aging were recruited. Subjects were sedentary individuals that were not participating in any balance or walking exercises regularly. Subjects were instructed not to take any medication or central nervous stimulants that might affect their balance the day before and during the study. The age range was 25-64 years old. Twenty were controls and had no heat, 20 had heat only, 20 vitamins plus heat, and 20 vitamins only. The experimental protocol was approved by the Solutions Institutional Review Board and all protocols and procedures were explained to each subject and the subjects gave their written informed consent for the study.
Intervention- Subjects received nothing (controls) or vitamins, or heat, or vitamins and heat. Heat was provided with ThermaCare heat wraps over a 2-week period. Vitamins were used for a 4-month period.
[1] Tinetti, M.E. and M. Speechley, Prevention of falls among the elderly. N Engl J Med, 1989. 320(16): p. 1055-9.
[2] Hausdorff, J.M., D.A. Rios, and H.K. Edelberg, Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2001. 82(8): p. 1050-6.
[3] Jorgensen, T.S., et al., Nationwide time trends and risk factors for in-hospital falls-related major injuries. Int J Clin Pract, 2015.
[4] Scott, V.J. and E.M. Gallagher, Mortality and morbidity related to injuries from falls in British Columbia. Can J Public Health, 1999. 90(5): p. 343-7.
[5] Tinetti, M.E., et al., Fear of falling and fall-related efficacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol, 1994. 49(3): p. M140-7.